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Two Bookcs of S 

Francis Bacon, 

Of the Proficiencc and Aduancc^ 

nienL ot Learning , Divine 
and Hv MAMi* 

To ^/^^KlNG. 




Printed for Vfiili^m Wafhin^ton, and 

to be foM at his Hiop in S./:^«»/?4/^r/ 
Church-yard, i 6 2 p. 



of Sir Francis ^acon ; of the pro- 

liciencc or Adiiancement of Lear- 
m^^ 5 VittmeAfid Humans. 

To the King. 

Here were vnder the Law (excellent 
K:ng) both daily Sacrifices, and free 

^ will Offerings J the one proceeding 
''vpo;i ordinary obfrtiancc ^ theo. 
chcrvpou a dcuoiitjcheercfulnefle: 
In like manner there b.longech to from their Seriiants, boih Tribute of dury, 
and prelcnts ot^affeaion : Iw the former orthcfc , I 
hope I fhallnot Imc to be w^.nring, according to my 
moilhu!T3blc diHiy , and the good pleaf iirc of your 
Miicllics employments: for the latter, 1 tiidughc it 
more r:fp-aiii MO make cUoycc offbmc oblacion, 
which mighc rather re fejrc t > tb.e proprjerv v^^ ex- 
cel! :ncy of your iiidiuidual! p:r{on^ than torhebii'. 
flncffcot your Oowncand Stace. 

VVncrcforc reprcfcniing your M-iicny many 
■^'^ 2 times 

z Of the adumcement of Learmngy 

times vnto my mind , and beholding you not with 
the inquifitiuc eye of prefumption, to difcoucr that 
which the Scripture telleth me is lalcrutdble ; but 
with the obfcruant eye of duty and admiral )n : 
kauingafide ; he other parts ofyourvernn and for- 
tune, I hatie beenc touched ^ yea and poffeiTed with 
an cxcreame wondcf at thoie your vertues and fa- 
cu'ties , which the Phylofophcrs. call iirccHeduall t 
The largcnc(le of your Capacity , the faichfulnefTc 
of yourmcmoiy , tlielwifcneflc of your apprch^-n- 
fion, the penetration of your ludgemenr, and [he 
facilityand order of your elocution ^ and I banc 
often ch'JUgSt , tha*" of all the perfons liui^^g, that I 
haucknownc, yourMaicftyw.rc the bcft inrtance 
to make a man of Plato- s opinion, tha«" all know- 
ledge is but remembrance, and that the minde oi 
man by nature knoweth all hings, and hath but her 
owHc natiu' and originall notions (which by the 
ftrangeneff^ and daikeneffe of this Tabernacle of 
the body are fequeftred) againc reuiucd and reflo- 
red I fuch a light of Nature I hauc obferued in your 
Maicfty , and fuch a rcadinefifc to take flame , and 
blaze from the leaft occafion prefcnted, or the Icaft 
fparkeofanothcrs knowkdgc deliucred. And as 
the Scripture fa> <h of the wifcft Kmg : 7hdt his heart 
i»a4 as the(ands of the Sea^ which though it be one of 
the larged bodles,yet it confiftcth of the fmalleft and 
fineft portions : So hath God giuen your Maiefty a 
corop<">{itio.i of viiderftanding admirable^being able 
to compafTe and comprehend the greatei^ matters, 
and nciicithelcflc to touch and apprehend the leaft ^ 


whereas it {hculd feemc an impoffibility in Nafnre^ 
for the fame Ii ftrumcnt to nfiakc it fclk fit for great 
and fmall W orkes. And for your giftof fpccch.I 
call to minde what Cornelius Tacitus fayth of k^U' 
fuflm Cdfar : AtiguHo frcfluens dr qtije fr'tncifem de- 
cent^ eloquemiajuit : For if wc note it well , fpccch. 
that IS vLtcrcd with labour and difficulty , or fpccch 
that lauoreth of the affectation of art and precepts, 
or fpeech that is framed after the imitation of (bmc 
patterne of eloquence ^ though neuer fo excellent .• 
All this hath fomcwhat fcnnle , and holding of the 
fubied. But your Maieftits manner of fpeech is 
indeed Prince likc^ovving as from a fountaynCjand 
yet ftreamingand branching it lelfc into Natures or- 
der,tul of facility and felicity jimitating none and in- 
inimitable by any. And as in your ciuill Ellate there 
appcareth to be an emulation and contention of your 
Miiefties venue with your fortune, a vertuousdif* 
pofiticnwirh a fortunate regiment, avertuousex- 
pedation (when time was) of your greater fortune, 
wit^i a profperous polfcfTion thereof in the due 
tinic } a vertuous obferuation of the Lawes of mar- 
riage J with moft blefled and happy fr uite of marri- 
age 5 a vertuous and moft Chriftian defire of peace, 
with a fortunate inclination in your neighbour 
Princes thereunto : So likcwifc in the(e intclleduall 
matters, there fecmeth to bee no Icfle contention 
betweene the excellency of your Miicfties gifts 
of Nature, and the vniuerfality and pciftdion of 
your Learning.For I am well aflured^that this which 

A3 I 


4, Of the admncement of Learning, 

I riial! fay is no amplificat-on ar ai'^but a pofltiue uni. 
menfuied truth; which isjthat there hach not beene 
lince Ciuifts time any King, or temporall Monarch 
which hati' bin fo learned in al literature and cruditf. 
on, diuincand humane. For let a man ferionfly and 
diheently icuolueand pcruie ihc riicccllion of the 
Emperours of Rome, of vvhich C^efir ti c Didiaror, 
who hued lorriCN cares hcfbic Chrirt, and Marcm 
jintomnm were the beft Learned • a^d fb dcfcend to 
the Emperours of Gy-^f/^, or of 'Ay: \V( {} , and then 
to the lines cni-r^nce, "^'pune^f.n^and^ SxotUKd^znd 
the reft , and iiee fn^^ll fi.idc his iudgement is tniely 
made. Vox it feemeth much in a King,jf by the com^ 
pendion?. cxtra^Jons ot other mens Witi and La- 
bour, hce can take hold of any fupejficiall Orna- 
ments andlhewes of Learning, or if hcecoiinte* 
nance and prcferrc learning and learned men ; But 
to dtinkc indeed oUhetruc Fountayncs of learning, 
nay,f o hauj fuch a founrayne of learning in himfelfe, 
in a K?ng, and in a King boric 5 isalmoft a Miracle. 
And the more, bccauTe shere is m -t in your Maicfty 
a tare Coniundion , a'weil ot Diuin: and facred li- 
terature, as of prophane and humane : So as yeur 
Maicftyftandeihinucfledof that nipHcity ^ which 
in great veneratioPjWas afcribed to tlic aMcent HcT' 
zwcjithepovverandf'rtuneof aKing 5 the know- 
Icdgcand illumination ofapncfti and the learnii g 
and vniucrfality of a Pbylofophcr. This propiicry, 
inhcrentandindiuidual! attribute in your Maicfly, 
dcleructh to be txpr. (Ted, not oncly in tne f.ime and 


The firfl'Booke. y 

a(Jinirat!on of the prefer t time J nor inih'-Hiftory 
©tiridicionotthcagrsfucctcdmg'butalfoin fomc 
folidc wotkcjfi'^cdmcmoi'ali^ and immorrall mo* 
r.ument, b^^iirg a Character or (ignaturc, both of 
the pov\ tr of a King, and the difference and perfcdi- 
onof fiich a Kirg. 

Therclore 1 did Conclude with my felfc, that I 
cou'd not n^ake vnto your Maicfty a better oblation, 
thcr> of fcn^e Tteatifc tending to that end, wheteof 
the iun<mr v. illcoiiliO of ihelctwo partes : The for- 
n^cr concerniig the cxceilcncy of LearRing anJ 
Knovv'cdge, andtheexcellencieof the mcnteand 
true g'oiy , in the Aiigmentation and Prcpagation 
thereof : The latter . what the particuljr atflcs and 
U'orkes arc, which haue beene im braced and vndtr- 
takeii for the adiiancement of Learning: Andagainc 
what defc(5ls and vnder- values I finde in fuch paiti- 
culcr adics : to the end , that though I cannot pofi- 
tiuelyoraffirmatiuelyaduifeyourMaicfty, or pro- 
pound vnto you fiamed particuiers ; ycr 1 may excite 
your Princely Cogitations, to vifitc the excellent 
treafure of your owne mindc , and thence to excrai^ 
particulers for this purpofe, agreeable to yourMag- 
nanimiiy and VVifedonie. 

IK the entrance to the former of thefe ; to cJccrc 
the way,and ^s it were to make fi.'cncc, to haue the 
true Teliimony concerning the dignity of Lear- 
ning to be better heard, witnout i he interruption of 
tacitc Obic<5iions ; 1 thinke good to dclmtr it from 


6 Of the aduancement of Learnings 

the difcreditcs and difgraces which k hath receiued^ 
allfiom IgnorancejbuJ Ignorance fcticrally di%ui- 
led, appearing fomctimcs in the ztalcand iea'oufie 
of EHuines; fometinnesin the feuerity and arrogrmcy 
of Polif iques ; and fometimcs in the crrours and itn- 
pcrf€d5:ions of Learned men themfclucs, 

Ihcarc the former fort fay ^ thar knov/Iedge is of 
thofe things which arc to be accepted of with great 
limitation and caution , that th'i^^pirirg to ouer« 
much knowledge, was the origin.ll temptation and 
finnc, whereupon enfucd the fall of Man j rhat know* 
ledge hath in it Ibmewhat of tae Serpent, and thtrc^ 
fore where it entrcth into a m-^njit makes him I acIL 
Sftef/tu mfiat. That Silomjn giucs a Ct^^furc, 
That there U no end of mJiiu^ Bookes ^ ar/d that m^tch 
teadtfjg i$ wearimi cfthejleih A -d agiine in an .^thcs 
Tihct^hat mfpAciom knowidg^ there is much comri» 
Jlatfov^sffd thathe thai wcreaje^h knoiiyldge emreafeth 
Mexity : That Saint PauiLiwzs a Caiicat^ that weci^e 
mot fpoyled through V4f/te Pmlojofhy : that experience 
demonftrates J how learned men , I .auc bccne Arch- 
hcrcriqucs, how learned tim.s haue bccne cnclined 
to Atbeilmc, and how the contemp^auon of fccond 
Caufcs doth derogate from our dependance vppon 
God, who is the firfl caufr. 

To difcouer the n the i^. norancc and error of this 
op'nionjanQthemif-unJcrftanding in the grounds 
thercofjit niv^y wcl appears the'e men do not obfs^rue 
orconfidcr, t'mt <t was not the pure knowledge of 
Nature and Vniuerlality 3 a knowledge by ihe light 



w^icreoFman did'gfuc nariies vrito other cfcatiirefst 
ii^'PafadiiC, as th<?y Ueris br<^i]ghr bcfcyrc htm -^^^0*1 
(fofding^vnro tivdirpropfieiifs , wflich^auc the oc-^ 
eafion to th« tall •, biiricwasChc proudc know led ee> 
of good and cuill, with an intent in man to giu^leW' 
vnto himfelfe, and CO depend no more vpon Gods 
Commandemems, which was chc forme of the temp-- 
tationf i neither is it any quantitic of knowIedgCjhow 
great fbehcr that can make the mtndc ofjn^n to 
ftvclljfor notHing fit! ,' madi fe(f; rxcddc the foiilc 
of man- ^ ,^m Gt^, and rhc cc)nreni{>lafti6n of GOP5 
and tliercfor • ^/f/'?;«i';»f peaking o^the two principall 
fences^o^Inqiiifition i theEye, and the Bare, af- 
firmeththac the Eye is neuer fatifficd Wit:! (ecingj 
f*r6rchc Earc with heanng- and if there beenofuU 
^(^e-j * tfecnts th;c continent greater 5 than the Cott* 
tiiri?/^?''^ (oof knowledge icfclfd 3 and the minde of 
i^ah' J c'A»h reto ^the fences arc^ ]5iM Repottcrs ^ hee 
?l!*fin^rh'^ik^ife ifi ^th worde.^y placed afrec ' th^t 
fel^fidt^i* or EphemcTide*, which tret 'fhakerb of 
tiie diuerfitlcS of tiraes and Icafbns foi all a^^ions 
and purpofe? 5 and condiideth thus ; GOD hath 
rntidi ill thinges hautifull oif decent in the true 
fctftrne of thter fafons. K^lfo hee hutb faced the 
world in Mans heart , yet cannot Man fnd^out the 
ifork'" which GOD mrkeih Jrom th yegmHn/gto the 
ifid t Dcelafirgnotobreurely, that GODhsthfra- 
fried the mfnde of man as a mirrour , or glaiT- , ca- 
pable of the Image of the vniiicrfall world , and 
royfnll tei" recdue the impi-eilion thcr^f, 'asf-fhc 
^^ B Eye 

8 Of the adudn cement of Learning, 

Eycioycih to receiuc light, and not onely dc« 
lighted in beholding the varictic of thingcs and 
viciflitudc of times , but rayfcd alio to find out and 
dilceinc the ordin^inccs and decrees which^ 
throughout all thofc Changes ate infaUib'y ob- 
feriicd. And ahhough hce doth infinuatc that- 
the{uprcameor fummaric law of Nature , which 
hee callcth y Th worke whtch GOD -workeihfrom the, 
hegmtfiKg to the end^ jUftot po/]ik'etoi>g /ouftd out. 
hy Mdn j yet that doth not derogate from the 
capacitie of the mindc ; but may bee referred^ 
to the impediments as of lliortncflf^ of life, ill 
coniun<^on of labours , ill tradition of know- 
ledge ouer fiom hand to hand, and many ochcr 
Inconuenienccs , whetcunto the condition oC 
Man is fubie^Sl. For that nothing parcel! of th& 
world, is denied to Mans enquiric and inuenti^ 
on ; hee doth in another place rule ouer j when 
hee fayth, Thespir/te of M^n u m the LAmptof 
Cod , wherewith hee JeAYcheth the inwird»efe of 
sU ftcrets^ If then fiich bee the capacitie and re- 
ceit of the mindc of Man , it ij manifcftj that iherq. 
is no danger at all iti the proportion or quan- 
titieof knowledge howc large foeuer ; leafl it 
(houldinake(itfwcllor out-compafle '\i fclfe ; no, 
but it is mcerely the qua'itie of knowledge, 
which bee it in quantitie more or leflc, if it bee 
taken without the true coirc<51tiuc thereof, hath 
initfomc Nature of venome or malignitie, and 
fomc c^c^s of that vcnomc which is vencofitie 


Thefirfl'Boof^. 5? 

or fwelling. This corre^iiic fpice, the mixture 
whereof LTiakcth knowledge (o Soiieraignc, is Cha. 
rity 5 which the Apoftle immcdiarcly addcih to the 
forir cr Claufc , forfo he ^^yih ^Knewleagi:^ yioroeth 
Vfy hat chifiit^^ywiUeth vp ^ not vnhkc vnto that 
which hccdcliucrcth in another place :y/^4/fo> 
{fayth hee ) mih tbc^ tOTtgufsoJ Mem nmd t^ngehy 
Mcthxdnot charitf , // were hut m 4 TincklJrtg cym* 
^aU -^ Not but that it is an cx:cllcnt thing to 
rp'akcwiih the Tongues of Men and Angels, buc 
becaufc if it bcc fcucrcd from Charity , and 
not referred to the good of Men and MJnkrn J, 
it hath rath:r a fourding and Vnworthy g?6- 
ti- , than .-» meriting and fubftantia 1 Vcrtue. And 
as for that Cenfurc of SAlomon^ concerning the 
exccff- of Writing and Reading Bookes , and the 
anexiery of Spirit which redoundeth from Know- 
ledge, and that Admonition of Saint panlz^^ 
That vrtc^hee noi feducedyyvs?fie Phylofipby j Let 
thofe piices bee rightly vndcrftoode, an J thcj 
doc indccdc very excellently ftt foorth the true 
bounds and hmirations , whereby humane know- 
Icdi'e is confined and circiimfcribed ; And yet 
without any fjch cont rafting or coartf^ar ion , but 
<hat It may comprehend all the Vn ucrftll nature of 
thmgs : For thcfs limitations are three ; The 
fir ft , wee doc^ notfopUce our felicity in hnow- 
Ud^ei^ , at rvee forget our mortxhty^ The fv cond, 
ThAl ne nuke .ippltcation of our Knoxcledqe to^mc our 
fdnes repofe aad cok, r>/ v;^/a/,<^ KVt ^'P^fi <^r repining, 
*« ( ii B 2 The 

1 o Of the dduancement of Learnings 

The third : That we doc not prerumc by the c<>n- 
templation of Nature, toattaincto the Miitcfe? of 
God 5 for as touching the firft o^ivd^^Salomoff doth 
excellently expound himfclfe in another pla-c of 
the fame Booke , where he fayth ; J prce.yveU 
that knowledge readelh as farrc^ from /gnorsme, 
fijs I ght dothjrom darkentfic^^ and t ' at the ro'fe mans 
eyes keept^watch in hU head .rvh^^f^ii the Fookroimf^ 
de^hubaiit, mda'rkepejs'cj^ ' Bttt mthali J learned- thn 
thejfamc^mcr(a//ty,f£fro/uethtbemhth. And fot 
the fccond, certayne it i ., the cc is no vcxat ion ;or a- 
nexityofminde, vvhich refulccthfronr knoivlvc'ge 
othciwifeihan iiiecrely by accident ; forallktiOW' 
ledge dnd wonder f* which is the leedc of know- 
ledge)^ isatiimprcffionof plcifore in it fclfe- but 
when men fall to framing Conclufions out of thcit 
Knowk'dg?, applying ixico their particiilerv>aDsj 
miiiift tin g vntothemickies, thereby wcake feaiej^ 
OjL vaft dcfives, there ;gro wet h that carcfulneffc 
and trouble ot mifde, which is fpoken o^ : for then 
KnoW'Cdge is no moTc Lumert Jiccum, whereof 
Jieraclhm the piofound fiyd , Lumen (iccum optf. 
ntA attimjihwi it becommeth Lumen madidumpK ma- 
eeratum^ being fteepcd andinfufed in the humors of 
the affections. Aad as for the third poynt, it dcfct- 
ucth to be alittlc rtood vpon , and not ro be lightly 
paffe J oucr : for if any man ("hall thinke by view a .d 
inquiry into thelc(c:/ibie and matcriall things to at« 
taync that lighr , w^lcrcbv he may reuealc vnfo hins- 
ftlfcttK nacuic or will of God : then indeede is he 


l^ojrledbyV'ay'ncPhyl^fopliy : For the comempla- 
Miov. ofGods Great lire sand Workcs produceth(ha- 
uirtg regAtc^ to the workcs and creatures thcmfelucr) 
Icnbu'ledgCjb lit hairing regard to God., no perfc<Jt 
]«h6ultdgy'blit NVdnder^wliich is brrlen kncvv.'cdget 
Andtfiercfo c it was mod aptly fayd by one of P/4* 
-ytr^^ScbboIe', 7 hatthe feme of mancarrUth artfitfU >«»v.i^> - 

jfiureth andccfTte/ilfih the fiattis iindce/efUaU }jtoh \ 
}s^'Hoththe$6fice djf:cueY i^AturA'ithitip\hm-$\ dkrke* 
^HhkJidfButfethvpD/uifte; And hercc 'ihs'tTtiCj 
tbarit hath proceeded that diners; great Lcarnca 
¥ncj^haucbeene Heretical!, uhilftrhey haiie loi^jgKt 
t6 flJeW^'-to the fcttets^oftlieTOty*; by'?^^^ 
^xctf Wi'r^^s 6f the^;Sdi'ces Y :A'nd a.s for tfaS: 
jcbntti^^ 't?5^T . tbo much ^ no^ftcjge ' fhibu*d lii- 
itlincaVrtan to' i^tjhc jfriteV. ^n^ itiki "the igricirahce 
^f fecbndf catifts fbonld' rndke a tnorc (jeiioutc 
tftpcncance' tpl^bitG-od , ' which is the firft ^aufe: 
Titftj if is |;0od to askc the qiiyition \vhichUif 
disked of his Friends : wtU^oulje joyCod^Asorif^ 
man vtfldeefor another^ togmfjifh/m? for certay nc 
It rs, that God wdrkcth !Totbin|' Iti'N'atirte ^ but by 
fccond caufcs,, and jf they wo^y haue it bthervv^ife 
"fcckeudd, ir'is^n^iecre iinp^fturc , ' ks'iVyi'ete h fauour 
ttiWardcs^d 5 kndn6iliingelie,b^itit6,ofiferto the 
Author of Truth', the vncleanc UaiBct of a lye. 
But further, it is an allured Truth, and a Con- 
clufion of Expttknct^ that a htdc or Iwpcrficiall 
^'^'^'^- B3 know- 

11 0/theaduanctmentcfLearnmg. 

lincwlcclge; of^Phylofbphysmay inclioc thcroinde 
of man to Athcifme ^ buc ^further procieding 
therein do|:th bring the minde backcagayne fp Rc^ 
ligion : For in tHeintrance ot f^hylotophy , when 
thcfccond Caafcs, which arc next vnco the fen- 
ces , doc offer them(chjes to the mindeof Man , i£ 
it dvycll and (lay there , it may induce feme obli- 
uionof thehiglKft caufi^ 3 hue \yhena,o^o paf- 
fcth on further , an4 %th rhe ,dcpcndancc pf, 
caufcs, and the wdikfs of Prouidcncej then ac- 
cording to the A'kgory cf the Poets, bee will 
-> cafi'y bclceue_tliat thj^.highcft Linkcof Natures 
> C hiiyne niuffnccies bee ^ycdjo ilKroocc of/upi' 
Strt Chay^c^ To Conclude therefore , let no man 
>^on a weal^coficeite cf .Scbriety ,, or an iil aj^ 
wyc^ (n'odctatioo ibir ke or rpaintayoc, that a maja 
can iearch too faw*., or bee too well ftudicd in 
the Bool<cof G O p $ V\'otd , or in the Booke of 
C CD S W^orkcs : Dinitiity or phylofophy s bi^t 
Wtberlct Mcnindcauouran chdlcflcj^rogrefle, ot 
proficicncc in both ; onely let men beware that they 
apply both to Charity, and not to fwclh'ng 5 to vie, 
andiiottooftcntationj andagaync, that they doc 
oot vfiwifejy mfnglc^ ^(fontc^ij^^, tbcieX^:^ 

together*.; :,^:j, :_,^;:J,^,j y:p,/ '•'.:." -■, ^ 

Andasfor.tticdirgr:^oef wnich I-carni^ig rcce 
Uttb froflrPoUtiques ,. t^c^be, of this Sfatiucj tfiac 
Learning dothfoi'ten rrtens minds, apd m^kcs rhcm 
iTkorcvnapf for the honour and cxcrcife of Araicjij 
thatic dofhuiariqai^d^pp^ucrj^-J^jcps^i^oiJfio^s lot 
' , 3 ' ' * ' ^ iriattci 

fh^ttcr of goucmcnient and policic \ m making 
riicra too curious and irrefblurc by varictie of rca- 
<iing J two pcrcmptorie pofitiue by firjckmclft 
of rules and axiomes ^ or too immoderate and o- 
ucrwccning by rcafori of the grcatncfle of exam- 
ples 5 or too incompatible and differing from the 
times, by reafon of the dillimilitudcotexampleij 
or at leaft , that it doth diucri mens traucls from ac- 
tion and bufincffej andbringcth them to a loue of 
fcafurc and piiuateneflc 5 and that it doth bring in- 
to States a relaxation of difc/plinc , whilft euery 
Man is more rcadie to argue , then to obey 
and execute. Out of this conceit , Ciif^ furnamea 
the Ccnlbr , one of the wifcft men indecdc that eucf 
liucd, when Carneades the Philofophcr came in 
Embaflage to Rome, and that the young men of 
Rome began to Sockc about him being allured 
mxh the l\vectcrxfrc and Maieftic of his eloquence 
and learinrg, gaiic counfell in open Senate, that 
they fhould giuc him his difparch with all rpeedc, 
leaft hec fhould infed and inchaunt the mindcs 
and afitetftions of the youth 3 and at vnawares bring 
jn an alteration of the manners and Cuflomes 
of the State. Out of the fame conceiie or humor 
did F/r^/? 3 turning his pennc to theaduantage 
ofhisCountrie, and the difaduantagc of his owne 
pio'cflion, make a kind of (cpatation betweene po- 
licieand gouernement, and betweene Arts and Sci- 
ences, intheverfes fo much renowned, attribu- 
ting and chaHcngtng the one tQ the Romanes, aad 

B 4 Icauing 

I4r Of the aiu0^(}1i(iU yti'Learnim 

yopngrnenfi-onvdueTpcrci'iCC t<^ the Lax-csan^i 
Cu(|omej». pi' their Count rey : , and x\\^t 1 1 eed ivj pr o^ 
fe/tc^ dangerous and p.cmcious ScxncCjVvhicii vvaj^ 
tomakcinc worlv, in^^^i fccrnc the bsf/cr , and .tpj 
fuppt-flfc truth^by ^arcppfj.loquencc and i^pcf cli^ ^^^ 
.... Bptx)iclj(;an^ Jie.Ukfi impur^tious hauQ,rathcn3| 
counccoancc qf granitic, th.iin any^gr^^und ufiu*. 
ftke :roicxpcrincedothvvarrant , t;:acboth in per- 
fons and in tmKS , there fiadi becne a meeting , anci 
cpflijurtcftfc inX(,^3Hiing:and Ar^^ jflpyiifliing and 
excelling^ in theiame rpcn, and the ram^c^agcs. Foe 
^ijfortt-}Cl3, there cannot bcq a bater nox the Hkc irv, 
il^nccV, as of that p^^yrc k^UxMfUr thje Grcar^ an4 
/«/?/aCf/5<r the Didipf|or,w hereof tI:tc,cHjc was 4r/^' 
^<«L^j .SchoilcrinPhiiofGphieand tlKof^iervyasCi-i 
(treses Riuall in eloquence 5 or if any man had rather 
call for Schollers,tha^,wcK grp^t C^ffals, fjiep jG^^ 
ncwis that wcxc great Si^hoUcr^siet him tak^Epami-^ 
non^ds the ,Ihqbane ,.qr Xenaphaj^ the Athenians, 
who cof th? oneAV^Sjtl-^"fi^ft that abafc4,the powet, 
pf.//'4K/4, j.and.therOiiiqr was the> fiift that.fn^a 
w^v eaX'iC ouerthrow ,o£-the Monarchic o^-Perm : 
Anathjiscontiirrcnce is yet, more .viiiblcin li^nc,^ 
lb**n ia.j)ci;iQns J hy hovv aiuchan ^gcjis gJCC4^t i:^/^^. 

4n«ui;-? ^'v Ci 

Thefirfi'BooJ^. if 

ttdi than a Man. For both in *^gj^ty -^0^^^^ Perfin^ 
Grech^ and Rome the fame times thacarc moft te- 
noned for Acmes , are likewife moft admired for 
Leaming^fo chat the greatcft Authors and Philofo- 
phers,and chc greatcft Capraincs and Goucrnours 
haucliucdin the fame ages : neither can it other- 
wife be 5 for ^s ia Man, the ripcneflc of ftrcngth of 
the body and minde commcth much about an age, 
faue that the ftrcngth of the body commcth fomc- 
what the more early 5 So in States 3 Armcs and 
Learning , whereof the one correfpondeth to the 
body, the other to the foule of Man, hauc a concur- 
rence or neere fequence in times. 

And for matter of Policy and Goucrnmcnt , that 
Learning (hould rather hurt , than inable thereunto, 
is a thing very improbable : we fee it is accounted 
ancrrour, to commit a natural! body to Empe- 
rique Phifitions, which commonly haue a few plea- 
(ingreceics, whereupon they arc confident and ad- 
uenturous , but know neither the caufes of difeafes, 
nor the complexions of Patients , nor perill of ac- 
cidems, nor the truemethodc of Cures-, We fee 
it is a like error to rely vpon Aduocatcs.or Lawyers, 
which are oncly men of pradife, and not groun- 
ded in their Bookcs, who are many times cafily 
furprifed , when matter fallcth out belidei their ex- 
perience, to the prciudicc of the caufes they handle : 
fo by like rcafon it cannot be but a matter of doubt- 
full confcquencc , if States be managed by Empe- 

C riquc 

t6 Cf the aduancementof Learnings 

riquc Starcfmcn 5r.oT well minekd with men groun* 
dcd in Learning. But conrrariwife, ic is almofi 
without inftance contradjdoiy, thateucrany go- 
ucrnnncnt vvasdifciftjois , that was in the hards of 
Learned Gouernours. Forhowrocucr it lath beenc 
ordinarie with politique men to extenuate and diP 
able Learned men by the names of Fed..»tfsi yet in 
the Recotdsof time itappearcth in many particu- 
IcrSjthat thcGouernenicnis of Princes in minority 
(notwithftanding the infinite dlfadoantagc of that 
iindc ot State ) haue ncuerthclcffe excelled thego- 
uernemeni of Princes of mature a^c , euen for that 
rcafoPj which they fcekc to tiaduce^which i^, that by 
that occaiion the State hath bene in the hands of P^- 
dantes: for fb was the State of Rome for the firfl fiuc 
ycarcs, which are fb much magnified, during the 
minoricie ofN^rf^ in the hands of Seneca a Ped^.mi : 
So itv/aisgaine [or ten y -rates fpace ormDrc,dtiring 
the minority oidfrdiAnm the younger, with great 
applaufe;id contenaon inihe hands oiMtfiihem 
2iFedAnti\ fo was jc before that , in ihe minoritic of 
Alextnder S^mviu in like happineffe, in hands not 
muchvnlikea byre^fon of the rule of the women, 
who were ayded by the Teachers and Preceptors. 
N y, Ictam.-^nlpokc in«o tl e gouernement of the 
Bifhopsof Romc^ a^sbyname, into the gouernc- 
mctit of PtU4 Qumtui., and Scxtti4 Q^intHt in our 
times 5 wha were both at iheir entrance cfteemed 
but as Pedanticall Friers, and he lli^ill find that fuch 
Popes doe greater things, ^nd procc^de vpon truer 


^]oe firjl ^oo^e. .t^^^\^'\0'^' 

principles of Eftarc , than thofe which haucafcen- 
ded to the Papacy from an education and breeding 
in affayrcs of Eftatc J and Courtsof Princes • for 
although men bred in Learning,are perhaps to feeke 
in poynts of coniienicnce, and accommcdating for 
the prefent which the Itiianscall Ragtom di fldto^ 
whereof the (ame Pim J^uitttm could not heare 
fpoken with patience, tcarming them luucnrions a» 
gaynft Religion and rhemorall Vertuesjyct on the 
other fide to recompence that 5 they are perfitein 
thofe fame plaine grounds of Religion Juftice, Ho- 
nouFjand Morall vcrtuc 5 which if they be well and 
watchfully purfued, there will becfeldomc vfc of 
thofe other 3 no mote than of Phy^ckein a found 
or well dyeted body 5 nfcy ther can the experience of 
one mans lif^ , furhifh examples and presidents ^ot 
the Clients of one mans life. For as it happeneth 
fometimcs, that the Graund ChildjOr other defcen- 
dcnt/cfembleth the Anccftor more than the Sonne; 
So many times occurences of prefent times may 
fort bettet with ancient examples , than with thole 
of the latter , or immediate times 5 and laftly , the 
wit of one man, can no more counteruayle Lear- 
nings than one mans mcancs can hold vray with a 
common purfc. 

An 1 as for thofe particular feducements , or in- 
difpofitionsof the mindc for Policy and Goucrnc- 
mentjWhich Learning is pretended to infmuate j if it 
bee granted that any fuch thing bee, itmufl beere- 
mcmbred withall, that Learning miniftreth in euery 

C 2 of 

i8 OftheaduancmentofLearningy 

of them greater ftrength of Medicine or Remedy, 
than it offcrcth caufe of indifpofition or infirmity: 
For if by a fecret operation, it make men perplexed 
and irrcfolutCjOn the ether fide by playne preccpt^it 
teacheth them when, and vppon what ground to re- 
folue ; Yea, and how to carry things in fufpence 
without preiudicc , till they refolue : If it make men 
pofitiucand regular , it teacheth them what. things 
arc inlheir nature demonftratiue, and what arc con- 
ic^turall 5 and afwell the vfc of diftindlionSjand ex-'. 
ceptions_,as the latitude of principles and rules, if it 
mifleadby difproportion, ordiflimilitudeof Exam* 
pies 3 it teacheth men the force of Circumftances, 
thcerroursof comparifons , and all the cautions of 
application : fa that in all thefe it doth redliiic more 
cffedually5than it can pcruerr. And thefe Medicines 
it conueyeth into mens minds much more forcibly 
by the quickncffe and penetration of Examples : For 
let a man look into the errors o^Clemem the fcuenth, 
{6 liucly dcfcribed by GukcUrdim , wko fcrucd vn- 
dct him 5 or into the errors o^ckero painted out by 
his ownc pcnfill in his Epiftles to Mt/cm^znd he will 
flye apace from being irrcfolute. Let him lookc in- 
to the errors o^phocton^ and he will beware how he 
beobftinatcor inflexible. Let him but read the Fa- 
ble oilx'ton , and it will hold him from being vapo- 
rous or imaginatiue ; let him lookc into the errors of 
CAto the fccond, and he will neuer be one of the An^ 
tifodts^ to tread oppofite to the prefent World. 
And for the conceite that Learning (hould dif^ 


Thefrji TBooke, Ip 

pofc men to leafure and priiiatenefTe , and make 
Men flothful! ; it were a firange thing if that which 
accuftomcththemindctoa perpetuail motion and 
agitation, fnould induce flothfulncffc, whereas 
contrariwifcicmay bee trucly affirmed 3 that no 
kindc of men loue bufincffe foritfclfc, but tho{c 
that arc learned ; for ethsrperfens loucit for pro- 
fixe J as an hireling that loues the workc for the wa- 
ges 5 or for honour 5 as becaufc it bearcth them vp 
m the eyes of men, and refrefheth their reputations,, 
which other wife would weare ; or becaufc it put- 
tcth them in mind of their Fortunc^and giucth them 
occafion to pleafurc and difpleafurc ^ ©r becaufc it 
cxcrcifeth feme faculty , wherein they take pridc^ 
and fo intertayneth them in good humour,and plca- 
fingconceites toward thcmfclucs j orbecaufeit ad- 
uanceth any other their ends. So that as it is fayd of 
vntruc valors, that fome mens valors are in the eyes 
of them that lookc onjfo fuch mens indui^ries arc in 
the eyes of others,or at leaft in regard of their ownc 
defigncments , onely learned men laue buiineflCy as 
an ad^ion according to nature,as agreeable to health 
of mind,as exercife is to health of body,taking plea- 
furc in the a<5lion it fclfc , andoot in the purchafe : 
So that of all men, they are the moft inde&tigablc, 
if it bee towards any buiinede which can hold Qcde- 
taync their mindc. - :::r' : (r;i * 7 

And if any man be laborious in reading & ftady^nd 
yet idle in bufinesand adion, it groweth from fome 
weakncirc of body^or foftnes of fpirit \ luch as Sei$e9M 

C 3 fpcaketh 

10 •Oftheaduancement of Learning, 

fpeakctb of: Qttidamtamfunt vmbtdtiles^vt puten! in 
turyido ejfe^qtticquid in luce efi ^ and not of Learning; 
well may it bc,that fuch a point of a mans nature may 
make him giue himfilf to learning^but it is not Lear- 
ning that brecdcth any fuch point in his Nature. 

And that Learning fhould take vp too much time 
or Icafure : I anfwcrc , the moft adiue or bufie man 
thai hath bccne or can be, hath (no queftion ) many 
vacant times of leafure, while he expcAerh the tides 
and returncs of burmeflc(except he be cyther tcadi- 
ous J and of no di^atch , or lightly ancl vnworthily 
ambitious , to meddle in things that may be better 
done by others) and then the queftion is , but how 
thoic (paces and times of leafure (liall bee fiHedand 
fpeat : Whether in pleafurcs, or in ftudics ; as was 
wellanfwercdby DC«»<7/?/'^;</^/to his aduer/ary fA^f- 
f^/j^jjthatwasaroangiucn to pleafure, and told 
him. That hii Orations dtdfmcUoJ the Lampe ; Indeed 
(faid Demofthenes) there is a great difference ifetweene 
the thinf^s that y$H and I doe by LamfeAi^t ; So as no 
Man nccdc doubt , that Learning will cxpulfc bufi- 
nefle,but rather it will keepe and defend the poflci^ 
(ion of the minde agaynli idlenelTe and pleafure, 
which other'wife, at vnawatcf ^may enter to the pre- 
iudict of boch, 

Againe/oir that other conceit,that learning fhould 
vndermine the reuerence of Lawes and Gouerne- 
menc, it is a(turedlya meere deprauation and ca- 
lumny without all fhaddow of truth : for to (ay that 
a bUn4 cuftomc of Obedience (hould be a Hirer ob* 


ThefrfiTBooJ^ey 21 

Hratiorjjthan duty taught 2nd vnderdocd 5 it is to 
aifiime that a blind man may trcadiiirer by a guide^ 
thana fccirgman canbya Jightjand it is wiihout 
al! contioucrfic, that Learning doth make the minds 
of men gtnr'c 3 generous, maniab'c, and pliant to 
gouernment , whereas Ignorance makes ihcm chur- 
lirhjthwartjand mutinous j and theeuidcnceoftimc 
doth cleere this aflcrtion, confidering that the moft 
baibarnus, rude, and vnlearncd times haue becnc 
moft fubit^ to tumults, fcditions, and changes. 

And as to the iudgemcnt oiCato the Cenlbr, he 
was well 1 punifhcd for his blafphemy againft Lcar« 
ning in the fame kinde wherein he offended 5 for 
when he was paft thrcefcore yeeres old , he was ta- 
ken with an cxtrcamc defire to goc to Schoole a- 
gaine, and to Icatnc the Greeke tongue , to the end 
to perufe the Grecke Authors 5 which doth well dc- 
monftrate, that his former cenfurc of the Grecian 
Learning, was rathcran atfeded graui^y, than ac* 
cording to the inward fence of his owne opinion. 
And as for Firgtls verfes , though it pica fed him to 
braue the world m taking to the Romanes ^ the Arc 
of Empirc,and leaning to othersthc arts of fubicfts? 
yet fo much is manifeft , that the Romanes neuer as- 
cended to that height of Empire , till the time they 
had afccndcd to ihe height of other Arts; Forin the 
timeof thetwofirfiC^rj, which had the Art of 
gouememeni in §reateftpcrfedion , there lined the 
bcfl Poet y^trgihui Maro , the befl Hifloriographer 
Tftm Lmimjihz bcft Antiquary Murcus VArrOy and 


22 Of the aduancement ofL earnings 

the bcft or fccond Orator A4arcm Cicero , that to the 
memoric of man arc knowne. As for the accufation 
o{ Socrates ^ the time muft be remembredj when it 
was profecLitcd ^ which was vnder the ihiity Ty- 
rants 5 themoft bafe, bloiidy, and cnuious perfons 
that haiic gouerned, which rcuolution of State was 
no fooaer oucr, but Socrates , wiiom they had made 
a perfon criminall, was made a pcrfon heroycall, 
and his memory accumulate with honors diuine and 
humane 5 and thofe dircourfes of his which were 
then rearmed corrupting of manners , were after 
acknowledged for foucraignc Medicines of tlic 
minde and manners , and fo haue beene rcceiued 
cuer fincc till this day . Let this therefore fcrue for 
anfwcre toPolitiques j which in their humcrousfc- 
ucritie , or in their fayncd grauity hauc prefumcd 
to throwc imputations vpon LcarningjWhich rcdar- 
gution neucrthclcflc ( fauc that we knowe not whe- 
ther our labours may extend to other ages ) were not 
nccdfull for the prcient , in regard of theiouc and 
reuercncc towards Learning , which the example 
and countenance of two fo learned Princes, Queenc 
Elizibeth, and your Maicftie ; being as Cdflor and 
FoUuXy LhcUa SyderA^ Starres of excellent J light, 
and moft benigne influence, hath wrought in all men 
of place and authority in our Nation. 

Now thereforCjWe com« to that third (brt of dif- 
ciedite, or diminution ofcredite^that growcth vn- 
to Learning from learned naen themfekies , which 
commonly clean eih faftcftj It is either from their 


The firjl^ooke. zj 

FortunSjOr from their man nerSjOr from rhc nature of 
their Studies rfor the firft^ic is not l\ their power; and 
the il'cond is accidenrall ; the third only is proper to 
be handled, butbecaisfc wcarc not in hand with true 
meariirc,but with popular cftimation & conccir^t is 
not amifle to fpcalNcfomwhat of the two formcr.Thc 
derogations thcreof,which grow to Learning from 
the fortune or condition oflcarncd men, arccythct 
in rcfpc^ of fcarficy of meancs , or in tcfpcd of pii- 
uatencfTe oflifcjand mcanefTcof cmploymcntyo 

Concerning want, and that it is the cafe of Lear- 
ned men,v:ually to bcginnc with little, and not to 
grow rich fo faft as other men , by rcafbn they con- 
ucrc not their labours chiefly to Inker, a^^d encreafe 5 
It were good coleaue the comtnon place in Com* 
mcndation of poucrty to fome Fryer to handle , to 
whom much was attributed by MACcUuett in this 
poynt, when he iayd ^^ the Kin^^dome of the CltT^ 
gy hdd hecue lopsg bejore at an tnd^tf the reputAtion and 
reuereKce towards t hi poue) ty of Friers had not borne 
eutthe fcandalt 0} the Juperfiiiities and exceffts oftU 
jbops and Prelates, So a Man might fayjthac the feli- 
city and Jeiicacy of Princes and great Per fons, had 
long fmce turned to Rudcncs and Barbarifme^if the 
poucity of Learning had not kept vpCiuility and 
Honor of life ; Buc without any fuch aduantages, it 
is v^orthy the obferuation , what a reuerent and ho» 
noured thing pouct'y of foitune was, for f -rne ages 
in the: Romanc State, which neucrtheleffc was^ 
State without Paradoxes. For wc Ice what T//^ Li 

D uw 

24- OftheadudncimentofLe^rning^ 

um fayih in his Introdiid^ion. C^terum Attime miot 
n eiptijfufapijAliHy aat nul/a vnquam ; efpahltca^ m$ 
tna\or^ r.ecf&nhior^ncc hnii exemflu dnwr [uay^ec in 
qu^fntamfi.ra aurHh IhxuraquC tmm'i^YAntrtrnjits 
vbitAntusuctam. dm psupeftHt ^c firfimonU konos 
fuerH» We fee likcwifc after thatihe State oiKcme 
was not ic fcliejbiu did degenerate ^ how cha* per- 
ibnthattookevponhimtobe Counfellor xolulim 
Ca/ar^aitex hisVifiory^v^hcietobegmnc hisrelbuo 
ration of the State^niakcc h it of ail poynts the mod 
lijmfnaty totitkeLaway; the eftimationofWcalih. 
ycr^m hxc ^ pmma. ?K^U pirii^ cum ho note pec ft m^ 
define nt : Sif^fque AiagiHratm , ■ n^que alt a. vu!^ r,^- 
panda, vcndia erunt. To conclude this poynt, as ic 
was truc'y l^ayd^ that Rubor efl vinHti6 celoy , though 
fomecime it come from vice : So k may be fiC-W fiyd, 
that Pdttpert^ts ejlvirtaiu jortuyi^, Thoiigh. fomc- 
times it may procecde from fnii goiieinemcnt aiid 
accident. S\xi^^^ Cdomoi> hath pronounced it both 
in cenfiirCj Quifejlinat dd diiiitf.ii f'ion crk >^/?/3and 
in precept ; Buy the truth , and fell it hct ; A'ad Jo of 
ycijedome andkftoivledge:^ Judging that vmeancs were 
to be fpcnt vponlcarningjand not 1; arningfobeap» 
plyed to meancs : And as for the priiiatencllc oiob- 
{curcncflc (3is icmay be in vulgar cibmatipn acconr.- 
ted^ of lif^ of contcmplatiuc men ? It is a Theame 
focommoD, toextolla.piuiatc]ife , not taxed with 
fcnfuality and floath in comparifoif , and to thcdif- 
aduantagc of a ciuiIUifc , forfiilety, liberty, plca- 
furc aiid dignity , or at kaft frcedome from indigni- 

Thc^firfl^ook;e. %% 

tic, v\s no m.^n handiscb 'n^\ii h'^ndkih ic weli: fucli 
a con (on a C4" is ic hadi to mens conceits in the ex- 
prciiingjandromeriSconfciits in the allowing :this 
ondyl will'addG; that Learned Men forgotten i'"J 
Sta:eSj and not liuing in the eyes of men, ate like ihe 
Images o^Cafius ^nd Brutns in the f uncall oilnnia 5 
of which noc bcin^ rcprefented, as many others 
WQXC^TACitus [A^ih^Eoipfifrefulgebatit^qHod no» v/fe- 

Andfc^r meaneilc of employment jihat which is 
roolt traduced to contempr, is that the gouernment 
of youth is comnvinly allotted to them, which agej 
bccaufe itisthcageofkallaiuhorieiej icis tranftcr- 
red to the difciteeming of thofc employments 
wherein youth is conuerfant, and which arc conucr- 
fant about youth. But: how vniuft this traduccment 
iSj(ifyou will reduce thingts fi;6ni popularitieof 
opinion to mcafure of rcafon ) may appeare in that 
wee fee men are more curious what they put into a 
ncwVcfTcll, thaiiintoaVefleli fcafoned ; and what 
mould they lay about a youpg plant , tfian about a • 
Plant corroborate jfo as thc.we.ikcfe Termes and 
Times oF all thinges vie to haiie the bcft applications 
andhclpcs. And wiUyouhcaikcn to the Hebrew 
KAhims^.i'f-u yoftngmcn jl)%U fH.yiponi y and your old 
meH^0iill/lre&me «5?!rf4;A.^jj(ay the.-youih is the worthi- f^y 

cjj age, for > that Vifions arc, neercr apparitions of 
God, thin dccames ? And.kt it bpc noted , xbaihowr 
foeuer tlie Conaitions of life oiPedaniCi kuh bccne >-^a^ i^ /iz^ 
fcomcd vpon Ihc^tors, as the Ape o£ Tyrannic 5 
A D 2 and 

26 GftheadumcimentofLearnin^^ 

and that thcmodcrcn loofcncs or m gligf rcc hath ra- 

l:cn no due regard lo the chojfe cf Sc< c GiL-rriailcrs^ 
and Tutor&-,^et the ancient wilifomc ofihe [ ci'l limcs 
did alvvaics make a iiift complaint ; ibat States were 
too bufic with their Lavvcs, and coo negligent in 
point ofcducarion ; which cxcelle .t part of ancient 
difciplinchath bcencin ibme iorc rcuiued of late 
times J by the Colledges of the lefiiitcs : of whom, 
although in regard of their fiipcrftirion I may fay, 
Quomeltores^ eo deter wres^ytt in regard of tkis , and 
fome other points , concerninghiimanc L^^arning, 
andMoralmartcrsJmay (ay as K^gefiUud faid to 
hiscncipic FArnabafttf^ 7 alls quum fu , viiriAmnofler 
tjfes. And thus much touching the difcrcdits drawne 
from the fortunes of Icarne J men. 

As touching the Manners of learned men , it is a 
thingpcrfonalland indiuiduall J and no doubt there 
bceamongft them, as in other profelfions, of all tem- 
peratures^but yet fo as it is not without truth, which 
it fayd, that ^beunt ^udio in mores ^ Stud ics haue an 
inflkjcncc and operation, vpon the inanncrsof thofc 
that arc conuerfant in them. 

But vpon an attcntiuCjand indifJerent rcuiew; I for 
sny part , cannot find any difgracc to Learning , can 
proceed from the manners of learned mcn-jnot inhe- 
rent to them as they are lear.ned^cxccpt it bee a fault, 
^which was the fuppofed fault o^ Dtmofthenes^ 
Cicero^ Cdt$ the fecondj^^/t/r*, and many nsoe )ihat 
bccaule the times they read of, arc commonly bet. 
tec than the times they Hue inland the duties taught, 


b^ttct than tliecuties pf.'^itifed.'T^eyironrendlTome- 
tinjcs too farrc . to bring t hinges to pci(v;(5t;on • and 
corecucc ihc cornipEion of manners , to honiflfc of 
precepts, otf:x3n-i pics of coo great hcighr 5 And yc€ 
hereof they haiic Caucats ynough in the r ownc 
walkcs ; Voz SgIojs ^ when hee was asked whether he 
had giiicn Iiis Cic:zens the bcft Iaws,anfvvtred wiidy, 
TeA offuch^Ai thsy ixouIa receiufiar.d Plate finding that 
his owne h:art, could not agree with the corrupt 
manners of his Country, rcfufed to beare place or 
oflScc , faying: That ami?3S Ccuntry to hce vfed 4^ hit 
pAreuts rvere^that u^wHh h/if?fl/e perju afioas ^ and not 
r^ahcomepatwns. And C^f/ir/Counfcllorput inthc 
lame Caueat,iV^^» ad Vetera iufiituta reuoca»s qu/e mm* 
fridtm corruftU moribus hdihrh fum ', ar^d Cicero 
no'eth this error directly m Cato the fecond^whcn he 
writes to his friend Atticust^ Cato of time f emit fed 
nocet merdum reipublfC^t-^loquitBr enim ta/fquam in 
repukP/jitomy»o» tJnqu4m irtfoece Romuli\zxi^ the 
fame Cicero doth excufc and expound the Philofo- 
phers forgoing too far,and bejng toocxadl in their 
prekriptSjwhen he ^2^\i\i\Jfitif[%frdteporesvittmi4^ 
Magifiri^VidcfitMrjif^es offkiorttm paulolofigim quam 
natura velietfrotubfie^vt cnm ad vltimu ammo (omem- 
dtjfemuiy ibt umen vhi ofortet^ C09jijieremu4 : and yet 
fehc might hauc laid : Monituf urn miner iffemekfot 
it was his ownc fault 5 though not in (b cxtrcaoie a 

Another fault likcwifc much of this kind, hatb 

bccne incideat to learned men ^ which ii that they 

D3 haiit 

aS Of the aihancemeMofi^eamngy 

bane cftc emeu the prefer mcioK, good, and honor of 
their Countries orMsiil-ers before their owne fore- 
times or fafetics. For fo faith De^efih^ses vnto else 
AcheiifaKS'//"/i'^/V.^^^i?/^ to mte it^ mj coufjfelis vnio 

ysHyapid you becvme tittlt Amo^:^,fi the Grecia^siBNt thej 
he of Wat ndiure /^j they arefimeiimesnot good for mt to 
giae, but Are alrv^ks good Joy yOi4toJol/ew.A\\i ioSe^xC' - 
u after hvc had confecratcd mat QutnqiLennium Ne- 
ronii to the efernall^Iorie of learned Goiiccnorsjhcld 
on Us hancft and loyal! courfc of good and free 
Counfclljafccrhis MaJde-r grew extrcamely coriupc 
iohisgouer«Tie«t'3neithcr can this point otherwifc be 
for Learning cnducth mens mindes wich a true fence 
of the frailtic of their pcrfbns , the caufiiahie of rbeif ^ 
fortuncs.and thedignitie oftheir fculeand vocationj 
fo that it is impoflibic for them to eflceme that any ■ 
grcatneflfe oftheir ownc fortune can be^a true or wor- 
thy end oftheir being and ordainrncnf; and therefore 
are dcfiroiis to giue their account to God;and fb hke-* ^ 
wifcto their Maiflcrsvnder God(asKingcsandthc 
States that they fci U")in ihefe words 5 Eca tth't lucre- 
feciy^n^ not Ecce mihilucrefec/iwh^t^^s the corrupter 
fortofmeerePolitiqueSjthat haue notrheir thoughts 
cftajblifhed by Learning in the loiie and apprehctiilap 
ofdutie,nor ncuex lookc abroad into vniLicrf^^Iiticjdoe -^ 
lefetreall thingcs to them fchics .^ and thr^ift .them- i 
fclucsintotheCeotecofthe woild , as if all times-' 
fhould racctiii^diem ^nd -their -^fortunes ^ncacf ca- 
ring in ali tcmpcfts what becomes of the lliippe ^of ^^ 


* Thefrfi ^ook^^ 16 

Eit atcs , {oihty may faue ilicmfeliics in thcCockc* 
boate of iheiTowne Fonunej whericas rrfn tVarfeele 
ihevveight of di-ty^ard know the limits ©f Iclfe'Ioue^ 
vfc to make good their places and duties^ though 
with pcrill. And H il' cy ftand in feditious and vio- 
lent alfcrations ; ic is ralhcr the reucrcnce which 
many times both aducrfe parts doe giue to honefty, 
llian any veriatile adiian tagc of their ownc carriage. 
But for this poynt oi tender fence j- and faft obhgaii- 
on of duty, which Learning doth incfiie the minde 
withair, liowroeiict Forrune may rax€ iCi, and many 
in the depth of thdrcorrupc principles may defpife 
k, yet itvvill rcccii;can open al!o\ft'aDcc , and- there- 
fore nctdes the Icflcdifproofe or cxcufation. 

Another faiilte incident commonly to Learned 
men , vvhicli may be mote probably defended, than 
tfuely derycd 3 isjthat-theyfayle fometinries in ap- 
plying themfelucs to paiticnlar perfons, which want 
of cxa(5f application arifcth from twocaufcs -: The 
one, becaufc the largcneflc cf their minde can hard- 
ly confine it ielfc todw^llintheexquifiteobfcBua- 
tionorexanriinationoftheNature and cuftomc$of 
one perfon : For it is ^ fpe:ch for a Loucr , and for a 
wife man : Sa'tJ magnum niter glteri TheAtrumfumttii 
Ncucrthelcfle 1 faa!! yccld^ that he that cannot con- 
read: the; fight of his minde , afwcll as di/perfe and 
•di]accic,wanteti.iagreat£icuhy* Bnt;there is afe- 
cond caufe, which isnoinabilire., biitarejc<5lipn 
vpon choylc and judgement. For the honeftand juft 
bounds of obfetuation , by one perfon vppon ano- 

go OftheaduancementefLeamingy 

chcr^e^xtend no further, but to vnderftand him iulfi- 
ciently,wh€f eby noc to giue him offciicc, or where- 
by to be able to giue him faithfull Coun(el,or ^ here- 
by to ftand vpon reafbnable guard and caution in rc- 
ipe£iof amansfelte : But to bcr fpcculatiue into a- 
rother man, to the end to know liow to workc him, 
or windc him , or goucme him , proccedeth from 
a heart that is double and clouen, and not cntyrcand 
ingenuous; which as in friendfhip it is want of in- 
tegrity, (b towards Princes ot Superiors, is want of 
<juty. For the cuftome of the Leuanr, which is^that 
fubjcds doe fotbcarc to gaze or fixe their eyes vppon 
Princes , is in the outward Cc erony barbarous ; 
but the Morall is go->d : For men ought not by cun- 
ning andbcntobleruationSjto pierce and penetrate 
into the hearts of Kings , which the Scripture hath 
declared to be infcruoMe. 

There is yet another tault(vvith which I will co::» 
C^'dcthis pan)whicl» is often noted in learned Men^ 
tha rhey CO many times faylcto obfcrue decency, 
en<i difrretion in 'h:ir behauiour and carriage , and 
corrmit errors in fmall and ordinary p ynts of a(Si- 
on* (bas the Vu'ga fort of Capacities , doc make 
a ludg^mcnt of ihcm in greater matters ^ by that 
which they finde want:ne;in t! e«p, in finaller. But 
this confcqucncc duih oft deceiue men , for which, 
Idoe refcrrc them cucr to ihat which was fayd by 
Tbgm/fiec/cssirT'j^uvAy^ and vnciuilyj being applyed 
to himfc!fc ou" of his owne mouth , but bccing ap- 
plyed to the gcncrall fkno. of ihis queflion pertinent- 

Iheftrjl "Booke. 51 

ly .inc^ jui^Iy i when beeing inuitcd to touch a Lute, 
he lay d : Ht could not fisiilejjut he cou/d mjikt afmxU 
Tov^'nCjigrejit^flMe, So no doubt, many may bt well 
fccncinthe p.allagc3 of <jou:rnemcnc and Pohcy, 
which arc to feeke in littlCjand puniStuaU occafions : 
I refcire them alfo to iliat , which pUto faydc of his 
Mate 56T/4r^j 5 whom he compared tothcGally- 
potsof Apothecaries, which on the out-fide had 
Ape? and OA'Ics,and Antiques,but contayn-d with 
in foucraigneand precious liquors, and confJ:<f^ions: 
acknowledging that to ancxrcrnall report , he was 
not without fuperficiall leuitcs,and detorrhitiessbut 
Avas inwardly replcnifhed with excellent vcrtiies and 
powers. And (o much touching thcpoyni of maa- 
nersof learned men, ^. />-..... 

But i;i the nieane time, I hade ho^iTrfJofc tb j^ue 
allowance to fnme conditions and couricsWfc, -and 
Yiuvorthy, wherein diiiers-PfofeHors of Learning', 
haue wronged thcmiclues.and gone too farre j fuch 
as were tholJ- Trencher phyiofophcrs , which in tha 
latter ag? of the Romane Srate , \wttG vftjally in th^ 
houfes ofgrcat Perfons, being Httle better than fb^ 
lcmtiePara(i:es; of which kindc',7>f/4W maketh A 
merry defer iprion of the PhyIofbphcr,that tHe great 
Lady tooke ro ride with her in her Coach , ancf 
H Quid need s liaue him carry her little Dog , ' Vvhieli 
lie ."ioingo^ficimifly , arrf yet vncomely , titc Page 
&kof]^d,and f jyd : Thaihedofthed^diePhHofopberpf 
A Stolke^xoouldt'iYHciohe i€ymke. But aboiv:^,a!' thi 
fcft^ fhc grolTe andi palpable flatctry/>Vherciint6 

21 Of the adudncement of Learning. 

2nany(not vnlearned) haiie abbafedand abufed their 
wits and pens , turning (as D» Baftw faith,) RrcuU 
into HelifiAy and f4ujfi»a imo LucrettA^ hach moft 
diminifhcd the price aid crtimation of Learning, 
Neither is the ffiodcrnc dedications of Bookcs and 
Writings, as to Patrons to h€ comoirndcd : for thac 
Bo'.kcs(ruch as arc worthy the name of Bookcs ) 
oughito haucnoP-iirons, but Truth and Rcafbn; 
And the anticnt cuftomc vva?, to dedicate them on- 
ly to priuate and cquall friends, or to inti.le the 
BookeswichthcirNrtflKS 5 or if to Kings and great 
pcrfonSjitwas toibmciuch as the argument of the 
Bookc was fi and proper for ; but thefe and che like 
Couifes niay dcferue rather re^rchenfion , than dc^ 

Not that Lean raxepr condcmnc .^hc morigcra- 
tionor application of Learned men to men in for- 
tune, Foi the anfwere was good that Dioge?ies made 
CO Ofic that asked him in mockerie , How it came f& 
fd/ft that thtlofofhers vptre thefoiiewers of rich m n^ 
nffd not rsfh mett oj Phtlofofhers f He anfwercd (o- 
berly, and yet (liarplyj Becaufe the one fori knew what 
they hAdueedofyAftdihe other dtd not:, And of the hkc 
Baturc was the anfwcr which ArijiffM made when 
bauing a petition to Dtonyfim , and no earegiuen to 
him, he fell downe at ois L etc^whercupon Diooyjiut 
lUycd, and gaue him the heatings and graunted it, 
and afterward fome pcrfon tender onthebchalfeof 
Phi'ofophic, reprooued Ar/fiiffus^ ihzx. he would 
offa the PiofettioB of Philofopiiie fuch an indigni- 


tiCj as (or a priuatc Suit to fall at a Tyratifs fccc 5 Bue 
lie anfwcrcdi n w.^ not hisfmlt^hm n wof (he f mis of 
Vyomfius^hst he hadhiieares mhiifcHeM^'uh^t was 
it accounted weakcncffs , but diicrcrion in him that 
would not difpute his bcft with Adn/iimCaf^r^c^^ 
cuiing \\\\v.k\kjhat f$ ^a$ rUfintojcdim hm^tkm 
eommaunded thtrty Leghm , Thcfeand therlike ap^ 
plications and looping ro points of ncccflieicand 
con ucnicncc cannot be difallowed : for though ehcy 
may haucfomc outward baiencl!c| yetmv^Iy:^g<§-' 
mcnt tf uely raadc 3 they are to be accounted lubiaiP 
fioRs to theoccafion, and not to she perfoR, 

Now I proceed? to thofe errours mi smUm^ 
which hau€ interueyned amongd ihc (ladies ihsm* 
feluei of the Learned I wJaichli %\m which Ii prln* 
dpall and proper t@ %h^ pr^fent argtimeni , wh^reia 
mypnrpoje isnottomjrie 3 lyOifiatlen ©f ihf §r. 
rorsgbut byacenfer€ andfeparanon oAhcfrroif^to^ 
make aiiuilification of that which is good U fbimd* 
and rodeliiierehat fromthcafpcriionof As oth^^f! 
For wc fee , «K^t l% h the manner of men ,' to km^ 
\m and dcpmue ihm which mm^^\ tlic Srat^j mi 
vcrtuCj by rakmg aduant?«|e vpon thiBt which I? gof* 
rupt and dcgon^mte 5 3sth€ Heathens in rho Piinii- 
tiue Church yfcdfo bkmifh and laym ths'Chnfti- 
an« , wjih the faislti and corruptions of Herctiqiiss 5 
Bat nciierchckffe ^ I hm^ m meaning a? this xmt f d 
make any ^%,^ ^nimadu.rfion of f.'ie crrours and 
iinp«Jimcats in matters of Lfnynlngj which m 
more fkai and Kii?o?^fromvwlgMi oj^imgn) ii\i 

B 2 ga«ly 

51 Of the aduanccmcnt of Learnln<r, 

oneiy to fpeake vnro fiich a*, doc fall vnder or necrc 
vntOja popular obferiiation. 

There be ihcrfore chiefcly three vanities in Studies 
whereby Learning hath becneiTioft traduced ; For 
thofc things wee doe cfteemevaine, which are cither 
falfc or friuolous, thofe which either haue no ttiith,or 
no vfe: and ihofc perfons we eft .erne vsanc^ which are 
either credulous or curious, and curiofity is either m . 
matter or wordsjfo tharin reaigi^as wclasin cxpcri- 
ence^there fall out to be thcfe g.diflempci? (a% 1 may 
tearme thcm)of leapiing^thc fiii^fantariical learningi 
the fccond contentious lcarning,and the lart delicate . 
learning, vaine inaginations^vainc AlictcationSjand 
vainc aScflationsj and with phclaft I wil ht^io^Mar- 
tin Luther condu(5ted (no doubt)-6y anh'ghcr proui- 
dcnce 5 but in difcourfe of rca fbn , finding what a 
Prouincehcehad vndcrtakenagainfi the Blfliopof 
Jteme^znd the degenerate traditions of the Church, 
and finding his ownc folitude being no waics ayded 
by the opinions of his owne time , was enforced to 
awake all Antiquitie5and to call futmcr times to his; 
fuccofs 5 to make a.partie againd the prefent r imc: 
to that the ancient Authors, both in Diuinity , a^d 
in Humanity , which hath long time llept in Libra- 
ties, began generally to be read and reuo'ucd. This 
by con Icquence, did draw on a neccfifity of a more 
cxquifite trauaitein the language original), wherein 
thofe authors did write.-For the better vnderft3ndir.g 
of thofe Authors, and the better ad uantage of prcf^ 
fing and applying their words : And thereof grew 


agaynCjl dclig'vt in iheir manner of Srilc and Phralc, 
and an admiration of that kinde of Wriiing ^ which 
was much furthered and precipitated by the enmity 
and oppofition, that the propounders of thofc ( pri- 
mitiue, but fceming new opinions ) had agaynft the 
Schoolc men : who were gcncra'Iy of the contrary 
part ; and whofe Vs'ritings were altogether in a 
differing Srilc and Forme, taking liberty to coy nej 
and frame new teatncs of Art jto exprelTe theirowne 
fence^and to auoidc circniie of fpeech, without re- 
gard to the purcneiTe , pleafantncfle , and(as I may 
call it) lawfiilnes of the Phrafe , or Word ; And a- il lK i a[ 

gaync,.bcca life the great labour then was with- f^^ >^ -- 

the people /'of whom tbe Phariiccs were wont to 
fay ,: ExecrAhiUn^rftA turha qti4 f>9f2»mip Ugeni)^oi the 
winning and pcrfwading of them, they gtcwe of 
neceffity in chicfe price, andrcqucft, eloquence 
and variety of difcourfe 3 as the fitteft andforciblcft 
acceffe into the capacity of the vulgar fort: fothat 
thcfcfoure canfes concurring, the admiration of an- 
cient Authors, the hate ofSchoole-men, the ex- 
aififludyof Languai^es ; and the efjficacy of Prea- 
ching dkl bring in an affectionate ftudy of elo- 
quence, and copy of fpccch, which then beganne to 
flounfh. This grew fpeedily to an cxccffe : for men 
began to hunt more after Wordes, than matftsr^and 
morcafterthccboyfcncfleof the Phi^fe, and -the 
round and dcane compofition of thefcntcucc ^ and 
rhc (wccte falling of the claufcs, and the valyipg and 
dluftration of their work^s with tropesand figutest , 

E^ Then 

l6 Of the adudtrcement of Learnings 

then after the weight of matter , worth of fubk^, 
foundnefle of argument, life of inuention, ©r depth 
of ludgemcnt. Then grew theflowing, and wa. 
try vayne of oforim the Portugall Biftiop , to be in 
price : Then did Sturmim fpend fuch mfinite , and 
curious payncs vpon CUero the Orator, and HermG- 
gents the Rhetorician, befidcs his owneBookesof 
Periods, and imitation, and the Hke : Thes did CAr 
of Cdmhridge , and Afchum with their Ledures and 
VVritingSjalmoft dt\^tC$€ero and Vemofibfnes, and 
allnrCj all young men that wereftudious vnto thac 
delicate and pollifhed kinde of Learning. Then did 
Erdfmu4 take occafion to make thefcoffing Eccho t, 
Defem<tfims (onfttm^fi SMlegettde Cgtereta :aBd the 
Eccho anfwcred m Grcekc, Oue ^ Afimc. Then grew 
the Learning of she Schoolc-mcti to bee vttctly dcfl 
pifed as barbarous. In fumme^the whole Inclitutlon 
andbcntof thofcdnaes, was rather towards copy, 
than weight. 

Here therefore, the firft diftemper of Learning, 

when men ftudy words, and not matter t Whereof 

though I hauerepreiented an example of late times.* 

yet it nath beenc,, and will be Sefundnmmsim ^mU 

nm \n all timc.Andhow is it polfiblcgbut this fhould 

hauean operation to dircrediteLearning,euenwirh 

Vtilgar f^apacities, when they lee Learned mens 

woikes hke the firft Letter of aPatem f or limmcd 

Bookc I which chough it hath Kitgc flourifhcs, yet it 

ii bii|,» leit€r»Itfccmcsto me that PigmtieoBs^ttn- 

%i% is a gQoiemblcmc or portraiture of this vanity: 

fctfwordcsarebutthe Images of matter, and cx«» 
ccpt they hauc life of rcafon and inuentiofi : to fall 
aivlouewuhchcm^ is all one, ds to fill in loue widi 
a Pidiurc. 

Butyctnotwithftanding, it is a thing not haftily 
to be CO. demncd, to cloathand adorne be the oo» 
fciifity , eucn of Phylofophy it fclfc , with (enfibk 
and piaufibic elocution. For hereof we hauc great 
examples in Xemfhon^ Cicero^ SenUA^ Piutarch , and 
o{ Plato 3\(o in lome degree, and hecicof likewife 
there is great vfe ; For (urely,!© the (cuere inquifiti- 
on of truth , and the dcepc progrcfTc into Phylofo- 
phy, it is fbmc hindrance ; bccaufeit is too early fa» 
tiffadory to the minde of roan , and quencheih the 
defire of further f arch , before wee come to a iuft 
period. But then if a man be to haueany vfe of iuch 
know'edgc in ciuill occafions^ of conference, coun- 
fell, pcifwafion,difcourfejOrthclikc : Then Aiall 
he finde it prepared to his hands in thofc Authors^ 
which write in that manner. Bur the cxccflc of this 
is fo iuftly contemptible, t1 at as Hercules^ when he 
faw the Image of jidcnis^ Vcntu Mij^men in a Tem- 
ple, fayd in difdaync v Nilficrtes, So there is none 
of HenuUs followers in learningjihat is , the more 
feuere, and laborious fort of Enquirers into truth, 
but will defpifethofe delicacies and alf ftitions , as 
jndeedc capable of no diuineflfe. And thus much of 
the fir ft d licafe or diftcmpcr of learning. 

The leond which folJowcth is in nature wor/e 
then than the former ; For as f«bftancc of mattv r is 


2 S 0/ th ^Ju^fj cement of Learning, 

better t? an bc.iuty of words : To connaty- \vi(c vainc 
matter isworft, than va)re v<»^ords: wherein it (ce- 
mtth the reprcheiifion of Saint p.^a/^ was not r.ncly 
proper for ihoilt times,biic prophetical! for the times 
followingj^.nd not only rclpcdiue to Diuinit v, hut 
cxienfiue to ail know led ^j;e. rtuita trophmds vocHm 
noukAtes ^ ofpofitiones fulii hominu [ciemm. For he 
afllgneth two^ Markcs and Badges of Tufpcded and 
falfified Science : The one, the nouclry and ftrange- 
lieflebf 'ttf^rmcsj the other, the ftri(^ncflc of pbH- 
tions , which of neceflity doth induce oppoflt ions, 
and foqiicftions and altercations. Surely hke as ma- 
ny fiibftanccs in nature which arc foh'de,doc pu[rifl^5 
and corrupt into Wormcs: So it is the propriety of 
good and found knowledge, topncrifi.- and dilToIuc 
ihtoa number offubtle, idle, viiwho!efomc5ancJ (as 
I may tearmc them) Vermituiatc qucftions 5 which 
haiie indecdc a kindc of quickneffe , and life o f fpi- 
ritc, but no foUndnefTc of matter y or goodnt flc of 
quality. This kinde of degenerate Learning did 
chieflyraigncamongftthc Schoole-mcn , who ha- 
uihgiTiarpcandftrongWics, and aboundancc of 
IcafutCj ^hd fmaft viVicty of reading • but their wics 
bciiigfhutvpiiTtheCehofafew Authors (chiefly 
Afthotle their Didator ) as their pcr(()nsi w ere fhut 
vp in ?hc Cells of Monafteries and Colledges and 
knowing little Hiflory , eythct of Na^^ire 95 time, 
did out of no great quantity of matter, attd infi- 
nite a gitation of VVjf, fpin out vnto vs thofe labo- 
rious VVcbs of Learning , which are cxtao.c in. i;i,cic 


Bopkes.5*or 1^30 wicandiraindje&^iiian^if it workc Mpi- 

ofi5Dciwoikethac£oi-dmgtbxhe ftufi[r,aad is limi^ 
ted diercSy'- i)Lit jf iti woii^ ic^pdniirfeifei as the Spi. 

forthiridccd C<ipwcb&,i)i icaTning , aiiiiiiiblc^ior 
ehc finefle q£ thread and wor JiC^ btitofno fnbftancc 

»Toi*liiisifamc~vi^di}:dbIc nj^.Tib't'Cor ciicioiitteis 
of twn forte i'cfihcr in rheTfabie^lttilelfeihat they 
handici weenie isifriii'itflfe fpeculatiba orcontro- 
ucrfic 5 (whereof there are no fmll niimbet both in 
Diuifiity and Philofbphie) or in the manncior me- 
thod of handling of a knowledge 5 which amongft 
then) was this jvponeuciy particular pofitio oTaflei- 
tion to frame obicdtiong, and totfibfe obiedtioiiSjio- 
lucions : Which fokff ions wcrefor the rcoft part n^ 
confutations, butdiftindtibns.-where as indtedethc 
ftrength of Scicncts , is as the ftfcngih of the old 
mans faggot in the bond* Por the harmony of a 
fcicncciipportingeach part the other, is and ought 
to bee ti.e true and briefe confutation and> fupprcfS* 
OHjofall thcfmailer fort'ofobit<9ions r|buton the 
other fide , if you talieout cuery Axiomc , as the 
ftickcs of the faggot one by o-ic , youttTayquaricH 
with them, and bend them and breake thcmatyout 
pleafure :fo that as was iayd o^ Sensca : Verhorum 
miftm^f^erumJrAvgttfondetiCxSo a man rnay truely 
fay of the Schook-mhri^ QftaftfonummwHt^s Sc^M- 
ikrumfrAtt^tintfoliditdtein. For were itnot^bettcc 

F fi?jc 

4-'0 Oftheadmncemmtcf Learning. 

for a man in a fairc toome, to fct vp one great Jight, 
or braunching candclftickc of lights^ than to goc a- 
boutAvith a fmall watch candle into cucry corner f 
and fudi h rheir method , that rcftsjiot fo much vp- 
oncuidcncc of triich prooued by arguments, autho- 
rities, fimihtudes, examples j as vpon particular con- 
iijtations and foluiipns of^ucry faupic , cauillation 
and obiciSlion : breeding for the moft parr onequc- 
fiion as faft as jc folueth another jcucuasin the for- 
mti rcletnblaocc, W:hen.'y€)u carry the light intoonc 
corner, you darken tiic it^':. fo.tbatthje Fable and fi< 
i^ion oiscyila fccmeth to. bee a Hudy Iipagcof.chis 
kinde ofPhilofophie or knowledgejwhich was tranG 
formed into a comely Virgine for the vppct parts ^ 
burthen, Candida juccfp(iar» ^Utrantibm if^gHim 
mo»firis'^So the GeaeraHtics of are 
for a while good and proportionablejbut thea;wii?n 
you de{cend into their diftiji\5tions anddeciiions, m 
ftead ofafruitfullwombc, for thc^ffcaod; benefice of 
roans life ; they end indcmonftrous altcrcaiicns and 
barking queftions. So as it is not pojlible but this 
quantity of knowledge mud fall vndcf popular cpn- 
temptjthe people being apt to contcmnc truth vpon 
occaiioii ofControueifics and altercations ^ aad to 
thinke they arc all out of their way which ncuer 
mcetc 3 and when they fee fuch digladiations aboujt 
fubtilties^and matter of no vfe nor moment, they ear 
ii!y fall vpon that ludgmcnt oipioniffitis oi ^itacufd^ 
i^itA iflafunt finnm ^tiofirum, 

Noc-wtfh*fianding certaine it is , that if thofc 


^'5uu^^^• 'I he prjt lsool{f. I 4.1 

' Sciioolc-rvjcnto their great thiift of Truth, and vn- 
wcijticd trauailepf wiCj had iayncd variety and vni- 
ncriality of Reading^nd Contco)platiqn, they had 
prooued (xc client Lights, to the grcataduance- 
nicnt of all learning and knowledge; but as they .are, 
they arc great vndcrtakcrs inJeede , and ficrce'with 
datkc keeping. But as in the inquiry of the diuinc 
Truth, their pride cnclincd to leauc the Oracle of 
Gods word, and to vapifk in the mixture of their 
owne inuentions;. ; So in the inquifltion of Nature, 
they euer left th^ Oracle of Gods worket , and ado. 
red the deceiuing an^ deformed Images, which the 
vnequali mirrour of their owne minds , or a few 
receiucd Authors or ptisciples , did r eprefent vnto 
them. And thus much for the fccoiid difeafeof 
Learning. . 

For the third vice or difcafeof Learning, which 
conceincth deceite or vntruth, it is of all the reft the 
fowled 5 as that which doth dcfiray the eff^ntiall 
forms of Knowledge ; which is not hing but a re- 
prefcntation of truth ; for the truth of bcing,and the 
truth of knowing arc one , differing no more then 
thedircdi beamc, «nd the bcamc reflc<^cd. This 
vice therefore braunchcth it felfc into two forts • de- 
light in decciuing , and aptncffe to be dcceiucdjim* 
poftureand credulity : which although they appcarc 
to be of a diuers nature , the one fecming to pro- 
ccedcofcunning,and the other of fimplicity; yet 
certaynely,they do for the mofl part concurre ; for 
as the Verfe noteth, 

F 2 TcrcoK" 

^% f the iidumcementif Learnings 

PertofiUtoremJ/tgtte, nam Gmttltts idem efl : 

" An inqui(iMuc man is a pratlcr : fo vpon the like' 
rcafon , a ercdulbus man is a decciuer ras wc fccic 
irifamCj that hec that will cafily belecue rumcrSj 
wilf-ascafiiy attgmairVumorb^ and adde (bmcwhat 
to^hcmofhisownc, which T4^/^<^ wifely notethj 
when he f;iy^h : Fmg'wi fiwd credent que ^{o great an 
affinity-fiatlifiition aiidbefecfc, •^^''- < ''•'/ ■ t \'^ J 
"io^hfs facility ofaiM^, and accepringtn admit- 
ting ihligcs wcakely 'sw^Hofeed or warranted, 
istyt iWb kitides, toording to the fubic(a: For 
it is either a beleefc of Hiftory , ^oras the Law- 
yers fpeakc , matter of fad: : ) ox dfe of matter of 
arte and b; inron : As ib the fdrrher , we f^c the 
experience and inconucniencc of this'^rrour in 
ccclefiaftica'lHiftory, which harh tooead'yTecei- 
vit^ and regiftrcd tcports ^d Tjarratio^s of Mihiclcs 
wroughtby MartyreSjHrtmits, or Mohkes of the 
defcrtj and odicr Holy rhen J and their Rcliques, 
Shrines , Chappels , a:id Images . Which though 
they had a paffcige for time , by the ignorance of 
the people, the liiperilitious (implicify of fomc, 
arid tlic politique tollcration of others , holdiig 
them but as diuinc poriics ; yet after a periodc oi 
time 5 when the mift began to cleare vp , they grew 
lobe cfteemcdj but af old wiues fables , impoftures 
©f the Cleargy irufionsof fpirits, and badges of 
Ant ichrift , to the great fcandall and detriment of 

So in nacurali Uiflory , wee fee thete hath hot 



foccnc that choylc and iudgenv nt vfcd 5 as ough' 
tobaucbccnc , as may appears in the Writings o^ 
PlimaSy Cardanm, x^ihrtuFy and diuers of the o/" 
fabtanSj being fraught wi h much Fabulous matter, 
a great part, not oncly vntried , but nororiou fly vn- 
true, to the great derogation of thccrcditc ofna- 
tuallPhyJolophy, whicli the graue and fober kind 
of wits 5 wherein the wifedomcand integrity of^* 
nflotle is worthy to be ob/erucd , that hauing made 
fo diligent and cxgu-firc a Hiflory of liuing Crea- 
tures J hath m'mgkd it /paringfy with any vayne 
or fayned matter, and yet on th other (akc,hathcafl 
al' prodigious Narrations, which he thought wor- 
thy the Recording info one Booke ; excellently di(^ 
ceti ling that matter of manifcft truth , fuch wherc^ 
vppon obferiiation and rule was to be built,' uas not 
to bee mingled or weakened with matter of doubt- 
full credit: and yet agayne that rarities and reports^ 
that feeme vncrediblc , arc not to bee fupprcfled or 
denied to the memory of nacno 

And as for the facility of credite which is ycddcd 
to Artcs and opinions , it is likcwife of two kindf , 
€yiher when too much belcefe is attributed to the 
Arts themfelueSjOT to ccrtaync Authors in any Art, 
The Sciences thcmfeKies which haue had better 
inrelligence and confederacy wih the imagination 
of man, than with his reafon , are three in luimbcr: 
Aflrology,NaturallMagicke,and Alcumyiof which 
Sciences neuertheleffc the ends or pretences arc 
noble. For Aftrolcgy pretcndcth to difcoucr that 

F % corrclpon*- 

44- Oftheaduancementoflearmng, 

ccrrcjpondcncCj or concatenation, which is be- 
tweenc ihcfiipciiour Giobeandthc inferiour. Na- 
tiirall Magickc pretcndecli to cal and reduce natural 
Philofophytrom variety of rpeculat ions to the mag- 
nitude ot vvorkcs J and Alcumy prctcndcth to make 
reparation of all the vnlike parts of bodies , which 
in mixtures of nature are incorporate. But the dcri- 
iiations and profccutions to thefe ends , both in the 
theories, and in the prad^ifes are full of Errours and 
vanity j which the great ProfcfTorsthemfclueshaue 
fought to vaylc ouer and conceale by euigmaticall 
wiitings , and referring themfelucs to auricular tra- 
ditions , and fuch other deuifes, to fauethe credite 
oflmpofturcs ; and yet Hircly to ^/ci^iw^ this right 
is ducjthat it may be compared to the Husband man 
whereof c/^/f niak«s the Fable; that when he dy- 
ed, told his SonneSjthat he had left vnto them gold, 
buried vndcr ground in his Vineyard 5 and they dig- 
ged ouer all the ground, and gold they found none, 
but by rcafon of their ftirring and digging the mold 
about 5 the rootcs of their Vines , they had a great 
Vintage the ycare following afluredly the (carch 
and ftirre to make gold hath brought to light a^gteac 
numberoFgood and fruitful! innentions and expe« 
nments^as well for the diftlofing ofNaturcjasfor 
the vfc of mans life. 

And as for the ouer-much credite that hath bccnc 
giuen Vnto Authors in Sciences, in making them 
Didators , that their words (hould fland , and not 
Confulstogiucaduifcjtkcdamageis infinite that 


^iw^v: The firjl'^ooki. ^5 

Sdeoces hauc leceiued thereby , as the principali 
caufe that hath kept them low, ataftay without 
growth or aduanccaient. For hence it hath comcn^ 
that jn.tlTjts Mcchanical,thc firft deuifer comes (hor- 
Iteft^antitimeaddeth and pcrfcdeth ; but in Scien- 
ces the firft Author goethiurtheft, and timelcefcth 
and corruptcth* So we fee. Artillery /aylingj prin- 
ting, and the like, were groflely managed atthe firft, 
and by time accommodated and refined rbiit con- 
trary wife the Philofophics and Sciences of jirk' 
fiotkyPUtspemocrhm^ Hypocrites ^ Nuclides , ^rcffi- 
medespftnofkwioprac thefirft, and by time dege- 
nerate and imbafed, whereof the rcafon is no other, 
but that in the former many wits > and induftrics 
haue contributed in one ;and in the later many wits 
and jnduftries hauebcn fpent about the wit of fbmc 
fj!t)c jwbom many times they hauc rather depraucd 
jthanilluftrated.For as water will notafccnd higherj 
than theleuell of ihe firft fpring head, from whence 
it dcfccndeth ;fo knowledge dcriucd from Atiftctley 
arid exempted from liberty of examination^ will 
not jife againe higher , than the knowledge of dfU 
JlopU^hxA thcrefo re although the portion be good: 
OfiorUt difcenum credcrf: yet k jnuft bee c®uplc(i 
with this O^ortetedoBumntdiUre'Aoi Difciples doc 
owe vnto Maifters onely atemporie belccfe , and 
afiifpcnfionoftheirownciudgemcnt, till they bee 
fully inftrudted , and not a anblolute reiignotiSn^oi 
perpciuall captiuity: and therefore to conclude this 
point J 1 will fay no more 3 butjfo great Author* 



Of the adudncementvf Learning, 

llaHC their du^ ^ 4s time which is the AiiihorofAi- 
thors b^ not depiiucdof fiis cfac^which is further iind 
fu^itihef tP.difcQuer truth. Thtisiia^c I gone oia«Jt 
th^ three diicafTes of icaniing v '^^^^cs Jtlie wWch 
therftarc fome other rather ptccant hum&ts^ then 
formed difeaies 5 which neuertheics arc ndtfo^fcctet 
and intrinfike, but that they fall vnder a popular ob- 
fcriiation ^nd traduccmcntjan J therefore arc not to 
bc:p»ilcd0u^. . : >bt.HGf r>' ■ rj-ii sfiiii v .i bii * 

. ioThcfirftofchere is the cktr^ameaflTcAf^n'of two 
cxtrcamitiesjThe one Antiqiuty; The oth,vT N' )u;Ity5 
wherein it fccmeth the children of time d/c Take af- 
ter the nature and mah'ce of the father. Forashcc 
druoureth his children 5 fb one of them (eckcth to 
deuouie *nd fupprcife the •other ^ while Antiquity 
enuieth there (hould be ne\f addition s^and Nc>uelry5 
ca^ippt be content to addc, buth rttuft dcfacejSitfrf^ 
the adjUifc of the Prophet it the true drr«<aioh ih«hi« 
Blatter, State fiperviaiMmfqu4s\ ^iftdeteq-i^nam 
fitltf^rf^^&i'tWi, ^dmyuUte iff €4, Atftiquiry 
deferueth that reucicnee ^ that m^h (hould maktf a 
ftawd whercvpoavarK! thfcousr What is the beft Way, 
but when the difcoucry is:^ wcif taKen ch^n to^^'^ke 
pt >gre{fi3m Andtofpeaketriiely3^*:^.'/^»//^y&«^/i 
luutntm Mundt, Thcic times aire the ancient tirhes 
when the world is ancient, and not thofe which wee 
count ancient OrdintretrogrdAo , by a compuraticn 
backward from our feluci. u* 

• Art^cher Error induced by the former is a diftruft 
skat any ihing (houldbee now to bee found otit 
?! which 

c^i^^- The fir ft "Booke. 47 

whicH the World fliould hsue mifled and paflfed 
oiicr fo long time , as if the fameobic^Siion were to 
be made to time, thst tticUn m^k'cth to tufit'er^ and 
other the heathen "Godi , of which hee woridteth, 
that they hcgor fomany Childreri in did time , and 
begot none in bis time, and askctli whether they 
were becotnc fcptuagenary , or whether the L,^#e 
J>^pA made agaynft old mens Marriages had reftray* 
ned theni. So it fcemcth nlcn doubt Jcaft time is bc- 
iiome paft children aad <jcncr4ti6h '\ wherclA d6tt^ 
trary-wifc 5 we fee i^mmoDly the Icuity aind Vticob* 
ftancy of mens iudgements , which till ^ Kiactcr be 
done J wonder that it can be done 5 and a(foonc as it 
is done , wonder agaync that it was no {bjoqer dpnje, 
as we fee in the expedition x£ AUxanier into ^^4, 
which at firft was prciiidged as a vaft ai^d impofliblc 
enterprizc 5 and yt^t afterwards it pleafeth £/«;<? to 
make no'raorc of it, than this , Ndkfiuk^^mye^e 
dufusvdftMeoHfemfHre, And thcJanieliitppen'c^to 
Cokmhs in the Wcftern'c H^iligatiQrf. But in intet^ 
le^luall matters, it is much moire corpi|)bn 3 as' may 
be fcene in moft of the proportions of £«^//y^jWhicn 
till they be demonftraiCj they feeme fttangc to but 
aflent j but being demon0rare,pur minde acceptcth 
.6f them by a kind of relation {k thb La^ycM/peaL} 
f<s if we had knowne them bcfotf^' '"'"'''). ^J* \ •'['!^. 
Another '' E>tout that hath ' alio' Ibtic ^ffimt| 
witH'tBc formeTjisTi c6nccit'Vha|E df fdrmer opinions 
or k^% after^ariety and ^a^inktiOri', the beft liaS 
llil! prcuayUd 5 'andfijjppreflcdchercft : So as if a 

G pan 

4-8 Of the admncement ofL earnings 

nian rtiould bcginnc the labour of a new fcarch, 
h^c were but Ijke. toli|^hc vppon fomcwhat for?. 
merly reicjfted ; and.Ly reicdtion, brought into 
obliijio'i 5 asifilae multirudc , or the wifclt for the 
multitudes fa^e 5 were not readic to giuc pa(l<*ge, 
rather to that which is popular and fupcjficiailj 
tl^ntothat wliicfi is rubllanciall and profound^, 
for the truth 15 , thatrtime rc,emcth to bee of the na • 
twrc of a. Bij-iff .,, or iiteame .,, which carryeth. 
downe to vs tfiat wfiicb isjtghr-and bipwnc vp ;and 

{blidc..., '■.;., ^v:. , " ,.,... ..^>* -i,.,: ,;. ^ ". . ,, Vt '" 
i^npther Erroiir ©f a diMcrfc^naturc from all tkt 
former 3 is the ouer early and peremptory rcdu^ioii 
of J^nowledge into Artsiand Methodes : from which 
time, cornrnpnly Sciences rccejue finail pr,pa;gug- 
mcntatfon. But asypung men,, when they knix and 
fhapc perfc^Iy , doe feldomc. grow to a fur,ther fta-. 
tare :Io knowlcd^^^ , yvhile it rsin AphQti(mcsjn;id 
bbfefuatioiis ^ k IS in g^^^^ :buJ; when itonceis 
comprehended in dcaSMcthodesjit may perchance 
be furthci pollifhed and iliuftratc , and accommo- 
dated for vfeand pra^ifcjbut it encreafeth no more 
in bulkc and lubftanceo 

Another Errour which doth (ucceed that which 
wee lafl: mentioned,, is that after the diHribution ©f 
particular Arts and Sciences ,3 mcnhaue abandoned 
vniuerfality, or PhtlofophUfrtm^'^ which cannot but 
ccafe,, and ftop{>call progrcflion. For nopeifci^t 
difcouehc can bee made vppon a flater, or a leuell. 


H^i^'h^r is ic poffiblc to difcouer the more remote,. 
and^cepcr parts of arty SciencCjif you ftand but vp- 
bn the feaellof tfie fame Science, and afcend not to 
a hitzher Science. 

Another Error hatti proceeded frbm too grea||^ 
rcuerence^and a kindcofadoradon of the mindc and 
vndcr- (landing of man : by meancs whereof , men 
hauc with-drawnc them felues too much from the 
contemplation of NaturCjand the obferuatipnsof ex- 
perience : and haue tumbled vp and dbwne in their 
owne reafbnand coniccits.-vpoh thefe IntcIlc^uaUifts 
which are not-with ftanding commonly taken for 
the mod fublime and diuinc Philofophcrsj WMr/ /w 
gtue a iuft ccnfure, faying : Mem fought irttih inthtir 
cwfte little rot f Us , mA not in the great and cemmon 
world: for they difdainetdfpeIl,arKl fo by degrees to 
readc inthevo'umc of Gods works, and contrary- 
wife by coniinuall meditation and agitation of wit, 
doe vrgc,and as it were inuocatc their owne fpirit^, 
to diuincjand giuc Oracles vnto themjWhcrcby they 
arc defcruedly deluded. 

Another Error that hath fonw connexion with 
this latter, is, that men hauc vfcd to infcd thctfmc- 
ditations , opinions , and do6lrincs widi (bme con- 
ceits which they banc moft admired , or fomc Sci- 
ences which they haue moftapplycdjand giuen all 
things clfe a tin(^ure according to them^Httcrly vn* 
true and vnpropc-. So hath Plato intermingled 
his Philofophic with Thcologic , and i^rfffotle 
wich Logtcke, and the fccond Schoolcof P/^^f?, 
oa G a Tmim^ 

^o Of the aduancement of Learnings 

Proclus^ and the xt% with the Math^matiques. For 
thcfcwere the Arcs which had a kindc of Prim§ g4- 
nUureviVih ihera feuerally* So hauc the Alchymifls 
made a Phylofcphy out of a few experiments of the 
Eurnace ; and dlUrtus owl Coimii^ man hath 
made a Phylofbphy out of the obfcruations of a 
Load ftonc. So Ckero , when reciting the feuerall 
opinions of the nature of the (bule, he found a Mu* 
Titian J th^thteldthelpi,jie w-*sbtua Harmony /ay th 
pleaf^nrly; i|(/frf^4r/^yi(i(if^*rf^fj^i, ^c, B*Jt o^ 
ll^fc concpit«'i^/{/?:^^/r:fpcaketh icrioufly and wife- 
ly , whcnheiayth : Q^refpcium Ad pmcA dejacili 

Another Errouris an impatience or doubt^ and 
haft to aflcrtion without ducand mature fufpemion 
ofiudgcment. Forchc two waves ofcontefnpiar 
tipn are not vnhkc the tvya waycs of a(5^ion , com- 
monly fpokcn of by the An;ie#s,The one pkinc and 
faaoothin the beginning, and io the end impa (fable; 
the other rough and troublcfome in the entrance, 
butafter awhilefaircandeuen, (bit is in contempla. 
tion^if a man will begin with certainties ^he fliall end 
In doubts J but if he will be content to beginne with 
doubts, he (hall end in certainties. 

Another Errour is in the manner o f the trad it ion 
and dcliucry of Knowledge , which is for the moft 
part Magiftrail and peremptory 5 and not ingenu. 
oils and ^ithfuU, in a (brt, as may be fbonefl be- 
kcucd ; and not eafileft examined. It is true,rliat in 
Compendious Trwciics for pradife^ that forme is 


Thefirfi '\Boolse. 51 

not to be difallowcd. But in the true handling o^ 
Icnowlcdgc^mcn ought not to fall eythcr on the one 
fide into the Vcyne of ;^i?//^/«/ the Epicurean : Nil 
tammetuens jiMmntdubilfLre AliquAeLe revUeretun 
Nor on the other fide, into Socrates \\\smomQ&\\ 
doubting of all things, but to propound things fin- 
ccrely, with more or lefTe afleueration : as they {\and 
in a mans ownc iudgmenr, proucd moreor leflc. 

Other Ef tours there arc in thtfcope that men 
propound to themfclucs^ whcr^unto they bend 
their endeauours .* For whereas the moft cohftarlt 
and deuote kinde of ProfefloVs of any fcience ought 
to propound to themfcjiics , to make fome additi- 
ons to thcit Science ; they conuert their labours to 
afpire to certainc fccond prizes; as to be a profound 
Interpreter or Cominenter ; ■ to be a fharpc Cham- 
pion or Defender 5 to be a mcthodicall Compoun* 
dcd or Abridgcr 5 and fo the Patrimony of know*, 
iedgc commeih to be fbmctimcsimproucd 5 but feU 
dome augmented. * 

: ? Bat the grcateft Errour of all the reft, isf tfte 
miftaking , or mif-placing of the laft or flirthcft eftd 
of Knowledge : for men haue cntred into a of 
Learning and Knowledge , fbmctimes vpoh a aatu- 
rall curioftty 3 and inquifuiue appetite^ fbmetimcs 
to entcrtayne their mindes with vatfetyand delight5 
fometimcs for ornament and reputation j and feme, 
times to inable them to victory of wir and contra- 
di<aion,and moft times for kikcr and profcition, and 
feldomejQinccrely to giuc a true accoropt of their 

G s gift 

51 Of the aiuarKcm^nt of Learnings 

guift ofrc^fon, to the benefit e and yfcofmen : Ai 
J^jthcrc WiCre foughi in knQwjcdge.a Cowch, ivhete- 
vpon to reft a fearching a»d rertlciTc.fj3irit 5 or a tar- 
raflc for a wandri; §^nd variable mindc, to v\ a kc \ p 
and downc with afaire piorpc(fi:or a Tower of State 
for a proud minde to raife it felfc vpon 5 or a Fort or 
commannding ground forftrifeand contentionjora 
Shoppe for profile or falc;and not a rich Store houfe 
for the glory of the Cr€ator,and the rcliefc of Mans 
cftate. Bat this isthat, which will indcede digni- 
fie and exalt knowledge ^ if contemplation and adi- 
on may bee more necrely and ilraightly conioyncd 
and vnitcd together , than they haue becnc ; a Con- 
iundion like vnto that of the two higheft Planets, 
Saturne the Planet of reft and contemplation 5 and 
Jftpitur the Planet of ciuile fociety and a<^ion* 
How-bc-it , I doe not rneanc when I fpcake of vfc 
andadion, that end before mentioned of the ap- 
plying of knowledge to luker andoprclfion ; For 
I am not ignorant how much that diucrteth and 
intcrruptcth the profecution and aduanccment 
of knowledge ^ like vnto the goulden ball 
throwne before AuUnu, which while (bee go* 
cth afidc 3 and ftoopeth t^ take vp, the race is hin- 

VediftAt cwrfm^ aurumque volMle toUit : 
Keithcr is my meaning as was fpokcn of SOCYMtes^ 
to call Philofophy downe from hcaucn toconuerfc 
vpon the earth, that is, to Icaue natnrall Philofophy 
afide^apd tQap|>lic knowledge oncl^ to mahncrsand 
; ,. • policic. 

pokcie. But as both hcatien and earth doe confpir^ 
and contibute to thcvfeand betiefle of man : So th^ 
end ought to bee from both Philofophies , to fcpa" 
ratcandreicdvainefpecuIationSj and what fbcucc 
is einp'^y and voyd , and co preferueand augment 
whaifocucrisfolidc and ftuit-full; that knowledge 
may not bee as a Curcezan for p'cafurc , and vanity 
onIy,or as a bond-woman to acquire and gainc to her 
Ailaflcrs vfCjbut as a Spoufc,for gcncration/ruitjand 

Thus hauc I defer ibcd and opened as by a kinde of 
diflcdlion , thofe peccant humors (the principall of 
them) which hath not only giuen impediment to the 
proficiencc of Learning , but haue giuen alfb occa, 
Jion, to the traduccmcnt thereof; wherein if rhauc 
bccnc too plaincjit muft bee remcmbredj 
Fidelia vulnen Amantii^fid doiofa cfctUa mdUgitdntk. 

This I thinkc I hauc gaincd^tbat I ought to be the 
better bcleeucd , in that which I fhall fay pcrtayning 
to>commondacioji:bccaure I haiw proceeded fo freely 
in that which cohcerneih cenfure. And yet I haue no 
purpofe to enter intoa lauditiue of Lcaihing , or to 
make a Hy mnc to the Murei(though I anj ot opinion 
that it is long fincc their rites were ducly celebrated) 
but my intent is without varnifb or amplification^ 
iuftly to weigh the dignity of knowledge in the bal- 
lance with other things, and to take the truevalu« 
thereof by tcflimonies and arguments diuirte^ and 
humane. bnri 6'vV : rp-w^ O' boO 

Firft therefore , ler v$ (cckc the dignity of kH6w- 


54- Gfthe aduancem^nt of Learning, 

It dgc in the Arch-type or firil plat-fortiRc , wliichis 
in thcattribiiccs and ads of Godjasfarreas they arc 
reueale.d co rnan^and may be obfeiticd with fobriety, 
wheKin we jray not kek ic by the narpe of Leainmg, 
foi all learning is knowledge acqi.iircd,and;aii know- 
ledge in God IS originall. And therefore we rauft 
lookejbr if by another name, that ofwifdomeor A- 
piencCj as the Scriptures call ft. . ' : f •« ' ' 
■ It is {b thcnjthatin the worke ofihc Creation, wc 
fee a double emanation of vcrtue from Godrthconc 
referring more properly to pQWci,the other to wife- 
dome , the oncexprerted in making the fubfiftcncc 
of the matter, and the other in difpofing the beauty 
of the forme. This being fuppofed , it is to be ob- 
ferucd, that for any thing which appcarcch in the 
Hiftory of the Creation , the confufed Mafle , and 
matter of Heauenand earth was made in a momenr, 
and the order and difpofition of that c/prftff or Maflcj 
was the Worke ©f fixe dayes , fuch a note of diflfe- 
rcncc it pleafed God to put vppon the VVorkes of 
pipwer , and the WQrke$ of VVifcdome .-wherewith 
COi»curreth that in thcformer , it is not {ct downc, 
tbat God (ayd , Let there l^e H€Met$ and Earth , as it 
is fet downe of the workes following , but adually, 
that God made Hc^uen and Earth; the one carrying 
the ftile of a Manufa^urc , and the other of a Law, 
Pecrce, or Councell^ 

f tJo pFOCccde to that which is next in order from 

Godtofpirits : We findasfarreascrediteistobc 

gwcn to the celeftiall Hierarchy , of that fuppofed 

-, ■: Dionyftus^ 

TheJrfi'Boof^e. 55 

Dionyfim the Senatot of Athens the firll places or 
degree is giiicn to the Angels of lone ^ which arc 
teamed Strafhtm^\iz{zco\'\d^iQ the Angels of h'ght, 
which ate tcarmcd cherfthim^ and the third j and 
fo following places to thrones , pnncipahticSj and 
the reft, which are all Angels of power and mini- 
flry, fo as the Angels of knowledge and illuminati- 
pn 5 ate placed ijwfprg the An^ck pf Officpaq^ do- 
mination.. ^ ,;f ^ hyr:-U. r-.KU r''.: '•/ ,'tKi rn . ''"' 
rpp defcend from fpicits andjinteljcd^uall fprmeSj 
tofcnfiblcand materialliqrmes, wee rcade the firft 
forme that was created , w^sLight ^ w^ich hath a 
relation and coricfpondencc in nature and corpo- 
ral] tilings, to knowlcdg ■ in Spirits andiucorporall 

So m the d ftribution ofdayes j ^wce^ ffec the dsy 
wherein Goddidicft, and coatempjate hii; owne 
woikes , was blciTv-d aboue aj| the day^^^, vvA^^ 
did cf^jcfl and accomplifh them*;",/! 1,7 ■.^d'^- i-*, or!? 

After the Creation wasiinirhed ,. it is {ctdowfjc 
vncovs, t'^at iVIui was placed in tJie^Gardei} to 
works therein 5,:which^wCfike foapppinted tqihrnt? 
con'd bee oooiihcc tratjiwprkc of c6m^P>pl3tij(i>ft5, 
ihsii h 5 wh^n the cnc'e of woyke i5 b««:. &^% -f^^l- 
ciljb aiiid (}Kdafimc;u , tjW fgf neceiliog,^j4f)^d<)ere 
being thca no i*cH?(5latid;«pffril«TCj^V£'ii^e5-iioxi^4^at 
of t|ie browe ^ ; !ninfv!oO'ipf<'>yrn£nc- #iyiip;f, .<j:ovifc 
jquettize hi^iifcirbienejinarxer qI o\'ligliiij4i:thc/tj5q?<?i> 
niiiis^jkidaicarh rI rci! jdi IdW^:^^ » ^;. ,*A^#i«;^ 

iht frit} Adisi lohJobtfRjgbijf Cfi^^gnJ^d i^iIjPjjibojrff, 

f6 Of the 4 Juancemej^t of Learning. 

confiftcd oPthc two fummary parts oF Knowledge, 
the view of Creatiires^andthc in-spofit ion of Names, 
As for the Knowledge vvhich indiiced the fdW^k was, 
iSLS was touched Before /not the narurall Knowledge 
of Creatures 5 biitilx morall Knowledge of good 
and euill , wherein the fuppofition was , that Gods 
Comraandements or prohibitions were not the ori- 
ginals of good and coiH, but that they had other 
beginnings which Man afpircd to knowe , to the 
end, tomakeatotaH defection from God , and to 
depend wholly vpon himfelfe. 

To pafTe on , inthe firdeiicnt or occurrence after 
the fall of Man; we fee as the Scriptutes hiiue in- 
finite Myftcrics , not violating at all the truth of the 
Storie ot letter ) an Image of the two Eilates , the 
Gonteroplatiue State,and ihe Adiue State, figured 
in the two perfbns of ^^^//and Cam^ and in tlie two 
fimpleft and moft primitiue Tracies of life,* that of 
the Shephcard (who by realbn of his leafure , reft 
in a place , and liuing in view of hcauen , is a liuely 
Image ofacontemplatiue life) and that of the Huf- 
bandman; where wc fee againe , thcfauourandele- 
,^ion of God went to the Shephcard3 and not to the 
tiller ©f the ground* 

So ifttbc age before the flood , the holy Records 
within thole few memoiials, which arc there cn- 
ttcdand rcgiftred,hauc. vouchiafedto mention, and 
honour the name of the Inuentors and Authors of 
Mufiquc, and workes in Mcttall . In ihc age after the 
Flood 3 xhcfirit great iudgcment of God vpon the 


ThefirJl'Booke. 57 

Ambition of Man , was the confufion of Tongiicsj 
whereby the open Trade and iatcrcourfc of Lear- 
ning and Knowledge, was chiefly imbarrcd. 

To defccnd to Moyfestht Law-gJaer 3 aad Gods 
firftpcnnej he is adorned by the Scriptures with 
this addition, and commendation .-^ Thut hewstfetne 
indlthe LcArning of the *y£gy^tiMm'^ wh id) Nation 
we know was one of the moft ancient Schooles of 
the woild : for/o p/4<^ brings in the Egyptian Prieft, 
faying vn CO Sehn-. ToHGrecinns are euer children ^y on. 
haue no knowUd^ oj sLtttiquny^ nor antiquity of h^ofv • 
ledge. Take a view of tnt ceremonial! Law of Moy-^ 
y^^;Vou fhall find bclidc> ihe prefigurarion of Chrift, 
ihebadgcordiffcraKeot til. p.'op'cof God , the 
cxcrcife and im prcffij.i of o'3£diefjcc» and orhci 
diunt- v{csancifru!t^ ti.ercof, thar feme* of the inoft 
learned Ralnnes haue traaa ikd profitably , and pro- 
foundly to oblerue, Ibmc of them a natural!, fomc 
of them a moral! fence, or rcdudion oj many of the 
<:cremonies and ordinmccs; As inthcLaweofthc 
Leproufic, where it is fayd : jjth^ whuenefe kauc O' 
uer/pre£4 the fl:[h , the Fdttent m ly pt/e dbroad for 
cle&nc'^ But tf there be any w^^ole ftejh remAining^he 
iitobejhntvpforvncle.i/te: One of them noteth a 
principle of nature , putrcfa(^ion is more con- 
tagious before n a. untie rh^in after : And anothet 
noteth a poiiton o- mor^Il Pnylofopliyjthat men a- 
Ijandoncd to vice d; > net (b much corrupt manners, 
as thofe that arc half^ good , and lialfc euill jfo, in 
this ano' very maijy &tiiCr places in iliat Lawc ^ there 

H 2 is 

5S Oftheaduancen:cntofLedrning^ 

is to J)C fbWriH hc^xd^i the Theulogicali fence, much 
a^i^oH^FPhdo-iDphic,., i. : '- 

So likewvfo inthatcxcellem Bookc of /c?^, if jt be 
reii^IiWd with ditigeoce , a .wjH be foLtml^,prcgnanr , 
aild fvvclUrtgWffh nSiUiUM-'PnilofophiCj as U-x ex- 
smplip , Cofm6p,raph!e , andihc roundnefie of ihe 
ys^'6xM'^Qutt^tt^dt^'aq^rh}mnfupcrvAcua/n^ ^ rt* 

QiP*thC'Eatfli)-tiK'po!eoftheNotth..and the finite- 
rieflfe'y"' bi^'^dmiie^trie of Hicaiien arc manifcftly tou- 
ched-* ''Sc^-'^^^^e macter»x?f Aftronotliie ^ Spnjfm 
eim 'oYmUU Ca^s dr- ohfetrhAnt!! mAnueisn'cdH^ifs 
effcoUher torttK^fm : And in anoihcrt place ^> jYu/i* 
quidcSn'tun^fe valcbis wicmtes fteUasplejitdM ^ ant 
gyrittn ttroinri foteris ^''J?/pire? where the fixing of 
the'St^rres, ^ucr (bnding at equall d'x^mct ^ h 
with great elfegancic noted : And in anoihcr place, 
Quifacit ar&itrum^ dr ortonA^^ dr hyidas^ <dr iHtertgrt^ 
Auflri 5 where ag^ine he takes knowledge ofrhcde- 
pttition of the Southcrne Pole, calling it the fc- 
cicts of the South 5 bccaufeiheSouthcrne Starres 
W"rc in that climate vnf' enc. Matter of generation, 
jimonficut lac muljiflt me^ cjrficut cafeum coAguUfti 
me^(^c. Matter of Mynerals , Ha^et argentum ve-. 
nerumfuATumprincipU : O" ^f*^(* ^^^^ ^ftf» ^«<? ^^«" 
fiituryferrum de terrA t&ttUur, (^ UpUfGlutm calore in 
4S vertitftr : and fo forwards in that Chapter, 

So likcwifc in the perfon o^ Salomon the King, 
wc Tec the guift or cndowcnncnt of Wiftdomc 
and Lctrning b©th in SAlomom pecicion , and in 


The frfi TSoo\e. 5p ♦ 

Gods fiflent thereunto preferred ht^otQ all other 
terrene and retpporall fc.'iciiic- By vcrruc of which 
grant or donarinc of God, Sdomonhzc^mt inabled^ 
liOt oncly lo write thofc excellent Parables, or 
Aphorifnes ctncemingDiuine and Moral! Philo- 
fophic; but alforo compi'e a narurall Hiftorie of 
all verdor, from the Cedar vponthc Moiintainc, 
to the Mofie-vppGn ihe wall , (which is but a rudi- 
ment betweene putrcfadbon , and an hcarbe ) and 
alio of al) tilings j that breath or moouc . Nay the 
fame Salomon x\\q King, although hec excelled in 
the glorie ofTreafurc and magnificent buildfnesof 
fhipping and Nau^gation, of ieiuicc and attcn» 
dance , of fame and renowne^ and the like ; yet hcc 
Hiak-th no clafme to any of thofc glories; bur bncly 
to the glory of Inquifitjon of Truth; forfo he layth 
cxprcfTc'y : The glorie of Godu to conceale a things 
But the glorie of the Kmg i6 tofinait out , as if accor- 
ding to the innocent play of Chjldrcnihcdiuinc 
Maieftic too'vcdeiight to hide his workcs^to the end 
tohauc theiia found out , and as if Kings could not 
obtaine a greater honour , than to bee Godsplay- 
fellowesin that game, confidering the great com- 
mandement of wits and mcancs , whereby nothing 
n-cdeth to be hidden from them. 

Neither did the difpenfation of God vary in the 
times after our Sauionr came into the world; for our 
Saniour himfelfc did fitft (hew his power to fubdue 
ignorance, by his conference with the Priefts and 
Dolors ofthc Law 5 before he (hewed his power 

H 3 to 

(So Oftheaduancement of Learning, 

tofLibdiie nature by his miracles. And ihc coniming 
ofchchoiyfpirite, was chiefely figured and exprcf- 
fcd in the fiinilicude and guifc ot totigues^whrch are 
but p^ehkuUfciemU . 

So in the clc6i ion of thofc Inftruments , which ic 
pleafed God to vfe for the plantation of the Faith, 
notwidiftanding , that at the firft hec did employ 
perfons altogether vnlearncd, otherwise than by in- 
jpirationjiDorceuidcnly to declare his immediate 
working , and toabbafeall humane Wifed^micoE 
Knowledge , yet ncuerchckfie , that Counfell of his 
wasnt) fooncr performed 5 but in the ntxtvicifli- 
tudeand fucceflTionj hec?id OndhisDiuinc iruth in- 
to the world , waited on wi'^hothci Learnings, as 
with Scruantt or Handmaides : For fo we fee Saint 
P/m/e^ys ho v. as one'y learned aiBongft the Ap les 
had his pen nioft vfcd in the Scripctsres of the N\w 

So agame, we findc that many of the anrienr Bi- 
(hops and Fathers of the Church , were excellently 
?rcd, and ftuJied m all the learning of the Heathen, 
in fo muchjtiiat the Edidofthc Emperour lulUnw 
{ whereby it was inrcrdi(^cd vnto Chriftians to bee 
admitted into Scbeoles , Lei^uics, orexcrcifesof 
Learning ) was efteemed and accounr ed a more per- 
nicious engine and machination againft the Chrifti- 
an Fairh ; than wcr^ ^t' the fangu:nary profccutioris 
ofhis riedecefTors , Neitncr could the emulation 
and kaloufie of Gregory c! •■-: fird of fhat name , Bi- 
fhop of Rome , euer oDiaine tie opinion of ptctie or 


ThefirJl'Bool^. 6t 

tkuotion ; but contrary- wife reaiued tl^c ccnfure 
of hnmourjfna'ignity , andpulil'animity, eiien a- 
inongft holy men : in that he dcligneth to obliterate. 
and cx'iiguifh the mcmorie of Heathen antiquity 
and Authors. Bnr contrary-wife it was the Chri- 
ftian Church , which ajridrt the inundations of the 
ScjihUns^ on the one fiJe from the North weft : and 
the Saracens from th.e Eaft,did prelerne in the (acred 
lappe and bofome thereof, the pretious Rehques, c- 
uenof Heathen Learning, which otherwife had 
beene extinguiHied , as if no fuch thing had cuci 

And we fee before our eyes, that in the age of our 
fehie^, and our FacherSjWhen it pleafed God te call 
the Church of Rome to account , for their degene- 
rate manners and ceremonies : and fundry dodnnes, 
obnoxious jand framed to vphould the fame abufcs; 
At one and the fime, it was ordayned by thcdiuinc 
prouidence , that there fhould attend with all a re- 
nouation , and new fpringof all other knowledges : 
And one the other fide, wc fee the Itfuits, who part- 
ly in thcmfelucs , and partly by the emulation and 
prouocation their examplejiaue much quickned and 
f^rengthncd the flate of Learning : wc fcc(I fay, what 
notable feruice and reparation they bauc done to, 
the Roman e Sea, 

W hereforc to conclude this pitt , let it bee ob* 
fcrued, that there bee two priacipall duties and fer- 
uices bcfides ornament and illuftracion, which Phi, 
lofophy and humaine Learning do perforwc to 


6i Of the aduancmentof Learnings 

faith and Religion; The one , becaiifc they arc an 
cifeduail inducement to the txilratioti of t! e g'ory 
oFGod.Fof as the Pialaiis,and orher Scriptures doe 
ofcen iniiite vs roconfitler^ and magnifie the great 
and wondcrfull vvork'-a of God , io if wee (h >uld 
reft onely in the confemplation of the exieriorof 
them 5 as chey firil o^cr chemfclues to our iences ; 
wcfhou^ddoalikeiniury vntotheMaieftyof God, 
asifwecfhoiild ii?dgc or conririie of the ftarc of 
foms cxcclle? 1 1 jwelier . by thac onely whieh is fet 
out toward the ftrecce in his fhopoe. The other, 
bceaiilctheyminiftefa finguiar helpe andprelerua- 
tiucagaifift vnbcleefc and error 5 For our Sauiour 
idiixSiXou etrenot knswingihc Scrtf tuts /ior the ^ovotr 
ofGoi laying before vs two Bookcs or volumes to 
ftiidy,if wee will bee (ecurcd from crreur . firft the 
Scriptures , rcucaliiig the will of God; and then the 
creatures exprefliig his power 5 whereof the latter 
is key vato the former ; not onely openly our vnder- 
ftandingtoconcciue the true fence; of the Scrip- 
tiires,hy the generall notions of reafbn and-rules of 
Ipccch ; W chcc'ely opening our belecfe, ia draw- 
ing vs \\\'.Q a due meditation of the omnipetency of 
God,which is chiefcly fignc i an^^ ingraiien vppn his 
workcs. Thus much therefore for d^uine tcftimony 
and euidence, concerning the true dignity and value 
of Lcaniing. 

As for humaine proofesjit is fo large a ficldjas in 
a difcouriebi hts nature and breviity , it is fi: rather 
to vftthoifc of thofe tl^ngs , wh ich wee rna'l pt^^> 


The firJl'Booke. 6^ 

ducCjthan to embrace the variety of thcm.Fitft there- 
fore in the degrees of humane honour amongft the 
hcnthcBjif was the higheft^to obtaine to a vcncmrion 
and adoration ns a God.This vnto the chriflians is as 
the forbidden fi uit. But we Ipeakc now leparateiy of 
humane tcftimony ; according so which^ th^t which 
the Grecians call Apotheofis, andthcLatincSj^^/l'i* 
t/o wter di&es^ was the fuprcame honour^which mm. 
could attribute vnto man 5 fpecially when it wasgl» 
tien 5 not by a forms' I Decree or A^ of ^x^xq^ as ie 
was vfcd amongilthc RomaneEmperours j bui by 
an inward allent and beleefc , which henour being 
fo high 3 and aUb a degree or middle Teariwe 1 Fot 
there were reckoned aboue humane honouri ^ ho» 
«our Heroicall and ^xm^^ % Intheaitribytlon^ and 
didribution of which honours 5 wcc fee AiiriqaiEv 
made ihis difference : That whcreai Founders and 
Vniccrs of States and CitiesijLaw^iucP , e^ctirpers 
of Tyrant? 5 Fathers of the people ^ and other emi* 
nentpgrfons in ciuill mgrite, W(jrc honsurcd bi?t 
with the Titles of Worthies or Demy =godg5 fuch «s 
were Hercules: ThefeHS^Mmi^Kemulm^m^^nz like % 
on the other ildc, iiichaswcrelnuentors and Au= 
thorsofncw ArtSj endow mentSj andcomnKHiirics 
towards mans hfe , were cucr Confecrat'cd .imonftfl 
th^ gods themfcluegjcis was Cens^Biiubd^^Mtriim'fm^ 
^/'<j//<?,andcd-icr^jand inftly;'of the meiit of rhelor** 
nur is confined witliin the Circle ofauagCjl/rH iis- 
tion : And \% like fruitfull fhowcrs , which thcnigh 
tluy be profitable and good i Yctictucbiu for that 

I fcaibni 

Of the aduancmen t ofL earnihg^ 

fcafon^ and for a latitude of ground where they fal!.° 
But the other is indccde like the benefits of Hcauen, 
which arc permanent and vniucrfall. The former 
agayne is mixc with ftrirfe and perturbation 5 but the 
latter hath the true Charadttr of Diuinc prcfence j 
commonly \% aura kni^ without noyfc or agitatioHo 
. Neythcr isccrtaincly that other merite of Icar- 
ningjin-repreiling the inconuenjcnces which grow 
from mail to man • much inferiour to the formcr,of 
rclicuing the necefTitics which atifc from nature 5 
which merite was liuelf fct foorth by the Ancients 
in that fayned Rclati^-n of Orfhem Theater 5 where 
all bcafts and bite's aficmbled 5 and forgetting, their 
feuerall appetites j fome of pray,fomc ofgamejfome 
of quarrel! , (tood all fociably together bikriing vn- 
to the ayres and accords of thcHarpc 5 the found 
whereof ho fooner ceafcd, or was drowned by 
fbmelowdernoyfc 3 bnt eucry bea{\ rerumed to 
his owne nature ; wherein is aptly dcfcribed rhe na- 
ture and condition of men ^ who are full offauagc 
and vnreclaymed defires •, of proftre^ of luft, of Re- 
ucnge ; which as long as they glue care to precepts, 
to Lavves, to Religion 5 fwectely touched with elo- 
quence and pcrfwafion of bookcf , of SernK^s, of 
karangcs ; fblongisfociety and peace ma inrayncdj 
but if thefe inftrumcnts bee filenc ; or that fcdition 
and tumult make them not audible y all thinges dif- 
foluc into Anarcliy and Confufion. 

But this appeareih more manifeftly 5 when Kings 
ihemfcfucsjor pcrfbns of authority vnder them , or 



other Goucrnours in Coi^fmon-W€akl-^es,and popu- 
lar Eftatcs, ace tnducd vvich Learning.<Foralrhoiigb 
he migVt be thoua^f parciall to his owiie profcflion, 
that UiS^Ther^fio^Idpespk aed efiates he hAffy^ whe» 
-eyther KtfJgs v:ere FhylofopherSyOr fhylofofheisfHtngs : 
Yet fomuch is verifijd by experience ; that .vnder 
wife and karned Princes and GoucrnprSj there bath 
beene eucr the beft times j for howfociier Kinges 
niay hanie their ia3p€rfe<5i:ions in their paflions aiid 
Cuftomes^ ycc if they be illuminate by learningjthcy 
haue thofe Notionsof Religion, policy, and noora- 
Jity : which doe ptcicrue them , and rcfraync them 
from allruinous and peremptory errors and cxccfTcsj 
whifpering euermorc in their cares , when Cotinfel" 
lors and feruantsftand mute and filent ^ and Sena- 
tors, or Counrdlorslikewifc, which be Learned^ 
doe procccde vppon mote fafe and fubftantiallfxrin- 
ciples ; then CounfcHors which are onely men of 
cxj»erience 5 the one fort keeping dangers a far olf^ 
whereas the other difcoucr them notj till they come 
nccre hand ; and then truft to the agility of their 
wit, to ward or aiioydc them. 

Which felicity of times , vnder learned PrinccfJ 
(To keepc itill the Law of brcuity , byvfiogthe 
moft eminent and fclecftcd examples ) dotbihcft^p- 
pcatei» the age J which paffcd from the dc^th of 
DomuUjius ihz EmperourjVntili theRaignc o^Com* 
modm : Comprehend in g a fucccflTion of fixe\Ptineefj 
all learned or fingular Fauourccs and Ac^uanocrs 
of Learning : which age for tcraporall rcfpcifis^ was 

I 2 the 

66 Oftheadumciment of Learnings 

the moft happy and flourlfliing, that cucr the Ro* 
naane Empire, f which then was a modell of ihc 
World) cnioyed : a matter reuealed and prefigured 
vnto Dom'ttUn in a Dreame, the night before he was 
flayne 5 for he thought there was growne behn.dc 
vppon his flioulders , a necke and a head o-f Goldj 
v^-hich came accordingly to ^^^z^ in thofe golden 
times which fuccccded ; of which Princes, wee wilt 
make (bnae commemoration : wherdn although the 
rrutter will be vulgar, and may be thought fitter for 
aDeclamatioQ5ihen agreeable to a Trcatife infoldecl 
as this is 5 yet bccaufe it is-pcrtincnt to the poynt in 
hanii^N^quefemperarcumte^jdit Apol/o^^nd toname^ 
them onely were too naked and curfory , I will hod 
omit it altogether. The fivft was Nerim^ the excel- 
lent temper of whofe gouernemcnr5is by a glance in 
CorneltHS TAckm touched to the life : Pofiqitam draut 
NeruA res oi'tm tnfochhtUi mifcutffet^ impermm (jr //» 
hertdtem : And in token of his Learnings chcbft Ad 
of his (hort Raigneleft to memory, was a milliue to 
his adopted Tonne 7>rf/^» , proceeding vpon fjme 
inward difcontenr 5 at the ingratitude of the times. 
comprehended in a Verfe o^ Homers : 

Te/u Ph(e(,e^t$M^ Luchrym^u vlc/fcere mHras, 
Tra$af» , who fucceeded , was for his perfbn not 
Learned : Butif wee will hearken to the fpeech of 
out Sauiour , that fayth , Hee that receiueth a Pro- 
fhet in the name of a Prophet , fifoU haue s Prophets 
rejvdfdf hcc dcferueih to bffc placed «inongfi the 
xnofltleainedPxinces : for there was roc a greatec 


Ihefrji'Boohe, 6j 

admirer of LcarniBg or Bcncfadlor of Learning , a 
founder of famous Libraries, a pcrpt- tua I Aduancer 
of Learned men ro office 5 and a familiar condcrfer 
wiih lurncd ProfcfTc-rs and Preceptors , who were 
noted tohauc then mollcreditc in Court. Oiuhc 
other fide J how much Tr/r/^/rxvertue and gouerne.: 
ment was admiicd and renowned, futcly no reftimo- 
ny of grauc and fai:hfu!l Hiftory doth more h'ucly {tl 
fbrtbjthan that iegund Talc ot Greiprius Magnus ^\. 
iliop of KomCy who was noted for the cxtrcamc enuy 
he bare towards all Heathen excellency \ and yet hcc 
is repoited out of the loue and eftimation o^Traians 
morail vermes , to hauc made vnto God, paffionatc 
and feruent praycts, for the deliuery of his fbuJeout 
of Hell ; and to haue obtayned it wiili a Caucac that 
hefh^uldmakcno morr fuch Petitions. In this 
Princes time alfo , the pcrfecutions agaynft ih« 
Chriftians receiued intermiilSon , vpponthe certifi.- 
catc of ? limus fecundus , a man of excellent Lear- 
ning, and by Tirj/^i/? aduanccd. 

Adrian his fucccllor , was the moft curious man 
that liuedjand the mofl vniucriall enquirer .-infomucb 
as it was noted for an cirour in his mind : that bee 
dcfired to comprehend all things, and not to re- 
ferue himfelfe for the worthicft things ^ falling 
int® the like hunf>our that was leng befcre noted 
in PhiUjp and MdCcdo», who when hec would 
ncedesoucr-rulcand put downe an excellent Mufi- 
tian 3 in an argument touching Mufique, was well 
anfwercd by him agayne, Godforbidstr (fayth hec) 

I 3 that 

6% Of the aduancement of Learnings 

tl^Mwur forfufjefljouldbefo budgets to kncwthcfethm^ 
hctifr ih^jn I : Itplcafed Godlikcvviictovfc the cii- 
riofityof I'^h Empcrour , as an inducement .to the 
pe^ce of His .Gbtiuiih in tbofc dayes ; Forhauing 
Ghrift in veneration-, notas a God or Sauiour,biit as 
a wonderornoiitlty 5 andhr^uinghis Pidureinhis 
Gallery , matched with Apollomm ( with whom in 
his vayue imagination, he thought he had fome con- 
forrciity) yet it (ctued the turne to allay tae bitter 
hatred of tbofc times agaynfl the Cbrifiian naqic: 
fo as the Church had peace during his riaie , and for 
his goucrncment ciuill, although be did not attayoc 
totthat o^TrAtanSyWi the glory of Ani3CS^or perfcdi- 
on of lufticc ; yet in defcruing of the vveale of the 
Subis;6t, lie did excccde him. ForTrrf/i^crcdcd 
many famous Monuments and buildings, infomuch 
?» ^onfi&ntim the Great, in emulation was wont to 
c«ll him ParieurUj Wall flower , becaufe his name 
w^s yppon (o many Walls : But his buildings and 
workes were more of glory and tryumph , than v(e 
and ncccfiicy ; But AdrioM fpcnt bis whole Raignc, 
which wa« peaceable in a perambulation, or Surucy 
oftheRonftaHcEwipirc, giuing order, and making 
aflignation , where he wentfor rccdify ing of Cities, 
Townes and Forts decayed : and for cutting ofRi- 
uers and ftrcames ^ and for makirvg Bridges and pal- 
(agcs , and for pollicing of Citics,and Commonal- 
ties, withacw ordinances and Conftituiions; and 
giantiag new Franchifes and incorporations : fo 
that bis whole time was a very reftauration of all the 


Ihefrfi'Booke, dp 

ia pfcs and dccaycs of former times. 
uiHtonim Ptw^ w ho fiiccccdcd h \m , was a Prince 

excellently 'earned; and had the patient and (iibile 
wit of a Schoelc-man : Infomuchas in common 
fpcech, ( which leaiics no vcrtuc vn taxed ) hee was 
called Cymtm Sector , a CariierjOr a diuider of Co- 
minc fcedc, which is one of the leaft fcedes '• fiich a 
patience hec had and fetled (pirit, toenterinto 
the leaft and moft cxa(5t difterences of caufes .' a frukc 
no doiibt of the exceeding tranquillity , and {crcm*' 
ty of his minde: which being no wayefi charged oc 
incombred , cyther with feares , remorfts, or fcru- 
ples, but hauing becne noted fpr a man of the purcft, 
goodneilc, Without all fidion, or affedation, 
that hath raigned or lined ; made his minde conti- 
nually pfcfent and cntyre: hce likevvife ^pproachptj 
a degree neerer vnto Chriftianityj and became as? 
A^rt^p fayd vnto St, VAule^ Half e a chri^fltM-^ hoi- 
ding their Religion and Law in good opinion 5 and 
not oncly ccafing perfccutioPj but gluing way to the 
aduancement of Chriftians. 

There fuccceded him the firfl; D/u'i frdtres^ 
the two adoptiue brethren, Lucittt Commodus Verus^ 
Sonne to Eltm yerus-y\ffhQ delighted much jn the;fof- 
tcr kinde ofLearning ; and vyaS Wont to call the Poet 
Martial 1 his Fngj/: and Marcus AuHlms Atitomnus^ 
whcreofthclatcer^whoobfcurcd hiscoHcague, and 
furuiucdhimlong, was named the Phylofopher; 
wh©as he excelled all the reft in Learning, fo hee ex- 
celled them likewifc in perfe<aion of all Royall ver- 


yo OftheadnancementofLeMrning^ 

tucs ; info much as lultAnm the Emperor in his bookc 
ihtitulcd,(7i?/^r^>,bcing as a Paf-quiii or SatyrCjto de- 
ride all his Prcdcccdbrs ^ fayncd that they were al! 
inuired to a Banquet ot the gods, and Sylcms^\\\z le- 
fter face ar the ncihcr end ot the Tablc,and beftovvcd 
a fcofPeoneiicry one as they came in, but vvhsii 
Marcm PhHcfifhM came in , Sykaus was graucllcd, 
and outof Coimrenancc, not knowing where to 
carpe at him^ lauc at the laft, kc gaiie a glauncc at his 
patience towards his wife. And the vertue of this 
Prince continued with that of his PredecefTor made 
the fiamc«f A?it&ninu6 fo facred in the Woild/hat 
though it were cxtteamcly difhoaouted in C^/r?- 
ntffd/is^ CofocoUa^ and HAlio^Aydiu , who all bare the 
name^y^t when Alexander Seuerws rcf ufed the name, 
bec^ule he was a Ikangcr to the Family , the Senate 
with one AcclaraariGn iayd , ^uem^do Augufi'^j jk 
(^ Amomntts . In iuch renowne and veneration, 
was th«nameof thcle two Princes in thoft^ daycs, 
that they would hane had it as a perpctuall addition 
in a'l the Empcrours rtiie. In this Emperours time 
alfe, the Ghurtli for the moft part was in peace , fo 
as in thi^i fcqvicncc ©f fixe Princes , wee doc fee the 
bleflcd eff^dlbs o! Learning in fducraignty, paynted 
forth in the grcateft Table of the World. 

But for a Tablet or PidJure of imaller volumc(not 
prcfumirtg td fpeake of your Maieily thatliueth, 
jnmy ludf^cmcnt the moft excellent, is that of 
Qncenc E//«4^f''/? j your immediate Prcdcceifor \n 
this part of ^ri/Zii/^^jaPrince} that \i Pktarch were 
-''' now 

now aKiie to write lynes by parallels v/oiild trouble 
him I ihinkc , 'lo find for her a parcl'cllafnongft wo- 
-men. This Lady was indued with learning in her fexe 
finguler and rare euen amongft roafculinc Princesj 
whether wee fpeake of Learning ^ or Language or of 
fcicncc, modcrnCjOr ancicntiDiuinity or Humanity. 
And vnto the very laft yearc or'"her lite, fhec accufta* 
mcd to appoyMt fct hourcs for reading, fcarcely aay 
young Student in any Vniuerfify , more daicly , or 
inore duly* As [or IVer gouernemenc,! allure my felfe, 
I fhall not exccedjif I doe aflicmc , that this part of 
thclland3neuerhad45. ycarcs of better tiroes: and 
yet not through the calmencfic of theleafon^but 
through the wifedome of her regitnent. 

For if there be confidercd of the one fide, the truth 
ofReh"gioncftablilTicd;thcconftant peace and fccu- 
rity : the good adminiftracion of luftice , the tewapc- 
ratc vfe of the perogariue, not flackcned, nor much 
ftrayncd : the flowrilhing ftate of Learning, (brtabic 
to fo excellent a PatronciTcjtheconurnientelUte of 
wealth and meanes , both of Crowne and Subicd : 
the habite of obedience, and ific moderation of dif" 
contents; and there bee confidered on thcothel fide^ 
the d.ffcrences of Relfgjon , the troi-bles of Neigh- 
hour Countreys,thc ambiciorj of Spaine^ and oppo- 
fi ion of Rome^ and then, that tlicc was folatary, snd 
of licr fclfc : thc-fe things 1 fay confides cd : as 1 could 
nothaueciioiei^. a linnanccfo recent and io proper: 
fo 3 1 (uppo(c 3 I could noc haue cholcn one more 
remarqucable J orcmenent, lo the purpofc no^y 

K in 

yz Of the adudncement of Learning. 

inliaiKJ-vvhich is concerning the coniundion of lear? 
ning in the Prince^with felicity in the pf opl<', 

Neitherharh Learniag an iiifluence and operation 
.onely vponciuile merit and oiorali vcrtue 5 and chc 
Arts or temperature of peacc.and peaceable goucrne- 
ment^but likewifc ithathiio lefle power and cfficacic 
ininablement towards marriall and mih'ary verruc 
apd prov^eflTe j ^s rpay bee notably reprefcnted in the 
examples of <^/extnderthc Grcsity and earths 
Di(5iator .ment?oned before , but now in fit place to 
be rcfumedj of wliofc vertucs and Ads in warre,therc 
needesno note or recitalijhauingbecne the wonders 
of time in that kind» But ot their aff:£tions towards 
Icarning5andpcrfc6lipnsiii Icarairg, it is pertinent 
tofay fomewhat, 

Alex&nder was bred and taught vnder Ari[iotk 
the great pliilofophcr^ who dedicated diuers of his 
Bookcs of Philofophie vntohim -jhee wasattenidcd 
with Cdifihenes and diuerfe oche.r learned pcrfons 
chat followed him in Campc, throughout his 
lourncyes and Conqucfts: what price and eftimation 
hce had learning in , doth notably appeare in thefc 
three particulars : Firft , in the enuie hce y[t(i to ex- 
pTe{re,that hce bare towards Achilles ^\x\ chisjthat hce 
had fo §*^od a Trumpet of his prayfcs at Homers ver. 
fcs : Secondlyjin the iudgcment or fokuion he gaue 
touching that precious Cabinet of D^rz/w wnich 
was found amongehis icwels, whereof quciUon was 
roade^what things was worthy to be put into it, and 
hce gaue kis opinion for Homers workes. Thirdly, in 


^hefirfi'Booke. 7? 

bfs tetter to Ar'tjlotls after he had fet forth his bookes 
of Nature \ wher: in hce expolkilateth with him for 
pubiinnng'lieiccrets or Myflerics of Philofophy, 
andeaiichirtitovnderftand that himfclfe efteeracd 
it nioie to excell other men in Learning and know- 
ledge, rhanin power an J Empire. Andwhatvfehc 
had of leaf ning,dothappeare,or rather fhine in al his 
fpcechcs and ar.lweres,being kill of iciencc and vfe of 
fciercc,and that in alWariety, 

An.1 herein a gaific , it may fceme a thing fchola- 
ftirallandlorn'rW' hat icilc to recite thingfs that euery 
xnanknowcth ^ but yet^fipxe the argumcn I handle 
I'sdcth mcc the cunto 3 lamg'ad that men (hall 
pcrc^^uic 1 am as wiHi-ig to flatter (if they will fo 
ca i i.)an Alex iOiUrpx kC^fir^ox ^n Amoninw ^ that 
arcd(ad many hundred ytaresfince, asarythat 
no.v iiu t. :for it is ih3 drpl.^yi ig of the glory 
of Learning in Soucraigntic that 1 propound to 
rny fc te, and no* an humour of d^c'ayming in any 
mansprayks. Obfctii^ then the fpeech hec vfcdof 
Diogenes , and (cc if ir tend not to the true eftate of 
one of the grearcftqucftions of moral! Philofophy 5 
whether the cnioying of outward things , .or the 
contemning of them be thcgreatcft happinefle '".for 
w.hmheefa'.v D/<:'^/«fj-ro pcrfed'yconreadcd v/.ith 
fo little : hce fayd thofe chat aiocked at his condi-. 
ticm : Were I not Alexander , ./ would wifh to be Txkge^ 
»ifi-.But Seneu rnucrteth i^and fayth^/-'/^ entyquoi 
hicml(t JiCcipcre.qtHm q^nii'tlUpJ^et d.ire:There -were 
mor^ things nhch P/oge/,es.wouid haue rejufed ythm 

K 2 thoft 

74 0/ ^^^ dduancement of Learning. 

thofe vcere r^hichJlexm^sr ceuUk^negtHen or eniojed^, 
Obferuc againc that (pecch which was vfuall with 
liim , Thu he felt his mortality chief tly tnfwo thimes^ 
Sleepeand Lu/i.-nnd fee ii it were not a fpi-ech exrra- 
Ctcd our of the depth of n iturall P ilgfop'iy ^and U^ 
kcr to iiaiie cojtxiioiu of the moutrLoi Arijlotle^ or 
Democr/tf^Sjih^'^ from Alfxi.ider. 

Sec againc thar fpccch of Humanity and poefic; 
when vpon the bicedirg of nis wounds, hecaihd vn- 
to him one of his flattGrcrs.thar was wont toafcribe 
to him dkiinc iionorjand [RidjLooke^thi^u very hloodi 
this ii mtfuch l(quor a^ Homerfpeakech of^ which ran 
from yenus hand^ixhen itvcai fierce d by Diomedes. 

Seelikewife liis readincfle iii icprchcnfion of Lo- 
gique 5 in the frcech hee vfcd to Caf cinder , vpon a 
complaint that was made againfi his father ^/i/z^^^cfr: 
for when ^■^/d'Ar^A?<^^r happed to fav iDoe yomhinke 
thefe mtn ytould haue ceme fromf^farre to comj)Ui}'ie^ 
except they h^d inficatife ofgrkfc ? a nd Cafander :\\-\' 
fwered , Tc x -. that yva4 the matter^ bccatfe they thomkt 
they fhould K€t be di[projued '^ faide /^Icxx/jdcrlauti^h- 
ing : See thefukilties ef yirifotlejio take a raattcr both 
•p^ayeSy Pro & Contra^ O'C, 

But note againe how well hee cowld vfe the fame 
Arc, which hcc reprehended to feru* his owne 
humor,wheQ bearing afccrct grudge to Cjil/ifihe^es^ 
bccaufc hec was againft the new ceremony of his a- 
doration '.fcaftingone aight, where the fame Cal/i/i' 
henes was at the table : it was mooued by fome after 
fwpperjfor eBtertaincment iakc, that Call fjlhe^^ who 


Thefrfi^ooJ^. 75 

^as an eloquent man, m ight (peake of fbme theame 
or piirpofe at his owne choife^which CdHijthcmes didj 
clnifing the praifc of the Macedonian Nation for his 
difco»tre,and performing the fanr^c with fo good ma- 
ncr, as cIjC hearers were much rauillied : where vpon 
jlcx mder iiotlii: g p c.i(cd/avd.7/n'/^ enfietohielo' 
qtiernvfon^G good ajubteoi : But laith hce^Tttrneyoar 
Ji demand lei vs he are v:hM)ou can fay agaynfivs'^N\i\ch 
CAUiflhen^s prefcnily vndertookej and did with that 
flinge and lifci that AleycArtder interrupted hinrij and 
fayd : Thfgoodnejfe of the cauft ntide him eloquent hs* 
fore \ahd cLcfp^n mddt him eloquent theuagatKe, 

Confider further, for troopcs of Rhctorique, th^ 
excellent vfc of a Metaphor or tranflation, where- 
with he taxed Ant: filer ^ who was an imperions and 
tyrannous Gouernour ; for when one of Anttfaters 
friends comendcd him lo Alexander for his modera» 
tion ; that he did not degenerate, as his other Liefte- 
nants did into tJ ic Perfian pride, in vie of purple j but 
kept tiic ancient habit of Maccdon of blackc j True 
(faith Alexander)yut A/itifAterUaUfurflerfitkinSdl 
that other5whcn farwenio came to him in the plainc 
o^ArbeUd. , and flic wed him the innumerable malti- 
tudc of his cncmicsjefpecially as they appcrcd by the 
ji, finite number of lights; as it had bcene a new fir- 
mament of Aarres ; and thereupon aduifed hini to 
aflaylc them by night. -where vpon he aniwcrcd^ That 
he vpouldnotflealethe Victory . 

For matter ef policy ,weigh that fignificant diftin- 
dion fo much in all ages cmbraced,that he made bc- 

K 3 twecnc 

7^ Of the aduancement of I earnings 

twecBC his two friends Ephejfion and Cntsrud^ uhcn 
he (aydjThat thesffe /oued Alcxander^And the other lo" 
uedtheKwg ; defcribing the prindpall dilfere' ice of 
Piinccsbeilferuants, that f)racin affedion loae 
their perfbnjand other in ducty lone their crowne. 
Weigh alfo that excellent taxrit'on of an Erout 
ordinary with Coiincellors of Princes, that they 
counfdl their Ma iftcrs according to rhemodcll of 
their owne mind and fortune ^ and not of dieir Ma- 
imer s, when vpon Derim great off: rs Parmemo\\^<i 
{ay d:Surely^ivpould accept thf^p offers were I .ts Aie^u 
4»der:iayih 4UxAndcrfo muU I were I m VArmenio, 
' LatllyjWc^i^h r^at quicke and acure reply , 
hcc made wheiihce gauc fo iarg?^ gifts to his friends, 
and fcruaifts,and was asked vvhat hce did tefcruefar 
himfclfj,af id he anfwcrcd,f/i9/>(f: Weigh as I fay,whe- 
thcr he had not caftvp his account aright, b-caufc 
Hii^^^muflbcetheportionof all that refolus vpon 
great «ntcrprifes. For this wai Cc/jtr/ portion, when 
he went firft into GauIc , his cftue then vttcr- 
ly ©uer thrownc with LargclTc : and this was like* 
wife the portion of that noble Ptince, howfocuep 
tranfpotted with ambition , Htnry Duke of Guife^ 
ofwhom it was vfually fayd ; that he was the grcar- 
efl Vfurcr in Fmnnce^ becaufe hce had turned all his 
cftatc into obligations. 

To conclude therefore 5 asccrtaiMCr/tf^ues arc 
vfed to fay hyperbo'ically : Thatif d(i Sciences were 
lojfjthejf might h. e found m Vifgt'U: So certaineiy this 
may bccfayU truely \ there arc the prints^and foote- 

The fir ft "Bookel 77 

flc^t of Learning in thofc few fpccchts \ which are 

reported of this Prince, The idmiration of whom, 
when I Gonfider him^not as Alexander the Greatjbut 
as ArijtetUs Scholler, hath carryed mc too farrc. 

As for lultm C^r^thc excellency of his learning^ 
Bcedcrih not to be argued from his education, or his 
company , or his fpceches : but in a further degree 
doth declare it felfc in his writinges and workes, 
whereof fbme are extant , and permanent, and {bmc 
vntorcunarely perifhed ; For^firft wee (ee there is left 
vnto vs that excellent Hiftorie of his ownc wanes, 
which hec entiuilcd oncly a Commentary, wherein 
all ftcceeding times haue admired the folide weight 
o\ niatter-and the real paflagcs5and liuely Images of 
actions, and pcrfons exprefled inthe greaieft pro- 
priety of words, and perfpicuity of Narration that 
cucr was:which that it was not the efifed of a naturall 
guift,but of Learning and precept, is well witnefled 
by that worke of his, intituled De Anaiogia , bei»g a 
grammatical! Philofophy, wherein hec did labour to 
make this fame Vox Ad-pUatum , to become y^x ad 
licHum ; and to reduce cuftorac ©f fpeechjto congrui- 
tie of fpeech , and tooke as it were the pidure of 
wordesjfrom the life ofieafon. 

Soweereceiuc from him as a Monument, both 
of his power and Learning, the then reformed com- 
putation of the yeare,well expreffing, that hee tooke 
it to bee as great a glory to himfeife, to obferue and 
know the law of the Hcaucns , as to giue law to men 
vpon the cartli. 


j% Of the aduancement of Learmng, 

So likcwife in thacbookc o[\-.\SK^mic4t9, it may 
cafily appearc thai he didafpirc as well to vidory of 
vvir, as vi6tory of warre : vndertaki^g therein a cori- 
ilx1: agaiiii^ the greatcft Chair.pion wich the pen cbac 
then liued, Ckero the Orator. 

So againe in this Bookc o^Apoihegmes^ which hcc 
collciflcd 5 wccfec that heecfteemcd ic more honor 
to make himfelfe, but a paire of Tables , to take the 
wife and pithy words of others , thaw to haue cuery 
word of his owne to be made an Apo:hcgme , or an 
Oracle ; asvaine Princes, by cuftovne of flattery^ 
pretend to doe. And yet if 1 fhould einnnerarc di- 
ueifc of his fpceches j as I did thofc of JUxa.ffder, 
they arc truely fuchas Sdomon noteth, when hee 
iay th J VirbufAftentum ta?jqu&m Aculei , ^ tanqnam 
e/auJ fff d/tftrndefixi j^hcr€oi'i will oncly reccite three 
not fo delegable for cicgancic , but admirable for 
vigor and efficacy. 

As firft , ic is rcafon hec bee thought a Mafler of 
words 3 that could with one word appeafo a mutiny 
in his Army ; which was thus. The Romanes when 
theic Generals did fpeake in their Army, did vfe the 
word MilHcs\ but when the Magistrates fpake to the 
pcopfc, they did vfe the words, Qujrhes : The Souf- 
diers Were in tumult, and fed it ioufly prayed to bee 
caHficrcd : not that they Co meant, but by cxp adula- 
tion thereof, to drawc Cx/ar to oiher Conditions ^ 
wherein hee being refolutc, not to giuc way , after 
lomefiience, hee began his fpcech, EgoOuinus^ 
which did admit then already cailKrcd ; where- 

ThefrJl'BooJ^^ y^ 

with they were fo furprizedjCrofTed, and conftifcdjas 
they would not fuffcr him to go on in his fpccch, buc 
rclinquifbed their dcmaunds, and made it their fuit, 
to be sgaync called by the name oi Milttes, 

The (econd fpccch was thus : Cd>fAr did cxtrcamc- 
ly Zi^cCi the name of King ; and f^mc were fct on as 
he paflcd by , in popular acclamation to faliitc him 
King J whereupon finding the cry wcakc and poorc; 
he put it off thus, in a kind of Icft^as if they had mif* 
taken his furnamcs Non Rexfitm^f:dCafjir,3i fpccch, 
that if it be fearched, the life and fulnelTc of it , can 
fcarca be cxprclTed : For fir ft it was a rcfufall of the 
name , but yet not fcrious ; agaync it did fignifie an 
infinite confidence and magnanimity , as if he pre- 
fumed Ca/ar was the greater Title; as by his wor* 
thincflejit is come to pafleltill this day ; but chiefly, 
it was a fpeech of great allurement toward his owne 
purpofc: as if the State did f^riue with him, but for 
a name; whereofmcanc families were vcfted doxPjM 
was a furname with the Rommftes , afwcll as King is 
with vs. 

The lafl fpsechjwhich I will mention , was vfed 
to MeteUui : when C^r, after War declared , did 
poflcfTe himfelfe of the City of Rome , at which 
time entring into the inner Treafury, to take 
the money there accumulate, Meuilut becing 
Tribune forbad him : Whcicio C<«/4rfayd, T'^if 
// hee dtd not deft/} ^ hee muld lay hm d^adin (h(LJ 
places : And prefcntly taking himfelfe vp, hcc 
added ; Toungmmitishifdnformeto fpeAk<L^it^ 

L th4f$ 

So"' Of the aduancement ofkarningy 

ihAntodoit : Adolsfcem^dur'tuseUmi'm^ hoc dicer c^ 
qnum facere, A fpcech compounded of the grcaceft 
cerrour, and grcateft ckn-jcncy, that could proceeds 
out of the mouth of man, ' 

But to returneand Conclude with him , it is cui- 
denr hitiifcHc knew wdi 'his owne perfdion m 
lc;arning,and tooke it vpon l.-'ai ; asappcared, wh.n 
vpoiToccafion 5 that fomc ipatcjwhat a flrange leib- 
ludon it was in Lkcyur Syl/ji^^ to tcfigne his Didature: 
he Iceffing at himjto his ovrne aduantagCjanfvvered: 
That SjUa could not skiii oj LeiUrs^und therefore knew 

And iiere it were lit to leaue this poynt,t6uGhing 
the concurrence of military Vcrtucap*d Learning: 
(for what example fliouid come with nny grace , at- 
tcr thofe two ^ of Alexmder and C^pfdr) M'ere it not 
in regard of the rarcncfle of Circumilanc<? , that i 
fiadc in one odier particular ; asthit which didfb 
fuddainly pafle/rom extrcamc fcornc , tocxtreame 
wonder: and it is of Xenopkon the PhyJofoph^ir^who 
went from 5^fr^/^jSchooie into Afia^ iiuhe expe- 
dition of Cyrnw the younger, agaynft King Artdx- 
irxes : This X^;?^/'^^^? at th3ttime,vvas very young, 
andncucthad feenc the Wars before: ncythct 
had any commaund m the Army, but onely follow- 
ed the War, a? a Voluntary, forthcloucandcon- 
uerfation of Proxemus his Friend : hce was prcfcnt 
when Fdli»us came in Meflage from the great King, 
to the GucUns 5 after that Cyrus was (layne in the 
^dd J aad they a handful! of men left to thcnofelucs 


rhef.rft Tcv{e. gt 

In the middeftofche Kings TerritorieSjCut off froai 
their Country by many nHuigablcRiticrs, and many 
hundred-miles :,The Mcllagcimporced^ that they 
fiioulddcliusrvpthcjr Armes, and fubmit thcm- 

' fellies CO the Kings mercy:To which Meffage before 

^'^fwere was madc^diuers of the Army conferred fa- 
miliarly mih F.t/im4S ; ?.nd amongft the reft Z<?/?6'- 

ph^fjhapncdtq Gy:why FAliffus^we hauenavel^Hlthefe 
two things left ; our Armss^xnA our J^ertue ^ andffv:)5 

yeeld vp our Armes^how pjill vpe make vfe of our Ver- 
fft/.?WhcrcCo FAlmus fmiling on himjaidj^/fo/w^ 
deceiuedj young Gentltrnen^ you are An Mherjianytndl 
heleeuc^ youftudy Philpfophy , ^ndit is pretty that f$ti 

fdj -J hut yoti are much abufed^ if you thhike your Verttti 
can mthHand the Kmgs power i Here was the fcornc 5 
the wonder followed^ which was, that this young 
Scholler , or Phylpfopher , after all the Captaynes 
were murchercd in parly by Treafon , Condii<5ted 
thofe ten Thoufand footc , through the heart of all 
the Kings high Count ryes from B&iylon to Qrccia in 
fafety , in defpight of all the Kings forces, to the a- 
ftoniibmentoftheworld, and the encouragement 
of the Grecians in times fuccccding , to !i>ake intia- 
fion vpon the King^ of Per fit \ as was after purpofed 
by Ufon the Theffalian 5 attempted by Jgepkus the 
Spartan 5 and atchieucd by Alexander the Mace- 
donian 5 alljVpon the ground of the a(5t of that yong 

To procecdc now from Imperiall and Military 
vcrtuc, to xMorall and priuate vcrtus jfirft, it is an at 

L 2 " ' fureJ 

Sx Of the adumctment of Learnings 

Hired truth , which is contayncd in the Vcrfes ; 
Sctl'tcettngenti.ti aidicifje fideliterartes^ 

BmoU'tt mores ncc fintt ej^efcros^ 
It rakcth away the wildnelTcjand Barbarifme and 
'fiercencfleofmensmindubut indeed the accent had 
heed be M^n^fdeltter, For a litdc fiiperficiall lear- 
ning doth rather vvorke a contrary efFcd. It taketh 
away a!I lenity, temerity , and infolency , by copi- 
ous fiiggeflion of all doubts and difficulties, and 
acquainting the minde to ballance reafons on both 
iidcs 3 and to turne backe the firft offers and con- 
ccitcs of the minde, ai'id to accept of nothing but 
examined and trycd. It taketh away vayne ad- 
miration of any thing, which is theRooccof all 
Wcakcneffc , For all things are admired, cythcr be- 
caufc they arc new , or becaufe they are grcar. For 
noueltyjno man that wadeth in Icarnijig or contem- 
plation throughly , but will find thac Printed in his 
heart J Nil miiiftifcr terrdm : Neythcr can any man 
maruaylc at the play of Puppets, that goeth behind 
thcCurtayne,andaduireth well of theMption. And 
for Magnitude, siS\^/exa;tder the Great, after 
that hce was vfcd to great Armies, and the great 
Conqucfts of the fpacious Prouinces in C^Jia, 
when bee recciued Letters out of Greece , offome 
fights and fcruiccs there, which were commonly 
fcr a paflage, or a Fort, orfomewalJcdTowne 
at the woft , hcc layd : hfeemed to him, that hee wai 
ddtterfffed of the Bdttai/es of the Frogs ^ and the Mife^ 

•^ So 

ThefirflTBool^. 85 

Socertaynely , if a man meditate vppon chc 
Vniuerfall frame oi Nature , the earth with men 
vppon it ( the Diuineflc oribulcs except ) will noc 
feemc much other, than an Anthill, whereas 
fome Ants carry Come, and fomc carry their yong : 
and fbmc goe empty 3 and all too and fro, alittic 
heapcofDiift. Jt takcthaway, or mitigatcch 
fcare of Death, or aduerfe Fortune : which is one 
of the greateft impediments ofVertue, and im- 
pcrfedions of manners. F or if a mans mindc bee 
deepcly feafoncd with the confidcration of the 
mortality and corruptible nature of things , he wii 
earjy concurre with Epicietus , who went forth one 
day, and law a Woman weeping for her Pitcher 
of earth, that was broken^ and went foorth the 
n'wXt day, and faw a Woman weeping for her 
Sonne that was Dead , and ihcreuppon iayde .- 
Heri , vidi fra^Hemfra?tgi , hodiz^ v'tdt moruUm 
moru And therefore ^/r^i/ did excellently, and 
profoundly couple the Knowledge of caufc, and 
the Conquefl of all feares, together, as Con- 

Fosltx qHtfoWt rerum cegnofcere caufasy , 

Qui(pie mttu f omms^ c^ inexorayUefatum ? 

Suhiecapedibus^ ftrepitumque Acber^mU aftars. 
It wecre too long to goe ouer the particular reme- 
dies, which Learning doth Minifter, ,toaIlthc di- 
fcafesof thcminde, Ibmctimcs purging the ill hu- 
mours , fonietimcs opening the obffiudions, fome- 
tinics helping Digcftion, fomctimes cncreafing 

L 3 appetite^ 

$4 Qfthe^duanCe^t^intofXearriin^, 

appcriic, fometimcs healing tne tvound ^ivA exu-cc- 
■■ rations thereof, and the like •, and tiKrefore I will 
Conclude Avith thac- v«/hich liatli R^thncpstotmsi, 
^vhich is ,^ that it difpafetlnhcGon^itijnbn of the 
minde,^dt'tO'i!K; fi^^d 6r i<?tkd^^*^he'defe(51lthc^c- 
pf 5 biiffiiil to be capabia^nd Infcept ihle of growrh 
a-nd Reformatioti. Far the vhl earned men Icnow^s 
' nor^whatic is to Mccnd into hii-nreIfc,or to cal him- 
fclfe to accoimt:^ nor the plea ftireof that 5«if»/^/w^ 
Vitdj indks pnineje fieri meliorem : Tfic good parrs 
hee hath , 'hee^^iii learn e to Thc^^v to the full, and vfe 
them dextcroufly 5 t)L!tnotmu€h toencrcafe rhctri * 
- The faults he h^th 5 hecH'iil!e^rnchovr ro hide and 
'tolourihem , bin not iMuchroarhctid them 'like an 
ill Mower, that mowc> on fttll^and neuer whets his 
Syth : whereas, with the learned man, it fares other- 
wife 5 that he dotbeiier intermix the corre(3:ionaiid 
amc*ilt«ctlt€^f his rhinde, with the vie afnd employ- 
e^ent thereof: Nay further in gcncrali and in Turn : 
tcrtaitJt it is,that f^i^rftit^and Bomtas difiPersbut^is the 
i 'Sealeand the PriHt r for Triith pritits Goodneffe, 
^nd they be the clbudes of Error, which descend in 
the ftormes of palfions and petturbatioris. 

For Mo£aii^vertue 5^ kt vs pafTe on to matter of 
power and commahdcinent , and confider whether 
in right Rcafon, there be any comparable with thar, 
<vrherc-with Knowledge inucfteth and Crowncth 
- ^ inans nature. We fee the dignity of the Co mman- 
deracnt, is according to the dignity of the Com- 
mjtundcd : t© haHecommaundment ouer Beafts, as 


"The frfl "Book. 2^ 

iicsrd-rrcn naue , is a thing GoniempiuiC : to hauc ., 
commaundnienc oucr Chi'drenjas Schoolc-n^afleis 
hauc, is a m:^tcer offm..!! honor : co haue comri:)aGd- 
ment oucr Gallv-flaues, is a difparagcnifent ^ rather 
than an honour. Ncyiher is the commaundmcnt 
of Tyrants, Biuch better oucr. pcop!ei, which hauc 
put otfthe Generelity. of their mindes: And there-;, 
fore it was cuer holden , that honors in free Monar- . 
chies and Common-wealth€s,had a fwcetncfle more 
than in Tyrannies , bccauiethccommaundmcntex- 
tcndcih more ouer tlie wils of men^and nor onely o- 
iicr thc'r duedcs and fcruiccs. And therefore when 
i^/r^// pucteth himfelfe fonh to attribute to^//^»y7j^j 
C^.3ythebcft of humane honours, hee doth it in 
thcie words ; 

Perpnpulos^ daitura^ vian^que effeciat Olympoi^ 
But yet thecommaundmcnc of Knowledge j is 
yet higher , than the commandment oucr the wjll ; 
for it is a commaundment ouer the realon , beloefc, 
and vnderftanding of man, which is the higheft part 
of theminde^and giueth law to the will it fclfc. For 
there is no power on caith, which fcttcth aThronc 
or Chayrc of Eftatc in ihe fpirits and foules of men, 
and in their cogiiations^ifpqgin^iioHSjOpinions^nd 
beleefes ; but Knowledge and Learning, And th.ercs*' 
fore wee lee the dejcftablc ar.d cxtrearoc pleafurc, 
that Arch-hcrctiques,and falfc Prophets^ and Impo- 
ftorsate tranrported with , when they once findein 
ihcmfelucs/that they hauc a fuperiority m the faith 


8 6 Of the dduancemmt of Learning] 

and Ccxifciencc of men 5 fo great, as if they hauc 
once taftcd of it 3 it is fcldome feenc , that any tor- 
nireorperrecmioncanmakcthcin relinquifb or a- 
bandon it. But as this is that which the Author of 
iheRcuclation, calleth the depth or pro foundnefle 
of Sathan : fo by argument ofcontrancs,rhe iuftand 
lawfull Soucraigncty ouci mens vndcrftanding , by 
force of truth righdy interpreted, is that vchicjfi" 
approachcthneercftto thefimihtude of the Diuine 

As for fortune and aduanccmcnt, the beneficence 
of Ictining, is not (b confined to giue fortuae onely 
to States and Common-wca!ths;as it doth not like- 
wife giue Fortune to particular perfons. For it was 
well noted longagoc, that //bw/rr hath giucn more 
men their liuings^than eyther Syl/a^ or Cajfkr^ or Au- 
gufiuscuct did, notwithftanding their great lar- 
gefleSj and donatiues5and diftributions of Lands to 
fo many lcgions,And no doubt,it is hard to fay, whe- 
ther armes or learning haue aduanced greater num- 
bers^ And in cafe of Soueraignty , wee fcCjthat if 
atmes or dcfccnt haue carried away the Kingdome : 
yet learning hath carryed the Prieft-hood, which c- 
uer haue beenc in fbme competition with Empire. 

Agaiiic,for the plcafure and delight of knowledge 
and I«arning,it far furpafleth all other ia nature : for 
^l the pleafures of the affcdiions Co exceed the plca- 
furesof the fences , as much as the obtayning of de- 
firc or Victory, exccedeth a fong, or a dinner ? and 
muftnotofconfcqucnce, the pleafures of the intel- 

Thefirfl "Booke. 8y 

led: or vnderflanding excecdc the pleafurcs of the 
affedions ? we fee in all other plealures , there is a 
facietie 5 and after they be vfcd,thcir verdour dcpar- 
teth 5 which (bsweth well , they be but deceits of 
plca(urc,and not plcafures ; and that it was the no- 
ucltie which pleafedjand not the quality. And there* 
fore we fee , that voluptuous men turne Friars 5 and! 
ambitious Princes turne melancholy. But of know- 
ledge there is no Glc'i cty , but tatiftadion and appe- 
tite, arc perpetually interchangeable; and therefore 
appeareth to be good in it felfe fiinply, without fal- 
lacicot accident. Neither is ihatpleafurcof fmall 
cfficacie , and contentment to the minde of man, 
which the VoziLucretiai dcfcribeth elegandy, 
Suaue mart 'ffjagKOyturbant/l»^ liquor a ventis^^c. 
Itii a viewoj del;ght{C^\th he) to ft and or walkz vp- 
pon the (hoare fide ^ a»d to fee a ship to [fed mth temps ft 
vpon thefea y or to ^e in a, fortified Tower , and to fee 
tvpo Battailes ioyne vpon apUine , But it is a pleafitre 
incomp-irAhle for the mtnde of mm to hefetled^ landed^ 
and fortified in the certainty oftruth-^ And from thence 
to defer ie and beheld the errors ^perturbations^ Uboars^ 
and Wanderings vp and downe of other men, 
. Laftly5'eauing the vu'gar argumentSjthat by lear- 
ning, manexceilechmanintiiat 3 wherein man ex- 
cellech beafts ; that by Learning man afccndetluo 
the hcaucns and their motions ^ where in body he 
canfiotcoaicjand the likcj Let vs conclude with the 
digniiy an<a excellency of Knowledge and Learning, 
in iluLwhereunto mans nature doth moft afpire^ 

M which 

SS Of the aduancement of Learning. 

which is immortality or continuance 5 for to this 
tcndeth generation, and rayfing of houfcs and fami- 
lies 5 to this rendetb buildfngs^foundation^jand mo» 
numents'o this cenderh the dcfirc of memory ,fame> 
and celebrationiand in tffj<5t,the (Irength oFa! other 
humane dcfitcs ; wee fee then how farxhe monu- 
mcntsofwit and learning, are more durable , than' 
the monuments of powerjOr of rh^ hands. For haue- 
not the Verfcs oi Homer continued 25. hundred 
yeares , or more ^ without the Jofle of a fyllable, or- 
ktter .-during vv'hich time , infinite Pallaces , Tem- 
ples, Caft!cs, Cities haue becne decayed,and demo- 
lilljcd ? It is not pofiible to haue the true pidurcs or 
ftatuaes of Cyrus , Alexandet , Cefar^^o nor of the 
Kings J or great Pcrfbnagcs of much latter yeares .' 
For the originals cannot h'ik-^ x.v^ the Copies cannot 
but leefe of the life and truth. But thelmacesof 
menswitsand knowledges rcmayne inBookcs, ex- 
empted from the wrong of time^and capable ofper- 
pctuall rcnonacion : Neyther are they iitly to be cal- 
led Images, bccaufe they generate ftill, and caft their 
icedes in the mindcs of othei s , pi ouoiwing ^rA cau- 
(Ing infinite anions and opinions, in fuccceding a^cs. 
So that if the inuention of theShippe was thought 
ib noble 3 wnichcarryeth riches and commodities 
from place to place, and confociateth thcmoft re- 
mote Regions in participation of their Fruites : how 
much more arc ktters to bee magnified , which as 
Sbippcs pafTc through the vaft Seas of rime , and 
fsiake ages fo diftant^to participate of the wiledomcj 


The firjl'Boeks. %9 

illuminationsand inuentions the one of the other? 
Nay further wee fee , fome of the Phylofophcrs 
which were Icaft diuine, and moft i mmcrfcd in the 
fences^and dcnycd generally the immortality of the 
foiile ; yet came to this poynt,that whatfpeuer mo- 
tions the fpirit of man could adt, and pciformc 
without the Organs of the body^ they thought 
mig'u remayne after death 5 which were onc!y thole 
ofthevndetftanding, and not of the nff^dion 5 (b 
immortalland incorruptible a thing did knowledge 
feeme vnto them to be ; But wee that know by diuine 
Reuelation , that nor oncly the vndcrftandiog , but 
the affedions purified, not onelythcfpirite, but 
the body changed fhall be aduanccd to immortality^ 
doe difclayme in thcfe rudTmcnts of chc fcnfes. 
But it mufl: be remcmbred, both in thislaftpoynt, 
and fo it may likewife bee needefull in other places, 
that in probation of the dignity of Knowiedge , or 
Learning, I did in the beginning feparate Diuine 
tcf^imony, from humane 5 which Mediod, I hauc 
puifucd, and fo handled thorn bo:h a parr. 

Neuerchelcde , I doe not pretend^ and I kaow ft 
will be impoflible for me by any Pleading of mine, 
to reuerfe the ludgemcnr , eyrhcr o^^yf-fops Cocke, 
that preferred the Barly-corne, before the Gcnime; 
or of MU^ts ^ that being chofenludge, bctwccne 
Apollo Prefident of the Mufes , and ?,/» God of the 
Flockcs, iudged for Plenty : or of 7-^r^, that inde- 
ed for Beauty, and loueagaynf^ VVifcdomcand' 
Power : Ovo'i Agrippma^Occidat marem^modo iTH' 

M 2 pent I 

p<D Of the aduancement of Learning, 

^eret'.that preferred Empire with any condition nc- 
uer To deteftabic ^ or ofr/jjfes, Qni vetulamfrcetuUt 
immortAlitatiy being a figure ofthofe which prcferrc 
Cuftome and HabJtc before all excellency; orofa 
nunaberof thelikc popular ludgcmcnts. For thefc 
things muft continue , as they haue bene : but 
fo will that alfo coniinue^wherupow Lear- 
ning harh eucr relied, and which 
failcth not: Ju/itficata eftfn* 




. of Sir Francis ^acqn-^ of tlicpro- 
ficienceor AduaacemcncofLcar- . ^ 

A?/^^ , Dmine a»d Humane, -jq;:j . ^obs- 

To the King. 

|T might fccmcto haucmorcconuc- 
1 nicnce^ though k come often other- 
wife to paflc, ( Excellent King ) that 
, thofc which are fruitful! in their gc- 
lncration$,and hauc in tbemfelues the 
forcfighc of Immortality,tn their dc- 
fccndcnts, (hould hkcwifc be more carcfull of the 
good eftate of future times ; vnto which t^icy know 
they muft tranfmittc and commend oucr their dec- 
reft pledges. Quccne £//^4^^//& was a foionrncr in 
the World inrcfpe^ of her vnmaricd life : and was 
a blcfllng to her owne times ;and yet fo as the impre- 
flion of her good Gouernemcnt, bcfidcshcr happy 

M 3 mejDoric, 

px Of the aduancem^nt of Learning, 

mcmoric , h not without fomc cffcdi , which doth 
fumiue her. But to your Maicfty, whom God bath 
alrcadybleffcdwith fo much Royall ifTiie , worthy 
to continue and rcprefcnc you for cuer : and whofe 
youthfull and fruitriill bcddc doth ycc promiie ma- 
ny the-likcjaiocations: It is proper and agVccablc 
to bee conuerfant^noc onely in che tranfuory part of 
good goucrnemcnt but in thofc ads alio, which arc 
in their nature pctmanent and perpctnall. Amongft 
the which (ifaffiidiioM doe noc franfbott noee,)rherc 
is not any more worthy , then the f ui tbcr endowe- 
mentof the world which iound -^wd fuitfull know- 
ledge: For why fhould a fewe receiued Authors 
ftand vp like Hercules Celfimes -^hcyon^ which, there 
{bould be no fayling,or diicoueringjfince wee hauc 
fo bright and benigne a ftarre, as your Maiefly : to 
condu(5fcandprofpervs ? Toturne therefore where 
wee leftjicremaincthto confider of what kind thofc 
Ads are which haue beenc vndertaken , and perfor- 
med by Kings and others , for the increafc and ad« 
uanccment of learning, wherein I purpofe to fpcakc 
adiucly without digrefling or dylating. 

Let this ground therefore bee laydjthat all workes 
arcoucrcommcn by amplitude of rewardjby found- 
nefle ofdifedion, and by the coniun^tbn of labors. 
The firft mulciplycth cndcauour, the fccond preuen- 
tcth error,and the third fupplieth the frailery of man. 
But the principall oftbcle is dirc<S^ion;For Claudusm 
v'iA^ Antciitftn cur for em extra viar» : And Salomon 
excclJcDtly fettcth it downcj if the iron he not Jharfe^ 


it requireth more fir en^h : But mfedome id that rphich 

freu&tUth : fignifying that thclnucntionordcdion 
of thcMeane, is rriOre effcduall then any inforcc- 
mcnt or accumulation of endeuours , This I am in- 
duced tofpcake; for that ( not derogating from the 
noble intention of any that haue bc^ne defcruers 
towards the State of Learning ) I doobferuc neuer- 
tbclefle 3 that their workes and Ads arc rather mat- 
ters of Magnificence and Memoric, then of pro* 
grcfiion and proficicnce, and tendc rather to aug- 
ment the maiTc of Learning in the multicade of 
Learned meti , then to tcd'ficor raifc the Sciences 

The VVorkes or- Ads of merit towards Learning 
are conucrfant about three obicds , the Places of 
Learnings the Bookes of Learning ; and tkc Perfons 
of the L^atned.For as water ,whcther it be the dew of 
Heaucn^or the fprings of the Earth, doth fcattcr and 
Icefe it fclfe in the ground, except it be collc(^cd in- 
to fome Reccptacle^wherc it may by vnion, comfort 
and fuftainc it fclfe: And for thatcaufethelndu- 
ftrie of Man hath made and framed Spring-heads, 
Conduits, Cefternesj and Poolcs , which men haue 
accudomed hkevvifc to beautifle and adorne with 
accomplifhments of Magnificence and State,as well 
Rsofvfeand neceflitie: So this excellent liquor of 
Knowledge , whether icdcfccnd from diuine infpi- 
ratioHj or fpring from humane fence , would fbone 
pcrifh and vanifli to obliuion, if it were not pre- 
fcrued in Bookes, Traditions ^ Confescnccs , and 


9 4- Of the aduancem^nt of Learnings 

places appointed , as Vniucr{iues,ColIedgcs, and 
SchooleSjfor the receipt and comforting of the lame* 
The wo rkcs which conccrnctbe Seatcsand Pla- 
ces of Lcatmng, arc fourcj Foundations, and Buil- 
dings, Fndowments with Reuenewcs^Endowmeiits 
with Branch izes and Priuiledges, Inrtitutions and 
Ordinances for goucrnement , all tending to quiet- 
ncflcand priuatenciTe of life , and difcharge of cares 
and troubles , much like the Stations , which Firgil 
prcfcribeth for the hiuing of Bccsy 

PriffC/fio Cedes Api^fi>s^ftatto^petenLt: 
Quo ne^ lit ventii adntts, d^c. 
The workes touching Bookcs are two : Firft Li- 
braries, v?hich are as the Shryncs , where all the Re- 
liqucs of the atitient Saints, full of true vertue^ and 
that without dclufion or impojfture, ai''c preferued^ 
and Tcpofed; Secondly , Ntw Editions of Authors, 
with more correct imprefTions ^moEe faiihfuljtrafif- 
lations , more pioEtable gloflcs, more diligent An- 
notations, and the like. 

The workes pertaining to the perfons of Learned 
mcn(bcfidcsthc aduanccment and countenancing 
of them in genctail )arc two : The reward and de- 
fignation ofRcadcis of Sciences already extant and 
inuented:and the reward an-i dcfignation of Wri- 
ters and Enquirers , concerning aay parts of Lear- 
ning, not fuAciently laboured and profecuted. 

■fhcfe arc fummarilie the Workes and Ades, 
wherein the merites of manie excellent Princes, 
and other worthie Perfonagcshauc beenc conuer- 


fant. As for any particular commemorations , I^call 
to mindc what C/cero iayd , when hee gaue gencrall 
tl^ankl. Vf/^fik non aliqu^m-^ifi gratum qHeKqita?^^r£'> 
terireil^^i vs rath^i? accptdipg tpthc, Scfipjurcf, 
looke ypt<? thq -paxte^of the Race , whi^h i* ^§fpre 
vs 5 then looke backc to that which is already attai- 

^^^'. ■ ; 'u;i. ...'/ 

Firft thcreforic amongft fo many great Foundati- 
ons of Collcdges in Europe^ I findc ftrangc that they 
arc all .^edicaicd to Pr^tcinons, and none left free CO 
Artes and Science at laig^ For if men iudgc fhiat 
learning fhou^d bee referred toa(5licns , they iudgc 
well ; but in this they faH into the Error defer ibc^ 
in the ancient Fable j in which the other parts of ehe 
body did fiippc?fe .he ftomachc hadbecneydle, bc- 
taiiie it ncythcr performed the office of Motion , as 
thelymmosdoe^ i:orofScnce,'as the headrj^th; 
But ycc notwi:htlanding it is the Scomachtfet di- 
gefteth and ditiributcthtp all the reft ; So ilany man 
thinke Philofophy and V.niucrfality to.beeJdJc Stu- 
dies 5 hce do^h not cor4.deT that %\\ p^gffions ace 
from ihcnccfrrued.andfppplyed* ;Ahd thi$ 1 take 
to bre a gtya: caufe that hath hindered the progtef- 
fcQn 9/^jqqirning jbf c? ij(e xhnh B^ndamcntail; knoiv- 
w.ii(,hi^a,Tj?ee-,b^M^ ^,m% fluif c Itkniii^iHtk vied 
tcdo^i^ t?i not any-^hing you cati do ro the bougbes, 
bi|i;it,i4tlv;;ilirFing<>f thcear^i, and piitdugnew 
«?o;.ilde- i|b,(^t_ the .iRpo^c^V, ithat mu^ workc 'it. 
Ncyther,i^i;^^^ h^cfoijgof re^i^. -that this dedicating 
•r.Aum N ^of 


p6 Of the aduanccment of Learnings 

of Foundations and Dorau'qns to profeflfoty Lear^ 
ning 5 hath not onely had a malignc afped and in- 
fluence vppon the growth of Sciences , but hath alfb 
bcci c pre iudiciall to States and Gouernments. For 
hence it proccedcth that Princes finde a (blitude, in 
regard of able men to feme thsm in canfes of eft^ite, 
bccauie there is no education collegiate, which is 
free J where fuch as wcrefodirpofcd , moUjzht giue 
ihcmfelues to HjftorieSg modernc Languages, 
Bo^'kcs of potlicy aiid ciuill Difcourfe^and oiher the 
like inableinents vntofcruice of crtatc. 

And becaufc Founders of Collcdgcs doe plant, 
and Founders of Le^ifiures doe water : It fo loweth 
well in order to fpeakc of the dcfed^u hich is in pub- 
lique Le^urcs : Namely ^tn the inMlnefle and meane. 
neffc of the falary or reward , which in mort places 
is afligned vnio them : whether they be Le<5hires of 
Arts or or Profcffions. For it is ncceflary to the pro- 
grcffion of Scienccs,that Readers be of the moft a- 
bleand fufficicnt men ^ as thofe which a re ordayncd 
for generating, and propagating of Sciences , and 
not for tranfitory vfc. This cannotbcjcxccpt their 
condition and endowment be fuch , as may content 
the abUft fnan,to appropriate his whole labour^and 
continue his whole age in that fundlipn and atten- 
dance, and therefore mufVhaue a proportion an- 
fweiable to that naediocrity 5 or competency of ad- 
uanceisent, which may bcexpe^cd from a ProfeflS- 
on, 01 hePradkiEc of a ProfcHion : So a^, if you will 
hauc Sqfcncci fiourifb , you inuft obfcruc Vamtds 
' ^ '■'.'' military 

The/ccond Too^^. p^ 

mintary LaWjWhiwh was. That thoje vchichfl ate d with 
the Carriage , (houldhme equ^li part with thofe which 
weresttthe Atiton : elfc will the carriages te lilacfcn- 
dcd : So Readers in Sciences arc iiideede the Gar- 
dians ot the (lores, and prouifioiis of Sciences, 
whence men in aciiuc courfes arc fiirnilTicd , and 
therefore oiij^hcto ha'ieequallcntcnayncmciwitli 
them i othcrwjfe if the fathers in Sciences be of the 
weakclt fb't, or be ill maintayned. 

ti PAtrum iftvalidi referent ietHMiAnati. 
Another dcfed I note,whcrcin I (hall necde fome 
Alchymift to hclpe me, who caU vpon men to fell 
their Bookss, and to build Fornaces , qutttingand 
fotfeking MineruA , and the Mufes , as barren Vir- 
gines, and rclymg vpon Vulcan. But ccrtaync it is, 
that vnto the dcepc, fruitefull , and operatiue ftudy 
of many Sciences , fpecially Natural! Phylofophy, 
and Phyficke , Bookes be not onely the Inflr umcn- 
tals J whcrci»n alfo the beneficence ofmen hath not 
bccncaltogetlicr wanting : Forweefee, Sphcares, 
Globes, Aftrolabcs, Maps, and the like,hauebeertc 
prouidcd,a8 appurtenances to Afironomy and Cof- 
mographyjas well as Bookes : We f^e iikewife, that 
fbme places inftituted for Phyficke, hauc annex- 
ed thccommodiry of Gard.ins for Simples of all 
forts^and doe likcwifc command ihe vfe of dead Bo- 
dies for Anatomies. But dicfc doe rcrpc(5l but a few 
things. In general), there will hardly be ar.yMayne 
proficicncc in the dilclofing of nature, except there 
DC "loine allowance for expcnces about experiments^ 

N 2 v,^heilicf 

pS Of the adumc^ent of Learnings 

whether they be experiments apperrayning to Vul- 
ssr/m or Bedalm^ Furnace or Engine , or any othct 
kind; Arr^i therefore as Sccrctarses, and Spyal Is pf 
Princes and Sratcs bring inBills for InteUigcncc; f6 
youmurt allowc the Spyalls and Intelligeiicers of 
Nature •, to bring iiu^^eir Bils , or cjfc you iliall bee 
ill aduertii^d. ■ ■.' ' ;^*=' F -_ -'; :^ / - o -^y - -- - '^ _ 

'And [iJlexnM'^tmi'mi.zW^^^ 
to Arifiotle of trcafure fof'thc allowance of iiunterSj 
F owlcrs, Fifhen^nd the Hkc^ that he iiidijgFyt com^ 
pile'kn HiHory b^'ISfariirc^ rhuch better do'tliey dp- 
ienic it that trawailes in Arrcs of Natdre-, 

Another defci^ vvhith I note, isaninrermiffiorij 
or negled \n thofe whidh arc<j6iYernows iri Vni- 
iieifiticsjof Confultationjand^n RHnccior Si!pei-idt 
pcrfons 6f Vifitation : I^b enter into accoiintarid 
confideration, whether the Readings, cx2rcife;$,,and 
other cuftomes appertaynirig vnto Learning, anci* 
(cntly bcgunnc , and fince continued , be we.l infti. 
sutedorno, and thcrcupponto ground an amend- 
ment, or reformation in that which fhall be found 
inconuenicnt. For it is one of your Maicftics 
owne moft wife and Princely Maximcs , Thxt m aU 
vfages and Prejidei^ts^the Times he confidered wherem 
^heyfrfi begAftne^rch/ch if they were weake or ignorant ^ 
it derogatethfrom the yiutbortty of the yf^ge^ and lea- 
ueth nforfufpe^,hx\d therefore in as much, as moft 
of the vfagesand orders of the Vniuerfiries were dc- 
riucd from more obfcurc times^ k is the more requi- 
site chey be re-cxaiiiined. In this kind I will gme an 


Inftancc or two for example {sJLyoiih ir gs 'hat arc the 
^moQobtiiousand &mil,iai:Thc one js a v:an^r which 

tliOLi'gb h becja.aci;^r.t,5r*d gcncrali-, yec I hold to be 
,an crrour , wjiicb is ^,.th«t, Schollcrs in-Vniui riiti.s 
come rco [Gonc^av^d too ynripc re Logkk aiisi ilN- 
toricj^e^ ,^l7Lfijter fQr,Gradi,ia; ps^hen.Childf Gn,.>i>d 

■_^ijd^^,t}i^,<j;;t.herfo;;9r!?^!P^^ A^mh^-jf bje.tlw 
,Ruks4nd,lD,ire^ions j rho^tpktloXih a^ df^afs 
_matter;and ihcribrc formindscppty an^ vnfr.-i^fjc 
jwatfi martc^and which haue Bpr;gatbefisd:iji,aj..W'liieJi 

wcigh.or to iT^%e^9rto,paynt';bc V^4ndc))>iioci^ bm t}} iji c&d :,; hat t he vyi fd6 ine of ^ho^ Arts, 
jw'bicjiisj^e^i^^.viijqcrfall^ isahroft madc;;c<J)^- 
jc^mpu^Blejandis^c^encpccinto chi^^ 
.aPjd.fidiculaiis affe<^tJonrfAnd fur£her,thc vntiji)c|y 
.Ie;aini(^x)f ihcm hatbdrawnc on by confcquenc^, 
jtlic fwpcriicia! and v^^profitable, teaching aod writing 
of thcnijas fitteth incjecd to the capacity of children,* 
Anothcr,isa lackc I findc in the cxercifes vfed in the 
Vniuerficics, which do make too great a^iuorce bt- 
tween Inuentionand Mcmoryjfor their fpcecbcs ace 
eyther premcdixate inFa bis (;&ftceptu^\^\\z\e. nothing 
is lef tto InuentionjOi; mcerely Extemporai/^\w\\^tt Jit- 
tie is left to Memoryrwhcras in Hfe and a^ftion^t here 
islcaftyfeof eyther ofthcfc, but rather of intermix- 
tures of premeditation and Inuention ; Notes and 

N 3 Met 

^OQ Oftheadumcementoflearningj, 

^lUeitiory. So as the cxef cifc fittcth nor the pradiizc, 
nor the Image the Fife 5 and it iscucra triic Rule in 
cxercifes , that they be framed as necrcas may be to 
thclifcof prad fe, for otherwife they doperucttthc 
motions and faculties of the minde, and not prepare 
them. The truth wherof is not obfcurc, w^hen Scri<:iU 
larscombtothc praiSlifes of profcflions^ or other 
• anions ofciuilllifc \ ' which when they fct into, this 
want is foonc found by thcmfelues^and fooncr by q- 
thers. But this part touching the amendment of the 
Inftitutions and orders of Vniuerfities. I will Con- 
clude with the claufe oic^fars lettct to 0/^/»and 
Balbtit^ Hoc fuemAimodttm fiertpiffit^ nonnut/a mihi 
in mentem Vimunt^& mnlu refertripffuni : Ac ijs rS' 
fffu ro^o vos, vt cegitMionem fufcrpUtk. 

Another defcd which I note , afcendctli a h'ttic 
higher then the precedent. For as the proficience of 
learning confiftcth much in the orders and inftituti- 
ons of VniuerfitieSjin the (ame ftates and kingdomes: 
So it would bee yer more aduanced , if there were 
more Intelligence mutuall bctweene the Vnruerfiricis 
off^rtfVjthen now there is. We fee, there be many 
Ordf rs and Foundations^which though they be dc- 
uidcd vnder feusral (bueraigniies and tcrritoiie$,yct 
they take thcmfclucs to haue a kind of contrad, fra- 
ternity and corrcfpondcncejOne with the ojhcr 5 in- 
foraucii as they haue Prouincials and Gencralse 
And furely as Nature createth Brother-hood in Fa» 
milies^and Arts Mcchanicallcontrafl Brorher-hoods 
inConimtinalticSj and the Anoyntmcnt of God 


^^hfecondTiool^* loi 

Tiiper induccth in a Btothcr-hood in Kings and Bi» 
(hops : So in like manner there cannoc but be a fr^* 
ternicy in learning and illufninationyreiacing cothit 
PatcrnityjWhich is attributed to God, who is called 
the Father of .illui-ninations or lights. 

The lalt dcfeCl which I wil note, is, that there hath 
nor bccnr,or vciy rarely beene, any publique Dtiig- 
nation of Writers orEnqiiirers, concerning fuch 
parts of;know ledge, as may appcarc not to haoe bin 
alrckdy fufficicntly laboured or vndertakcnj vnto 
which point it is an Indiiccmentito enter into a view 
^nd cxao>ination , what parts of learning fiaiie been 
prDfeciited ,. and what.qmitted :FiOrthc opinion qf 
plenty is amongft the caules of want 5 and the great 
quantity of Bookcsmakcth a fh.ewc rather of iupct- 
fluity then lacke , which furcharge ncuertheJcfTeis 
not to be remedied by making no more Bpokes^ bw 
4)y making more good books,which arc as the fcrpcne 
of iV^/,mought ileiiour the ferpcms of the incnan- 
tors. The remouing of all the def.^s formerly ciiij* 
merate, except the laft,and of the a^^iue part alfo of 
the laf\ (which is the d^fignarion of Writers) are O. 
ferd Edjtika ; towards which the cndcuours of a jpri* 
uatc man may be, but as an Image in a cfofle way $ 
that may poy nt at th^ way , but rannot go it. But 
the inducing pate of the latter ( which is the 
furuay of Learning,^ may bee fet forwarde by 
priuaie trauayle : Whcref kc 1 will now attempt c« 
make a generall and faithfull perambulation of lc..r« 
ningj^ichan in^iry wfaat patis ihfrc«f lycircfli and 

10% Oftheaduancement of Learnings 

Wt»ftj ancj^not ii^iproaod and conucrted by theindu-f 
ftf^ ^^'i'^mi^-m «ho'end tbarfueb* plot eoade aiid 

anypiibiiquede^gn^tion ; and alfb fc'Rue'tocxeif^ 
voluntary endeaiiar^j wncrein neurrchdcOfemy pur. 
ppfeisac tHis tiitJe-v''^o noteonely omifli )ns.a«d d> 
ficiences 5 and not to malcc any rcdargution of er* 
rors,or incompkate pro{l-cutions:For it is on« thing 
ifMet'fortl-^i^h'at grown (flyeth vnnianursd ijiand aj. 
W^Yizt thrflg^to correal: iil4iusbandry iniihat whica 
iSTli^nljitedl-'^''^-'-f' ^^nA.:jLr;h i-^: ?; -faoo I'oiiw? 
• ^ In the hdfidfittg aiid vfi^cftaking ofwHich wdrfce, 
iiatWricjtfjgfioVantjWhatit is, that I docrtow mooup 
ITn^attcrnpc 3 :i)br ihrcrifiblc of mine ownc weaknes, 
to ftiftaync iTiy purpofc : But my hope isjthat i£my 
tectrcarncloircto L'earning carry me too farre^I may 
WtSiiitQtpi c^ctfftf^f ^dfon^iS fc>r tkn hUaotgnm' 
Hr^)itr)nkh,f^B^-f-d\M^^^^ 'But Ikndw v^I 

f if^'if f fe^nlo t^?fci?!ibci-ty ofrti^^'g^meiiti, thed.Im)ii^ 
,'ft§i3f>d^8'Hitri-^nd 1 for in^'"pa!t to br^indiftercat- 
i? gf^¥;^Ti^f¥o'p§t^^ ^Facccpt^from 

~^4fti' fore^fee 1 ilcc wife, 
Mail^jt .^ii J CO naeiti': 

SS^ff ^fb'^gff^il Hf il:*t^ t«%t.^:^ ia^i:>greal cMcwI- 

AJ^JH fi!^^ftifil|5bflibirKy^^^^ 


Thefecond^ooke. io> 

the particulars. For the lall, touching impofllbility, 
Itakcir^thofcihingsaretobcheldpofliblCj which 
may be done by fome perfbn, though not by cuery 
one ; and which may be done by many , though not 
by any one; and which may bee doneinfuccclfioa , though not within the hourc-glaCc of one 
mans life : and which may bee done by put>iique dc- 
{ignaiion^ though not by priuate indeauour. A T*^'* 

But notwithftanding J if any Man will take to 
himfclfe rather that o^ Salomon , Dkitpger^ Leo efi 
in Vii , then that of y^rgil^ Vojfunt^ qitaffojjevi' 
de»tur : Idiaii be content that my labours bee c- 
ftccmed, but as the better (brt of wifhcs: for as it 
asketh fome Knowledge to demaund a queftion^noc 
impertinent fb it rcquireih fbrncfenfe^ to make a 
m\h not abiurd. 

THe P^rts of humane Learning haue reference 
to the three partes of Mans vnderf^anding, 
which is the fcate of Learning : Hisione to 
hii Ademorte ^ Poejie to his Im.igin.xtion ^ and Vhi' 
lofoph/e tohis Reafin : Diuinc Learning receincth 
the fame difkibution 3 for the Spirite of Man is the 
fame : though the Rcuclation of Oracle and Sence 
i>e diuerfe: So as Theolagic confif^cth alfo of///'* 
fiorte of the Church ; o^Pardies , which is Diuinc 
Poefie : and of h.o ly Doclrine or Precept , For as for 
that part 5 which feemeth fupernumcraric, which 
is Prophccij^ : it is but Diuinc Hiiloiic : which hadi 
t'lac prcrogatiuc oucr humane, as the Karratiott 
-; O may 

104. Of the ahancemtnt of Learnings 

j»ay be before the fadt, as well as after. 

HtUori€\sNAturAli , CmU ^ EccleJtAflhaff!^\'\d 
jiifio^U Litterdrie , Vv'hercof che thiec firft I allowe as cx- 
LittrarHm. j^^it , the fourth I note as deficient. For no man 
hath propounded to himfclfe the general! ftate of 
Learning to be defer ibcd and reprefcnrcd from age 
to age 3 asmanyhaiie done the workes ofNature^ 
and the State Ciuilc and Ecckfiafticall 5 without 
which the Hiftorie of the World fcemeth to me, to 
be as the Statua oi Polyphemus with his eye out, that 
part being wanting, which doth moft fhewc the 
fpiritc, and life of ihc perfon : And yet I am not 
ignorant that indiuerfe particular fcicnccs, as of 
the lurifconfults , the Mathematicians, the Rheto- 
ricians, the Phylofophers, there are fct downe 
fame fmall memorials of the Schooles , Authors, 
and Bookes : and folikewifcfbmc barren relations 
touching the Inuention of Arts, otvf.)gcs. 

But a iuft ftory of Learning, containing the 
Antiquities and Originals of Knowledges, and their 
ScdtS'^ their Inucntions, their Traditions 5 their 
diuerfc Adminiftrations, and Managingsj their 
Floutifhiags, their Oppofitions, Decaycs, Dc- 
prcflions , Obliuions , Remoues ^ with the caufcs, 
and occafions of them, and all other eucnts con- 
cerning Learning , throughout the ages of the 
Wbrldj I may truely affirrae to be wanting. 
' The vfeand cnde of which worke , I doe not (o 

much defigne for curiofitie , or fatisfadlion of thofe 
that aic the lowers of Learnings but chiefclyfora 


^hefecond^oof^. 105 

ineteferious, and grauc purpofe, which is this in 
fcwswordcs, that ic will make Learned men wife, 
in the vfe and adminiftration of Learning. For it is 
not Saint Augupnes ^ nor Saint Amlprofe vvorkes 
that will make (o.'Wfea Diuinc, as Ecclcfiafticall 
Hiftory, throughly read and obfcrued : and the fame 
rcafon U oi Learning, 

Uiltone o^NUHte is of three forts : o^ Nature in 

jiitereAox wrought , that is Htftone of Creatures ^ 
Hfftork oi M '.ruAtles , and Hiftme of Atts, 

Thcfirrt ofthcfe, no doubt is extant, and that 
in good p^r^ci^ion ; The two latter are bandied fo ^ \ 

weake'yand vnproficably , as la^n moued to note 

For I fip.d no fufficicnt, or competent CoIIe(fiion jjiJimAN*' 
ofthi. Woikes or Nature 5 which hauc a Digref turdt. Erraw 
iIon,and Dcfl x'on, from the ordinary courfe of ^«-. Ot^ivv)^ 
Generations, Pi odudions 5 and Mo ions , whether 
they bee fir.gularitics of pldce and region, or the 
ftrange eucni^ of time and chance , or the cffecfls of 
yctvnknovvnc pr< pii:ties, or theinftances of ex- 
ceptloos to gencrall kinds: It is true, I findc a 
number of b )oke$ oi fabulous Experiments , and 
Secrets , and fnuolous Impoftures for pleafure and 

But a fubftantiallnnd Rucrc Colle«5lion ofHe- 
terecl/tes'^ oi IrregtiUrsoS. Nrdurc y well examined ^ 
and dcfcribed Ifinde not: fpeciailvnot with due 
reiedioa of fables , and popuLirEirours ; For , as 

O 2 things 

io6 Oftheadmncement of Learnings 

thiiigs ate, if an vntrinh h\ Nature bee once on 
footc, wliac by renfon of rhc nsgle^; of (Xami- 
nation, and countenance of Ai.f'quitie, and what 
by reafon of the vfe of the opinion in fimilitudes, 
and ornaments of fpcechc, it is neucr called 

The vfe ofthisworke, honoured with a prefi- 
dent in AriftotU. is nothing lelle, then to giue con- 
tentment to the appetite of Curjous and vaine 
Wittcs, as the manner o^ Mira^iUnes is to doe: 
But for two Resfons, both of great waight j The 
one to corred the partiality of Axiomes , and Opi- 
nions : which are commonly framed onely vpon 
common and familiar examples : The other , bc- 
caufe from the Wonders of Nature 3 is theneetcfl 
Intellgence and paflagc towards the Wonders of 
Arte ; For it is more , but by following , and as it 
were , hounding Nature in her wandrings , to bee 
able to leade her afterwardcs to the fame place a- 

Ncitheramlof opinion in this H'tjlorie o£ Mar- 
MAitUsy that fuperftitious Narrations of Sorceries, 
Witchcrafts 5 Drcames , Diuinations, and the 
like 5 where there is an affurance , and cleere qui- 
dence of the fad 5 be altogether excluded . For 
it is not yet knowne in what cafes, and howe 
farrc , cfftds attributed to fuperftition , doe par- 
iicipate of Naturall caufes : and therefore how- 
foeuer the praiSife of fuch things is to be condem- 
jjcd J yet from the Speculation and confidcration 


eftlicni / light may b':e taiicii , not cncly for the 
dij'ccrningot ticofltcnccs, b.titrlortlie further dif- 
clofing of Nature : Neither ought a man to make 
feriipie of entrjn^ into ihefechingsforiBquifitiofi 
of Truth, as your.'Maicllie hath {hewed in your 
ex;implc : who with the two clecre ^lyej of Religion 
andnatura'l Phijo'ophic, hauc looked decpelyand 
wifely into thefc fhadowcs, andyctproucd your 
fclfe to be the Nature of the Sunne , which pa0eth 
through pollutions ^ and it felfe remaincs a& puce ,as 
-before.- '^-'i ^--'iJt-^^dw ,v.-.!^,^^u*. '^ViV^'^qr:, 

But this I hold fit ^ that theft N^rratiqi??^ 
which hauc niixturc with fuperftiiion ^ be (b|:ted by 
thenifelues, and not to be mingled with t^le^Jar- 
rations , which arc mcercly and fiocercly Baiu- 

But as for the Narrations touching the Prodi- 
gies and Miracles of Religions 3 they arc cither not 
true, or not Naturall ; and therefore impertinent for 
the Storie of Nature, 

For Hijlory a^NAture fVrough , or Mechanic^ ^ HiJIo^U 
I fihdc fome Colledions Made of Agriculture , '^<ff'&'»»v4. 
and likcwife of Manuall Artes , but commonly 
with a rciediion of cxperi mem* famiUaraniJ vul- 
gar. ^ ^ -...Ar ;■' .'vV .;t 

.i For it is cftccmed a kinde ofdiflionouc vnto 
Lcarrjng , to dcfccnd to cnquiric or Meditation 
vppon Matters Mechanically except they bee fuch 
as may boc thought fbcrcrs, rarities, and fpeci- 
all fubt ikies ; which humour of vaine, and fu- 

O 3 perci- 

ibS Of the adudnctment ofLearningy 

pereilious Arrogancie, is iuftiy derided! m Plato: 
where hce brings in Hip^its a vaunting SophiB^ diC 
putint* with SocrMes a true and vntained inquifi- 
tdur of Truth v. where the fubre^ beeing touching 
bcAiitie, Socrates^ after his^andring manner of 
Indti<5lions , put fitft an example of a tairc Virgiac, 
and then of a fairc Horfe, aad then ofafairc Pot 
well grazed, whereat Wp^i^ts was offended; i^d 
iayd j AJore then for curtefics fake , he did thinke 
mucin to d'fjmte ivich any, that did ai/ed^efucb l^afe and 
S9rdide injlznces, whcrcunto Socrates anfwciedj yoi^ 
hautreifon^ and it Ucomes you vpe^^ being a man fa 
trimme ihyourvefliments^ &c, A:id fogocthon in 
an Ironic. 
V -r^ But the truth i$^ they be not t'c highcft inftances, 

v^ that giuc the fecurcrt information j as may be vreH 

cxprcfledinth talc fo common o'lhePiilofophcr, 
that while he gazed vpwards to the Starrcs, fell into 
the water: for if he had look d :ownc hce might 
haue iccne the Starrcs in the wat ^r , but looking ^m 
left he could not ice the water \n the Sai res : So it 
commsth often to pafTe, that mean: and fmall 
things difcoucr great , beircr then great can difco. 
uer chc (mail : and therefore Artflotle notetli well, 
Tijat the nature of euery thing is belifiene inhhfmiL 
efi portions , and for that caufc he cnqaireth the na- 
ture of a Commonwcalch, iarft in a Family, andt!)C 
Simple Conmgations ofMan and Wit' jParcnt and 
ChildjMaftcr & S\irudnt,which are in cucry cottage; 


The fecondmok^. 109 

Eiien lb likswifc the nature ofthis great Citie ofthe 
world and the policie thereof, muft be firftfoilght 
in meanc eoncoi«lances,and fmall portions ; So wc 
fee how that fecrer of Nature , of the turning of I- 
ron, touched with the Load-ftone, towards the 
North, was found out in needles of Iron, not in 
barresof iron. 

But if my iuc^gcment bee of ante waight, the 
vfe oiHtJiorie Mechanical ^ is ofa!l others thcmoft 
radicail , and fundamental! towardcs Naturall 
Phyloibphie, fuch Naturall Phylofophic, asfhall 
not vanifh in the fiime of fubtile , fubliroc , or dc- 
lc<5hble fpeculatioji ^ bot iiich as (hall bee opc- 
ratiuc to the endowevHcnt , and benefice of Mans 
life J Foritwil not oncly rainifter andfuggeftfor 
the prcfentyMany ingenious pradizes in all trades, 
by a connexion and cranffcrring of the ob(eruati- 
ons of one Arte , to the vfe of another , when the 
cxpericrjces of feuerall myfteries (hall fall vnder the 
confideration of one mans mindc-* But further, it 
will giue a more true , and real! illumination con- 
cerning Caufcsaed Axiomes , then is hitherto at- 
tained x'' 
sir For like as a Mans difpofition is ncucr frcU 
knowne, till hie becroHed, nor Prottus cuer changed 
(hapes jtiU he was ftraightcncd and held faft : fb the 
pafiages and variations of Nacure cannot appeare 
fo fully in the libertie of Nature ^ as in the trials aad 
vexations of Art. 


no Of the adumcement of learning, 

FOr Cimle HtFiorie J ills ozth.xtzVmdts ^ not 
vnfitly to be compared with the thfce kindes 
of Piif^arcs or Images : for of Pidurcs or 
IfriagcSj wee fee fomc arc Vnfinifhcd , fbmcare 
parfite , arvd fbmc aTC deUccd ; So of Hiftories, 
weemayFindc three Kindcs, Memorials ^ Par fie 
JiiBorks,^ ^nd ^/ttiqmiies : for Memorials arc 
Hiftoric vnfinifhtfd , or the firft , oti rough daagh- 
tcrs of Hiftorie 3 an J Amtquities z^'t H&ories de- 
faced , or fom6 remnants of Hiltorie J which hauc 
cafually cfcaped the (Ijipwracke of time. 

i^^MemoriAls ^ or Prefaratorie Htfiorie^ arc of 
tit is fortes , whereof chc one may b(ie tc armed 
Commentaries^ and the other KegJlfers : Com* 
menunes arc they which fecdowne a continuance 
cfthc naked euenrs and at^ions, without the mo- 
tmes or defigncsj the Counfcis, the Speeches, 
the pretexts , the occafions 5 and other ptflages 
of a^ion : for this is the true nature ot a Com- 
mcntaric ( though ' Ctfar in rttodef^c mia^t with 
gre^tncflc, did for his pleafure apply the name 
oS a Commeatarie to the beft Hiftorie of the 
Wt>rl3 ;! Re^fitts 7x^ colledions of Publiqiic 
A^es, as Decrees of CounfcH, ludiciall /.pro- 
ceedings. Declarations and Letters of Eitate, O- 
rations , and the like , without a pcrfed continu- 
ance, or contexture of the thrced of the Narra* 
tion, ^ 

,^ Antiquities^ or Remnants of Hiftorie, are 
^•** a. 

The fecond^ooke. xii 

as was fayde , Tunqmm TdbuU Naufug^ , when 
indiiftrioiis perlbns by an exait and rcrupuloii^dni- 
gcnce and obfcrnation,out of Monuments , Nafncs, 
Wordcs, Proucrbs, Traditions, Priuatc Rccordcs, 
and Euidenccs , Fragments of Stories, Paflages of 
BookcSjthat concerne not Story jand the like , doe 
faue and rccoucr fomewhat from the deluge of 

In thcfc kindcs of vnpcrfe(^ Hiftories I doc a{^ 
(ignc no dcficiertcf , for they are tAnq:um it/fperfeofs 
Mijii 5 and therefore any dcficience in them is but 
their nature. 

As for the Corruptions and Mothcsof H.fto- 
ry 5 which arc Eftterms , the vie of them defer- 
ucrh to bee ba iTht , as all inen of found ludge- 
mcnt haue confeOed , as thofc that haue fretted 
an^'c'trodedchc lound bodies of many excellent 
Hiftories , and wrougiit chcm iiKO bafs and vnpro- 
ficable drcgges. 

Uiftoriz^ which may be called J»ft and Perfic^ 
Hiftory, is of three kindes , according to theob- 
izdi which it propoundeth , or pretendeth to re- 
prcfcnt : foriteytherreprefcntcthaT/w^', ora/'^/- 
fon 3 or an ^^lon, Tne firll wee call Chronicles-. 
The fccond Liues j and the \}^\x<^NiiYrdUons ^ or 

Of thcfc aluhoiTgh the firft bee the moA 
compleatc and abfolutc kinde of Hiftory , and hath 
meO. cftimation and g'ory : Yet the fecond ex- 
cciicthitiaprofitandvfe, and the third in verity 

P an(3 

in Of the aJuaucement of Learning. 

and fi-icerity. For H//Ioric^ of Times reprefenteth 
the magnitude of Anions , and the publique faces 
and deportments of perfons , and pafTeth oner in 
filcncc the fmaller pailages and Motions of men and 

But fuch beeing the worke-man ihip of God , as 
he doth hang the grcatcft weight vppon the fmallcft 
VVjars , M^ixtma e Min'tmu fuffendens , it comes 
therefore to pafle, that fuch Hiftories doc rather 
fctforththepompeof bufinefTc, then the true and 
inward refotts thereof. But Liues if they bee well 
Written, propounding to themfclues a perfon to 
reprefent , in whom adions both greater and fmal- 
ler , publique and priuatc haue a commixture 5 muft 
ofnecellity coniayneamoretrucj natiuCjand Hue* 
ly reprefentation : So agayne Narrations, and Re- 
lations of adionSjas the VVarre of ?eloponnefus ^thc 
Expedition of Cyrm M^nor , the Conlpi lacy of Ca- 
itUne ^ cannot but bee more pure and cxa(S]y true, 
then Hijisries o^ Times y becaufe they may choofe 
anJVrgumcnt comprehenfible within the notice and 
inftruSions of the Writer : whereas he that vnder- 
taketh the Story of a Time , fpecially of any length, 
cannot but meetc with many blankes^ and fpaces, 
which hcc muft be forced to fill vp , out of his ownc 

For the Hifiariec^ of Times ^ (I meant of 

ciuillHiftory, ) the piouidcnceofGod bath made 

the diftributioiv: for it hath pleafed God to ordayne 

andillufttatc two exemplar States of the World, 

, for 

Thefecond\Boof{e, iij 

for Armcs, Learning, Morall Vcrtuc , Policy and 

^hcSmte of GrecU , and the State o^ Rome : The 
Hiftories whereof occupying the Middle fart of 
time, haucmoreancienttothcraj Hiftories which 
may by one common name , bee teatmed the Atttf* 
quities of the fVorld ; and after them , Hiftories 
which may bee likewifc called by the name of ^(7. 
demc Htftory, 

Now to fpcake of the dcficiences : As to the 
Heathen A»tiiqi$ities of the World, itisinvaync 
to note them for deficient : Deficient they arc no 
doubt , confifting moil of Fables and fragments 5 
but the deficience cannot bee holdcn : for Anti- 
quity is like Fame, Caput inter nubi la condit^ her 
head is muffled from our fig' It : For the Hiflory of 
the Eicemplar States , it is extant in good perf;6iion. 
Not but I could wi(h there were a pcrfecft Courfc 
of Hiftoryfor Grecia from Thefepn 10 Pht lop Jtmen^ 
(what time the Affayrcs of Grecia drowned and 
cxtinguifhed in the affayrcs of Rome) and for Rome, 
from Romulus to lu^iniantu ^ whomay bcetrucly 
Cayd to he F'k/ms^ Roma»oruf?t. In which feaucnces 
of Story the Text o£ Thucidides and Xenophon in 
the ode , and the Texts of LtHiiu^ Polyhus.sdu^itti^ 
Cafar^ Apfionm^ Tacitu^i^ U€rodiAnHs\^\ tbeothrr to 
be kept intyrc without any diminution at all ^ and 
onely to bee fupplicd and continued. But this is 
Matterof MagniliccncCj rather to be commended 
then required : and wee fpeake now of parts of 

P 2 Lear- 

it^ Of the admncement of Learning, 

[.eamiiii fupplemencill, trnd not of fupcrcEiJ 

But for A'^odernc^ Hl,fiorin^ whereof there 
^rc lome few very worthy , but the greatcd 
part beneath Afed/orr^Jc^, leauing the care of 
porraigric ftories to Forraignc States , bccaufe I will 
HOt bcc Cur/ofas indtenA Repuhlica^ I cannot fails; 
to reprefcnt to your Maiefty, the vnworthmcflc 
of the Hiftory of EngLind in the Maync continu* 
ancc thcrcot, and the partiahty , and obliquity 
of that of Scotland^ in thelateftand largcft Auihot 
thatlhatie.feene ^ fuppofing that it would bee ho- 
nour for your Mai-fty , and a worke very memora- 
ble , if this Hand of Great Brittany ^zh it is now ioy- 
ncd in Monarchy for the ages to come :. So were 
ioyned in one Hiftory for the times paffcd , after 
the manner of the (acred Hiftory , which draweth 
downe the Story of the Ten Tribes, and of the 
Two Tribes , as Twinnes together. And if it ["hall 
fceme that the greatneffe of this Worke may make 
it Icflc exactly performed , there is an excellent pc- 
riode of a much fmaller coropafic of tinic , as to the 
Story of £;?^/4»^5i:hat is to fay , from the Vniting of 
iht RofeSjto the Vniting of the Kingdo ncs : a porti*. 
on of time wherein, to my vnderftandirig,thcft hath 
bin the rarcft varieties^ that in like number of fuccef. 
iions of any hereditary Mor^archy hath bin knowne : 
For it bcgtnnnh with the mixt Adcption of a 
Crowne , by Armcs and Title : An entry by Bat- 
layle 3 an Eftablifhmcnt by Maria gc 3 and therefore 


The fecomi'Boffke. M'^O „^ 

times anfw'Crabk', like waters affcr a tcmpcft, fuUof^ 
working ai;d iwelhng , though wiihoiit cxtrcami- 
ty of Storme 5 but well palTe^ through by the wife- 
dome of the P//ote . being one of the moA fuf&cicnt 
Kings of ali the number. 

Ti)cn iollovs'eth the Raigne of a King , whofea- 
^ions hou focuer conc'uded, had much intermixture 
with the affiyres of Europe : balancing and inclining 
tlicm variably . in vvhofc time alfo began that grcati 
alteration in the State Ecclc/iafticalijan a<5bon which 
feldomecommeth vpon the Stage : Thetithc Raigne 
of a Minor, then an offer of an vfarpation ,. (though 
it was hwiisi^jehrii Efhem&YA,) Then t-heRaigne of 
aQueenemaxchfcd with a Forraigncr ;. Theaofa 
Queene that lined folitary, andynmiarrte.d'j and yet 
her goucrnment fo mafculine , ^ aS it had greater im- 
predion , and operation vppon the S races abroad^ 
then it any wayes rcceiucd from thence : And now 
laft5this moft happy and glorious euent , that thisl- 
land oi Brut Any deuidcd from all the WorkJjihouId 
bee Vnited in it felfe : And that Oracle of Reft gi- 
ucn to %^nea£ , AnU^uim enquiriu J^Atf^m^{^^v\<i 
cow bee.perforincd and. fulfiiled yppo© xhe Nati-. 
ons of £»^/^Wand Scotland^, beting now: rcv5oir<d 
in the Ancjcnt Mother name of BntUny^ as^ a-,(u.ll 
pcriodeofall inftability andpercgrinatiohs : Sip that 
as it commcth to pafTe in Ma/fiue bj&dies, thaE 
they haue certayne trepidations and wauerings 
before they fixe and fettle : So it feemeth, ih^t 
by the prouidcncc of God , this Monarchy be- 
rbiflV ' P 3 fore 

u 6 Of the aduancement of Learning, 

fore it was to fettle in your Maicfly , and your gene- 
rations , fin which I, hope it is now cftablifhcd 
foreiierj) it had thcfc prelufiue changes and va- 

VoiTJues^ I doc finde ftrange that thcfe times 
haue (6 little efteeiaicd the vertues of the times , as 
that the Writings of Lines fhould bee no more frc* 
qucnt. For although tiicre be not many Soueraigne 
Princes or abfolutccomm3ndefs,and that States are 
snore collc^cd into Monarchies; yet arc there many 
worthy pcrfonages , that defcrue better then difpcr- 
fed Report, or barren Elogies : For herein the inucn- 
lion of one of the late Poets is proper, and doth well 
inrich the ancient fidion 5 for he fayneth, that at the 
cad of the threed or Web of cuery mans life , there 
was a little il/^i^/^ contayning the Perfomnrnwe^ 
and tkat Time way tcth vpon the fhccresjand ailooae 
asthechreed was eut,caught the Medals,and carried 
them to the Riuer of Lethe ^ and about the ban e 
tiicrcwcr'emanyBirdcs flying vp and downe, that 
would get the Medals and carry them in their Beake 
a little while , arid then let thcra fall into the Riuer. 
Oncly thflreiw^ijcafewSwans , which if they got a 
Name , w^id carry it to ii Temple , where it was 

: Aiad although many men more morcall in 
their affedions j then in their bodicj , doecfteeme 
dcfireof name and memory, but as a vanity and 
vcncofity : 

'-^'j jinmittiiwatnalMdUegentes. 
►.lot Which 

Thefecond^ooke. 117 

VV'fiicf! opinion cc nimcth from the Rcot , Non pri' 
U6 Uudes cofttimpimM , quam UudAnda facer e dtfi" 
vtmm : yet that will not alter Sdomons iudgerrcnt, 
MemortA lufit cum Uudihpu , At tmpiorum ftomenpH' 
trejc€t\ The one flouriflicth^the other either confu- 
meth'to prefent obliuion, or turneth to an ill odor. 

And ncreforeinthat ftilc oraddition, whichii 
and hath bin long well receiued, and brought in vfCj 
jeltcii memorU^pU memorUjfOn^ memwU , wee do| 
acknowledge chat which C/f:r<7 faith , borrowing it 
from Vem^fihenes , that Bona FdnM ptPprUp9jfe/]la 
defftficiorum , which pofltflion I cannot but note, 
that in our times it lieth much waftand that therein 
there is a Deflcienee. , ■ .' v' i 

For NarrMidKs and Rdations of parcicular a^ticin^jr 
there wcrcaifo to bee wifhcda greater diligence 
therein, for there is no great at^ion' but hath fofne 
good pennc which attends it. ' 

Andbecauleitis an ability not commonjy to 
Write a good Hiftory , as may well appeare by the 
fmall number of them .- yet if particularicty of ani- 
ons memorable, were but tollcrably reported as they 
pafle, the compiling of a complete Hifierie of Timti 
mought bee the better expe<&ed , when a Writer 
rtiould arife that were fit for it : for the collcd:ron of 
fuch relation mought be as a Nurlery gardcin^whcr- 
by toplantafaireand ftately gardcin, when time 
fliould feruc. 

There is yet another pertition of Hiftory which 
Cornelius Tdcitw makcth^which is not to bee forgot- 

II S Of the adudncement of Learnings 

ten fpecially with that application, which htc tC" 
couplech it withall, Annds ^ and Journals^ ap- 
propdatidg to the former. Matters of cftate , and 
to the latter , A<&s and Accidents of a meaner na- 
ture. For giuing but a touch of cerraync Magsifi- 
cent buildingSjhe a^dethjC^/w ex dignitate populi Ro^ 
mAnhefertHmfity res tUttjtres Anndtbus^ tdiadiurnis 
vrbis "ASIU mitndATe . So as there is a kind ofcontem« 
pi^tiuc Heraldry^as wcllas Ciuill. 

Ari^ as apthing doth derogate from the dignity 
of a ;A»f e more then confufion of degrees : So it 
doth not a little imbafc the ^uthoriry af an Hifto- 
ly , to intcrroinglematteisof triuinph , or matters 
of Ceremony , or matters otNeuelty,wtth matters 
of&t^c : But the vfe of a /ournaUmth not onely 
binm:theHiftoryof Time, but likewifcintheHi- 
fiory o£PiCrfons, and ciiiefly of actions 5 for Priiices 
in ancient time had vpon poynt of lionour and poli- 
cy both, TournaU kept , was pafl<iddaybyday.;For 
we feathe Chrot^icle whicii wasrtad bciorc AnAjfu- 
ems, when he could not take reft, contayned matter 
©f atfayrcs indecd,but luch as had puffed in his ownc 
time, and very lately before ; But the lournxUoi 
Alexdttders Hou{e exprefled eiiej y f^mall particulai i* 
ty, cucti concerning his Pcrfqnand Courtjandic 
is yet an v{e well receiued in- cnterprifes memorable, 
as expeditions of War, Nauigacions,and the hkc, to 
keep Dj'rfr/^/oAhat which pafleth continually. ,. 

I cannot likcwife bee ignorant of a forme of 
Writing , which fome graue and Wife men haue 


vfcd, conrayning a fca f tcrcd Hiftory of thpfc; ani- 
ons , which they hauc thought worthy of memory, 
wichpohci^qticDifcourfe and Obfcrustipn thcreup"? 
on J Hot incorporkte into the Hiftory , but {cpcr^te-f 
!y /and a^ moftprincipall in their intention : which 
kindc ol Rummated Hijlory , 1 thinkc raorc fit CO 
place aRiongft Bookes of Policy , whereof we fhall 
fiereaftcrfpeake , then amongft Bookes of Hiftory: 
for it is the true officcof Hiftory toReprcfent the ^- 
Hents them fellies 5 together with the Counfels, and 
to leauc the obfcruations and conclufions thereup- 
on, to the liberty and faculty of eucry mans fudge- 
mcnt : But Mixtures, ate things irregular , whereof 
.,no man can define. 

So alio is there another kindc of Hiftory ma- 
ny fpldly mixt, and that is HiHori of Cofmo- 
^Afh'tc^ 3 being compounded of Natural! Hiftory 
inrefpe<3: of the Regions themfelues, of Hiftory 
ciuill 3 in refpet^ of tne Habitations^Rcgimcnts and 
Manners of the people \ and the A^aihemat/q^es in 
refpedohhe ClimatSjand Ccnfigurations towards 
the l-ieauens, which part of Learning of all others 
in this latter time hath obtayncd mo^ Ppficicncc. 
For ic may be truely :^iSrmpd to tlbe honor ,pf,;Lhcic 
times , and in a vercyous emulation yjKh -^gt^ui- 
ty, that this gt. at Building of the worldjliadncuer 
throtfgh lights made in it , till the age of y^ an(^ ou^ 
Fathers : For aldiough they had knosy ledge of j^he 

Nof^HevbipmHi eqtm Or i ens affl.tuit anhelis : 

fio Of the adiioncemmt of Learnings 

WHfetA rube fit Acandk kmim vef^^er : 
Y« that mought bcc by dcmonftraiioii , and not ia 
fad , and if byTrauaylc , it. rcquireth the Voyage 
but of ha'fc the Globe. But to circic the earth , as 
the Heaiicn'y bodies doe^was not done , not; eat; r- 
prifed,till thcfe l^attercimes ; And therefore thefe 
times may iuftly bcarc in their word , not onely Plm 
vltrd in precedcnc<s of the ancient N&» vltrd^ a^d 
IfhaabfUffdmef9^\ni^zczdt':\ccoU\\h:iv\c\cni -. 

Vemf»s quinynms etnon imttabilefilmenj^c, 

But Hkewffbjin refpc<^ of many memorable Voyage? 

after the manner of Hcaucn, about the Globe of 

the earth. ^ 

And this Prdficiencc inNaulgation , arid Uifco- 

ucrics 5 may plant alio an cxpedarion of the furchcjf 

proficicnce, and augmentation of all Sciences ^ bc- 

caufe it may fccme they arc ordayned by God to be 

Cf7^V4/jf,that isjto mccte in one Age. 

Forfo the Prophet D/«A;/^/rpeaking of the lat- 
ter times, fore-telleth : Flurimi fertrd/ijibttnt^ ^ 
Mnltiflex erit Sc/emia, as if the opcnneflc and 
through pafTagc of the World, and the cn- 
creafc of Knowledge were appoynted to bee in the 
fanie agcj, as wee fee it is already |^erformcd in 
great part , the Learning of theft latter times not 
much giuing place to the former two Periods orRe-^ 
tiimes of Learning , the one of the Guc/ms , the o« 
xkctoUhQ RomMis. 


^hefemid'Boo}^, ill 

l^ory Ecclefiajiiciil^ rccciucth the fame dl- 
uiTions with Hiftory Ciiiill ; but further in 
the propriety thereof may bee diuidcd into 
Bifl&ry of the Church , by a gcncrall aatne. Hi- 
fi ory of Prof^hefi^ , and Hiflory of Fromctcme : The 
firft difcribcth the times of the militant Church; 
whether it be fluduant, as the Arkeof iV^^, of 
mooueabic, as the Arke in the VVildcrneflc : Or 
at reft, as the Arke in the Temple : That is^the ftate 
of the Church inPctfecution,inRcraoouc, andiii 
Peace. This part lought in no fort to note as de^Sii. 
ent, only I would the vertuc and fincerity of !t,wcre 
according to the mafle,and quantity. But I am now 
in hand with cenfurcs, but with omifTions, 
The fecond,which is ////?<^r)' of /^r<?/»^^/?^jConf!{\eth 
ofiwoRclatiucs,the PcophcfiCjand theaccompliffe- 
ment; and thercfoiethe nature of fuch a work ought 
tobCjthat euery Prophefic of the Scripture be forted 
-with the cuent fulfilling theiamcjthroughout the a- 
ges of the world,both foi the better confirmation 6£ 
faith,and for the better illumination of the GhufcH^ 
touching thole parts of Prophcfies^ which are yet vn« 
fulfilled : allowing neuerthcl :flctbat Latitudejwhich 
is agreeable arid ftmiliar vnto DiuinePtdphcfics, 
bceing of t be nature of the Author, with whom 
athoufand Yeares arc but as one day 5 and there- 
fore are. not fulfii'lcd put:i<fta?.lly ,, at ^(iriec, but 
haue fpringing and germinant'accoinplifhrnc'nc 
tlioroughout many Ages, though the Rci ',hc oc 
ftllnefle of them may re erre. to foiuc ©nc Aire". 

0.2 This 


II OftheaduancemCmtofLearnlm 


This is a workc which I findc deficient , but is to 
Jtt09ji4 |jg5 ^Qj-^g ^, jj|j wifcdomc, fobricty 5 and reucrence,or 

The third , which i$ Hf[lmt^ o^ Prouidem^^y 
conuyncth that excellent corre/pondcncc , which 
is bciwfcnc Gods rcu?a'ed will, and his fecrete 
will : Which though it bee fo obfcure, as for the 
moft pan ic is not legible lo the Maturall man 5 no, 
nor many rimes to thofc th».t behold it from the Ta- 
bernacle : Yet at fomc trmss it.pleafcth God for our 
better eftabiirhmtnt 5 and the conhiting of thofe 
which are as without God in the World 5 to write ic 
in fuch Tcxtand Capital! Letters , that, as the Pro- 
phet iaith,/;f that runneth by^m.iy reid //:thkt is^raecre 
icnfiiall perfonSjWhich halkn by Gorisiudgements, 
and ncucr bend or fixe their cogitations vpon th€n">j 
are ncucnhclefie in their pafTage and Race vrgcd to 
difcerncit. n-/r •?. j so : : 

Such arc the notable cucnrs and cicamp-fs of 
Godsiudgcmcnts, chaftiziments^dcliucrahcesand 
blcilings : And this is a workc which hath pafTcd 
thiough the labours of many , and therefore I can- 
not prelent as omitted^ 

There are alfb other parts of Learning which 
arc x^fftnikes to Hifiortc^ , for all the exterior 
proceedings ofmanconfift of Wordcsand Decdes: 
whereof Hif^ory docth properly receiuc and retayne 
in Memory the Decdes, and if in VVords,yet but as 
Inducements and pafiages to Decdes ; So are there 
Pihcr Bookes and Writings^which arcappropriat to 


Thefecondnool^. tl^ 

the cufiody, and rcceitc of VV^ordcs onely : which 
likcwife ate of three (brts : Of itf/^w, Letters ^ and 
Brief e Speeches , or SAygngs : OrMthns arc Pleadings, 

Speeches of Counfell 5 LaudatiucSj InuciJiiiieSjA- 
pologieSjRcprehenfions; Orations of FormalitVj or 
Ceremony, and the like : Letters are according to 
all the variety of cccafionsjAducrtifmentSjAduifcsj 
'tYj Expodulatorv., Satiffadory, of Complement, 
of Pleaftirc , of Difcourfe , and all ^ther pailagcs 
of Adio'i. ■ ■■'' 

Andfuchas arc Written for Wife tt\tt\, are 
of a'l the words of Man , in my iudgcmcnt the beiJ, 
for they 'arc more Natiirall then OratiottSj and pub. 
licke fpeecHcs 3 and more aduifed tiicn corifcrctes, 
or preicnt fpccches : So agayne Letters of Aftaires 
from fnch as Manage them , orarepriuy to thctp, 
arc of all others the beft inftrudions for Hiftory, 
and tea diligent Reader 3 thebeft HiftoriesinThem- 
feiiics . For Jpothegmts : 1 1 is a great loflc of that 
Booke of Cafars j for as his Hiftory, and thefefew 
Lcttcrsof his which wfee haiie, ai^d thoffe Apo- 
thegmcs which w^re of his owne , exc^ll all mens 
clfc : So I fuppofe Would his Collcftion of esf^^- 
r^^^»^/hauc done 5 for as for thofc which arc Col- 
lected by others ^ ey thcr 1 hauc no tafle in fuch Mat- 
ters, or elfe their choyce hath not bccne happy. But 
vpponthcfe three kindcs of Writings I doe not in- 
fift, bccaufc I hauc no dcfieicnccs to propound con* 
ccrniHgthcm. 'f,)./f 

Q,3 Thus 

il:^ Of the aduanccment of /earning. 

Thus much therefore concerning Hiftory, which 
Js.that part of Learning , which aiilwcreth co one of 
the CelU , DomiciUs^ or offices of the mind of Man^ 
which is that of the Memory. 

I'SOefizj} is a part of Learning in mcafurc of 
ufWordcs for the moft part reft ray ncd ^ but 
' in all other poynts extreamclyh'cenfcd j and 
doth trucly rcferre to the Imagination : VVhich 
bccing not tyed to the Lawes of Matter j may at 
plcafurc ioyne that which Nature hath feuercd 5 and 
feuer that which Nature hath ioyned, and fo make 
vnlawfull Matches and Diuorfes of things : PiBoru 
hm MquePeetu , &c. It is taken in two fcnfcs in icf 
pCJ^ of Wordes ot Matter : In the firft fenfc it is but 
.^ Ch^aSltr o£ ftile, and belongeth to Artcs af 
Jpeecb, and is not pertinent for the pretent. In the 
Iattcrjitis(ashathbccnefayd^ one of the princi- 
pal! portions of Learning ^ and is nothing clfe but 
F//w<^ H/i?^, which, may bee i^ilcd as well in Profc 

(;c;isThcyfcof this Famed Hffimt^ , hath beenc 
'to giue {pmc ftiaddowe of fatiffa^ion to the 
lUHide of Manin thofc poynts, wherein the Na- 
tiireofthingsdotbdenyit, the World bccing in 
proportion infeiiour to the foule : By rcafon where- 
of there is agreeable to the {pirite of Man , a more 
ampleGrcatnefTe, a more exad Goodneirc 5 and 
>naorcabfo]ute variety then can bee found in the 
Nature of thinges. Therefore, becaufe ^Ik ads 

The/econci \Boo^. 1 25 

er Clients (^true Hifiorj^^ hath not that Magnitude, 
which fatifficfh the mindeof Man , PcefJe fayncth 
A<5is and Eiients Greater and more Heroically be* 
caiifc tru^ Wfiory propo4indeth the fucccflcs and i{^ 
flics of a4^ions,not fo agreeable to the merits of Vci- 
tueand VicCjthercfore Foefa hina them morciuft 
in Retribution , anJ more according to Rcuealed 
proiiidcncc, bccaufc true Hijiory rcprcfcntcth Acti- 
ons and Euents, more ordinary and kflc inter-chan- 
ged J therefore Pofjtc^ enducth them with more 
Rarcneffc , and more vncxpcdled , and alternatiuc 
Variations^ So as it appeatcth that Foeftr feructb 
,ind conferreth to Magnanimity , Morality, and t© 
Delctf^ation. And therefore it was euer thought to 
hauc foivse participation of Diuineflc, bccaufc it 
doth rayfc and cred the Minde , by fubmitting the 
fhcwcs of things to the dcfircs of the Minde j where* 
as reafon doth buckle and bowc the Minde Vnto the 
Nature of things. 

And wee lee that by thcfe infttiuations and coa- 
gruities with mans nature and picafure , ioyoed alfo 
with the agreement and confort it bath with Mu- 
^cke , it hath had accede and eftimation in rude 
times, and barbarous Regions , where other Lear- 
ning fiood excluded. 

The diuifion oiPeefi which is'apceft in the proprie- 
ty thcrof(befidcs thole diuidons which are common 
vnto it with Hiftory : as fained Chronicles , fayncd 
LiucSjand the Appcndiccsof Hiftory, as fayncd Epi- 
fties 5 fayned Orations , and the reft) is into Foejie^ 

ii6 Oftheadudncment of Learnings 

Marratmf-^ Repre/dnt4frti^^.y and Mtfmc^. The 
NArratme is a meere imitation oFHiftory with the 
exccITes before remcmbred j choofing for fubic^l 
common Wars, and Lone 5 rarely State , and fbine* 
tiines plcafurc or Miriii, . 

Ri-pirefematmc^ is as a viflble Hiftery , and is 
an Image of Actions in nature as they arc , (that is) 
part ; Ailnfiuc^ or P^AbolkAU ^ is a Mayt Alton ap- 
plyed onely to expre(Ic fomc fpeciall purpofc oc 
conccitc. Which latter kind of Parabolicall wife- 
dome was much more in vfc in the ancient times, 
as by the Fables of t/Efop^y , and the bricfc fcnten- 
ces of the fcuaen , awd the vfe of Hiero^ljphikss 

And the caufc was for chat then of neccflfity to 
exprclTe any poynt of rcafon , which was more 
fharpcorfubtilc then the vulgar \n that manner^ 
bccaiifc men in tho(c times wanted both variety 
of examples , and fiibtilty of Conccitc ; And as 
Hierogfyphikes were before Letters , fo Parables 
were before Arguments : And neuertheleiTc now, 
aiid at all times they doe retayne much life and vi- 
-gor , becaufe rcafon cannot bee fo fcnfible , not ex- 
amples fo fit. 

But there remayneth yet another vfe of Toeft€_j 
ParahoUcAtl^ ©ppofice to that which wee laft men- 
tioned : For that tendeth to demonftrare, and il- 
lustrate that which is taught ordeliuercd, and this 
other to retire and obfcurc it : That is when the Se- 
crets and Miftcries of Religion, PollicyjOr Phylofo- 

phy, ire inuolued in Fables and Parables. 

Of this in Diuine Pocfic, we fee the vfetsau* 
thorifcd. In Heathen Pocdc , wc (cc the cxpoA* 
tionof FaHcs doth fall out fometiniws with great 
fclieitic, as in the FaWc that the Gy ants bceingo* 
ucrthrownc in their Warre againft the Gods , the 
Earth their mother in rcuengc thereof brought fot^ 

jffamterrd ? At ens kx irritdta Deorttm, 
Extremam^ vtfithi^tnty Cmo EmilAAdqueS^orim 

Expounded that when Princes and Monarches 
haucfuppreilcd altuall and open R.bels, then the 
jnaligniiie of people ( which is the mother of Rebcl- 
lion}doch bring foorth Lil>clsand (landers, and 
taxations of the States , which is of the fame kinde 
with Rebellion , but more Feminine : So in the Fa^ 
blc that thcrert of the Gods hauing coirfpircd to 
binde lupter , ? alias called BrUrim with his hun- 
dreih hands to his aydc, expounded, that Mo« 
narehies needc not fcareany courbing of their abfo- 
lutcncfTe by Mightie Subic(5is, as long as by Wife- 
dome they kccpc the hearts of the people , who 
will be fure to come in en their fide : So in the Fa- 
ble, that v^c^/^tf/ was brought vp vnder T^^rd^g the 
Ceauure ^ who was part a Man, and part a BeafVj 
Expounded Ingenioufly , but corruptly by Machia- 
ueil, tliat it bclongcth to the education and difci- 

R plinc 

plinc of Piin^i^s^ M kiKHve a^w^!) h^wm phy^h% 
p*U bf !theL\"Qrt3 in vu>l6nc<g, an^itlit tbs^ch^^uile, 
liiofih^Mami^ vcrtuea ".d'IuH>iec*' i f'^l - t*>«i^f^Hs 
- Keuerthckfle in m^ny tile iikr incmf^ecrij-:! dde 

iratl/eT thjrikQ.tii^t the fable was fird , and The;< x- 
pofitjon doiiifc^ ,:;tbcn':thai; xlic KloralJ. was ^firft; 
^^i;i4;%'er€.up0i^i[?t.Eab[erfmm^dt.\Fof ifo^ 
an avmcicnt vanitjc, in chr/jhpM ^ ihat troubled 
himfelfc with ^rcat coitention to Ldzn the afTcr- 
tions of the M^.^^^^ vppwfitjlrQns afrhtaimcicnt 
Poct^,: f^iiiyct, j^h^W phs' Fables- aod. H^ons of 
the Poets, were but plcafure and not figure;! intcr- 
pofeno opinion. 

kiijolc- of .Scripti.it5'5 )hy^h^■ la^cf . SchoQlcs.of 'ci-ic 
decians) yet I (bould yyjchoutrjany d]ffi<:u)kic pro* 
noiince ^ t hat his Fables l.iad no .ftKb ;io ward ncffcm 
his Qvynenieaning.: . But what tl^ey ipay^bauc, vpon a 
^noTcpciginali tiididpn , is notea(l^j;o.a0irmc,fof 
h^ was liot the inucntpr oftiianj? i>f th^m. -vA o • n;c! 
In this third part of Learning which is Pocfie , I 
can report no deficience . For being as a plant that 
cpmtneth to the luft of the earth,: wifhouc a formall 
fedej jth^th fpr^ng vp, and ipread abroad, more 
tWa any o^her kinde; But; toaferibcvnro it that 
\vhich is due for the exprefling of affc^ions , paili- 
bns,xoriuptions and cufton^s, wc are beholding 
to Poets 3 more then to the Philofophcrsworkcs, 
^ndfor Wit and Eloquence, not much lefTc then 


,£0 Orators 4iarjingues . Butic is not good to ftay 
-.^i^o^lotvgin th/s^'Jheafer-: '.LiCr'YS naw paflTaoBtOithc 
'lad ici^il Place or Pallacc of the Minde,' whicKnvc 
l^is to approa^ch^n^ viiQvv, wiifemprcreucrenecaHd 
.-atccnfioii. , ^ic;;. j ^ L:v..;> :.i :i : -.'; -.r'- • i ,.?.rj^J 
.no'j) hffr. fo^i;),' '1 j. nor 

THs iCn9ivIc.dge of Man is as thewalcrs , (bmc 
dercending from aboiic, andfomc Ipniiging 
from beneath^ the one informed by the light 
oiNariirej;t}i^other infpired by diuinc reud^atioa,. 

Th e lighr of NatUi-e oonriftci.h 5 m ibt Nations 
of the rnindc,«nd the Keporcs ofchc Scnces'^for as 
for Knowledge whicfi Man tecchicth by teaclting, 
it is Cunwlatuic, and not Otiginall ,35 in a water, 
that befides his owiie fpfing-hpad is fed with other 
Springs and5trcames. So then according to the(e 
two differing llhimmatipns^ or Originals 5 Know- 
. Jedge is firft of all deiiidcd iiika/?i#/>?/0 and Mlsfs- 

fhie, , .' :.;..,...; •:.. ;; Jl » .bi::';^;:.: :-.::>- ::■■■:. 

In Philafofh'y y^ t^je co' ' tempfatidtis: bf Maft hI^ ei-* 

ther penetrate v/z/^Ge*^, orare circihuferrcd toNa^ 

ture^ or ixz rcflcdted or reutrt^r^vpori i^/;i«/^i';4^. Out 

of which feueralJ, inquiries; .jHieic doc arife three 

^Kno'vlcdges, DmiKe Ph/lcfiphte ^. NatufAH Phtlufo- 

^|ijf^'.^nd Hamm^i. /'^«/0r|^/.'//rior:'/j/rfz)^5»//^v''F0r-aIi 

'Jtbif»gs aj^,liia/k^ fk5-:id to^ped^ft^^^ 

'ra&r off k^ ^u^^v^f.of'G^O'd,' he^diffwrenebo^ Natiirc, 

and the vff^ofMin. But bccau'c rhedifti ifeHtion5'& 

parritionsoiKntitvwIedge,. ^rririarlii^e fetieratWiBcs, 

th^tipectJQ oj.cAn^e, arid f«;)t ©Lie h but-iii a poittr, 

U 2 but 

ijo Of the acluancemtnt of Learnings 

hvx are like braunches of a Tree, that meeie in a 
^emmei which hatha dimcnficnand quantiticof 
entyrcnclle and continuance , belore it corr c to dif- 
eontinuc and brcake it felfc into Armes and 
boughes 5 therefore it is good , before we enter into 
the former diftribution , to cre^ and conftituie one 
vniucrfall Science, by thtnzxxsto^ PhyiefophUPri' 
ms^ Prmitiue or Suntfunfte Philofophte ^ as the 
^ainc and common way, before we come where the 
wayes part, and diuide thcmfelues , which Science, 
whether I H^ould report as deficieot or no , I Hand 

For I finde acertainc Rapfbdic of NaturAU Thee- 
lofte^ and of diucrlc parts otZ,<i»g/r^^ : And of that 
other part oiNatur*il Ph/lofophte^ which conccr- 
ncth the Prmip/es , and ol that other part of Natu- 
taU Philefiphie , which coi iccrneth the Sonle or Spi- 
rit 5 all thcfc ftrangeiy cotumixcd and confufed : 
but being examined, it fccmcth to me rathi,r a deprc- 
dj^tion of other Sciences, aduanced and exalted vnto 
feme height of tearrocs ^ then any thing folide or 
fisbftantiue of it felfc. 

Neuerthdeflc I cannot be igoorant of the diftin* 
<^ion which i% currant , that the fame things are 
handled but in feuerall refpeds : As for example, 
that Logiclce confidcreth oi many things as they 
arein Notion? and thisPhilofophie, astheyarcin 
Nature.' theonein,Apparance, the other in Exi- 
gence 0* But I find this difference better made then 
purfMcd-, For if they had confidcred QHAmslnit^ 


The Jecond Bool^. i;i 

SfmilHitde^ Viuerffte , and the reft of thofe Exferne 
Cara^erso^X.\\\u^<> , as Phtlcjophers , ^^^ iw Nature; 
their inquiries muft offeree haue btenc of a farre ©• 
thcr kind then rhey arc. 

For doihanyof them in handh'ng Quantitic, 
fppake of thw force of Vnion, how , andhovv&rrc it 
myltiplicth Vertue ? Doth any giue the rcafbn, 
why fomc things in Nature are fb common and in 
fbgrcatMaflcj and others fo tare , and info (mail 
quantitic? Doth any in handling Similitude and 
Dtucrfitic , afllignc the caufc why Iron fhould not 
moouetolron, which is more like, butmooucto 
the Loade-ftonc, which islcfle like? Why in all 
Diucifitios of things there (bould beccrtainc Par- 
ticiples in Nature , which are almoft ambiguouf^ 
to which kinde they (liould bee referred? But there 
i$ a meere and decpc fiJencc , touching the Na- 
ture and operation of thole C$mmom adiunffs of 
things, as in nature; and onely a refuming and re- 
peating of* he force and vfe of them , in fpccch or 

Tncrcfore bccaufe in a Writing of this Nature, 
I auoide all fubtiiitic : My meaning touching this 
Original! or Vniucrfall Phiofophie, is thus in a 
plane and groffedefcrprionby Ncgaiiue : Thatti 
he M RenftAclefar aU fuchfro^uhU obferuAtiotfs And 
Axioms ^ aaj&Unot xeiihmthe comfxjfe df any efthe 
JpectAff fAfts dj Phtirfopbte^ or sctthecs -^lut Mremere 
(ommon^sna of a higher fisge. 

Now tkat there arc many of that kindc neede 

R 3 ^9^ 

!jz Oftheadudnci/nentof.L^ 

not CO be doubted ; for example; Is not the rule 
Si iffc^quAlihf^ .tiyidU Addas ^ omnn eruat in.tq^mlici, 

;A idiis dvrc noc a true coincidence bctwcenc 

commuratiucanddirtributiuc IuQicc,and Arithme- 

,ticalJ>and <l,coni.ecik:all proportion? An Axiome 

jas,w«ll of iu(lice,a6 of che MathcTiatiques? Is noc 

^ that other jule, Qu^'tn eodem tertw con»c»mnt^^ /;/-. 

■terfecoff.»€/7/((^tyaKi\U taken from the Matheira- 

tiques J but fopotcnc in Logickc as all Syllogifmcs 

^arc built vpoii it? Is npt the obfcruation , OmnU 

jnuumnr , ntlipttfit , a contemplation in Plulofo- 

phic thus, that the QmntHmol^Mmz is ccernall,ln 

Naturall Theologic thus. That it rcquircch the 

(ame Omnipotencie to make fomewhac Nothingj 

which at the firft made nothing fomevvhat? accor- 

dingtothe Scripture, Didtc'f qf^odomm^topfera qru 

fecit Dem^ferfeuerent in ferfetmim^ non^ojf^mm eis 

^mtquam addere^MC A'dfnre. .,,^ ^^,,, 

Isnot t'hegi;Qund which ^4r/?/.<«/^wireIy and 
largely difcqurfeth concerning GouctnemcntSjThac 
the way to eftablifh and prcferue them , is to reduce 
them ad Prsncipia ^ a rule in Religion and Nature, as 
wellaslnCUiiiliadmiiuikation? was not che Perji$?t 
Magickc a ;rcdudiOn ox correfpondcnce of the 
Principles and ArchitCiS^uresof NatmCj to the rules 

* and policic of GouemCiiJ^.n^s?. Is np.c the pti:,ccpc 
of a Mufitian, to fall from ^idikord or harfh accpi d, 
vpona concord, or fwcetc acc^or J, aijkc tuie in »^flfc- 
6^ion ? Is not theTiopcof Ntiifickc , tQ auoidj^or 

• ilide from the clofe ofCaJency > cem!i:!on.wif 'i the 


Trc j^e d^rRHet6ritkc©f<iccciuing txpeftation ? Is 
not the dclig hr of theQ»»^ut*rmg vpon a f^op in Mt?-; 
iickCj tlie^fairje\vhfchtliC'j>Iaying of Light vpoa 
the water? ■ 

-- 'Splendet tremtdofub Lum'tne Pontu4» 
Arc not the Organs of the fcenecs of one Icindc 
<vitH thi- Organs ok Rcflcxfon, the eye with a glafle,, 
the Eaft with' a C nie or Straight determined arid' 
Bbund'fd? Neither ate thefc onely-fimilitiides, a& 
in?i^ bPf>arrowe obferiiation may concciue them 
to'tfce^, but "the fame foote ileppes of HaCurc^ 
treading or priming vppon fciicrail Siibiedts.QtMat- 

This Science therefore , ( as I Yndetftandit,/! j>hHofophU 
'^if\\\W^fif6Kx^^% deficient ; for X fee fomctimc^ prima, jfugdg 
th'eprofouV.dcr'roftot Wits, in handeling {qme F<f»ti^Hi S*f'> 
partfCuTcr argiimcrir , will now and then drawe a ^«^wr«». 
Buckcrpf Water but ofthis Well", for their p?c(cnt 
vfe : Bat ttie fpring head thereof {cemerh cajipe^ 
fiot t6 hauebene vifitedj being of f^^ excellciirvn*, 
bbth for the d^fclofing of Nature, and the iabri^gc-^ 
mcntofArr. • ' (.u^'/ 

This Science beeing therefore firft placed a«^ a 
common parent , WVq s mo Berecinth/a^ whicb^^d 
fo tiuch Heauenly yffuc, Omnes CceUCola^ ^Ofnpts 
fuf>ra aha tenentes , we may ret urne to ti :c forjifcr d i. 
ftribution ot the three Philofophies; Diuifncj Natij* / 
rail, and Humane. k 

And as conccrwing T>'tuine ThUofophy ^ oxNOn 
tHTAd ihceloye ^ It is that Knowledge or Rudi< 

. Hient 

i^ Ofth'. aduancement of Learnings 

flfjcnt of Knowledge caijcerning God, which may 
be obtained by the concempUtio» of his Creatures ; 
which Knowledge may be trucly tcarmcd Diuitie, m 
rcfped oftheobicd^ andNacurall in rcfpcfl of 
the Light. 

The bounds of this Knowledge are , that it fnffi- 
cethto conurnce Atheifmc J but not to informc Re- 
ligion : And ihereforc there was neuer Miracle 
wrought by God to conucrt an Aiheift, becaufc the 
Kght of Nature might haue led him to confeflc a 
God : But Miracles haue becne wroug'it to con- 
ucrt Idolaters , and the fliperflicious , bccaufe no 
light of Nature entcndeth to declare the will and true 
worfhip of God. 

For as all worker doe (Ijcwc foorth the pow« 
and skill of the workcman , and no: his Image : 
So it is of the workcs of God *, which Joe fhcw :hc 
Omnipotency and Wifedomc of t^c MaUr, but 
not his Image ; And therefore therein the Hearlcn 
opinion differcth from the Sacred truck ; For they 
{uppo(cd the world to bee the Image oFGod , and 
Man to be an cxcra<florcdiiip:ndiou$ Imageoftlic 
world: But t^c Scriptures neu:r vouch -lafc to at- 
tribute to the world that honour as to be the Image 
©f God ' But onely The werke ofhu hands , Nei- 
ther do they fpcakc of any other Image of God, but 
Man : wherefore by the contemplation of Nature, 
to induce and inforcc the ackaowledgcmcnt of 
God, and to demonftrate his power, ptouidcace, 
and goodncflc , is an excellent argument , and 


T^hefecond BooI{e. 135 

hath bene excellently handled by diucrre. 

But on the other fide , out of the contemplation 
of Nature 5 or ground of Humane Knowledges, 
to induce any vcritie, or perfwafion concerning 
the poinres of Faith , is in my iudgement , not 
fafc : Da fida , qu^ jidei funt , For the Heathen 
themfeiues conclude as much in that cxcelJcnt and 
Diuine /able of the Golden Chayne : That men 
And. Gods were not able to draw luptter downe to the 
Earthy but (cHttArfPcife^ luftter woj able to draw them 
vp to Heauen. 

So as we ought not to attempt to draw downe 
or fubmit the Myftcrics of God to our Rcafon : but 
contrarivvife , to rai/e and aduancc our Rcafon to 
the Diuine Truth. So as in this part of Know- 
ledge, touching Diuine Philofophie ; I am fo 
farrc from noting any dcficiencc, as I rather note an 
cxcelTc: whereuMto I haue di^reffid, becaufc of 
the exrrcamc prejudice, which both Religion and. 
Phi'ofophie hath receiued , and may rcceiue by be- 
ing commixed togetlicr; as that which vndoubted- 
ly will make an Heriticall Religion 5 and an Ima- 
ginaricand fabulous Philofophy, 

Otlierwifc it is of the Nature of Angels and 
Spirits, which is an Appendix of Theologie, both 
Diuine aad Naturall; and is neither infcrutablc 
nor intcrdided : Forakhough the Scripture fayth. 
Let m man dfcetueyou in Sublime difceurje touching 
the wor(Jj>p of Angels , frefiing into that he knoweth 
not^^c. Yet notwithftanding if yow obferue well 

S ' that 

1^6 Of the aduancement of /earning, 

that precepCjit may appearc thereby, that there 
be twothingsonely forbidden J Adoration of them, 
and Opinion Fantaftscall of them , cither to extoll 
them 5 further then appcrtaineth to the degree of a 
Creaturej or to extoll a mans Knowledge of them, 
further then he hath ground. 

But the fobcr and grounded inquiric which may 
arilc out of the paflages ©fholy Scriptures , ot out 
of the gradacions of Nature is not reftraincd ; So of 
degenerate and reuohcd fpirits; the conuerfing 
wi h them , or the irr»p!oyment of them isprobibi- 
tcdjmuch more any veneration towards them . But 
the contemplation or Science of their Nature, thcit 
power, their illufions, either by Scripture or reafon, 
is a part offpirituall Wifedomc. For (b the Apoftle 
fayth , tFfare mot ignorant of his Sttdtagems : And 
it is no more vnlawfull to enquire the Nature of 
cuillfpirits, then to enquire the force of poyfbas 
inNature, or theNuurcoffinne a.idvicc in Mo- 
rality 5 But this parte touching Angels and Spi- 
rites , I cannot note a deficient , for many haue oc- 
cupied themfelues in it : I may rather challenge 'it 
in many of the Writers thereof, as fabulous and 

Lcauing therefore Dtuint ph'dofophie ^ oxNa- 
turail Theokgie ^ ( nQ^Dittmeot InfpiredTheolsgie^ 
which we rcfcrne for the laft of all , as the Hauea 
and Sabbath of all Mans contemplations ) we will 
nowe procecdc to NUttrAff phtlofo^hie : If then 
it bee true that DemocrttM fayde , Thdi the Truth 


Thefecond^oof^e. 1^7 

ofNAturc^ Ijcth hid, in UrWtnz^ deep^^ Minetand 

And if it be true likewife, that i\\q jilchymifls 
doe fo much inculcate , That rnlcan is a (ccond 
Nature 5 and imiratcth that dcxtcrouflic and com- 
pcndiouily , which Nature worketh by ambages, 
andlcngthoftimc, It were good todeuidv; Nacu- 
rall Philofophic into the Myne and the FornacCj 
and to rt^ake two profciTions or occupations ofNa- 
turall Phylofophers J fomcto bee Pyonncrs, and 
fome Smithes, foms to diggc, and (omc to re- 
fine, and Hammer : And (urdyldoebeft allowc 
of a deuifion of that kinde, though in more fami- 
liar and Scholafticall reacmes : Namely that thcfc 
bee the two partes of Natural! Philosophic , the In- 
qiiifiihnof CAufes^ and the Vroduclion of Effects \ 
SpecuUtiue ^ SLnd 0/feratiue , Naturall Science , and 
Naturall Prudence. 

For as in Ciuile matters there is a Wifedomc 
of difcourfe , and a Wiledomc of dircdiion : So 
is it in Natural! : And here I will make a requeft, 
that for the lutcr ( or at leaft for a parte thereof) 
I may reuiwe and reintegrate the raif-applycd and 
abuicd Name of NAturall Magkke , which in the 
true fence 5 is but NaturAll fVtfeiome^^ or Na- 
tHTAll Prudence : taken according to the aun- 
tient acception , purged from vanitie and fuper- 

Now although it be true , and I knowe it well, 
that ttierc is an entcrcourfc bctwcenc CAnfes and 

S 2 tfeas^ 

f ^8 Of the adumc^ment of Learn ingy 

Ejj'cis ^ foasbothKiiovvledges Specuiati/te ^m^ Op^- 
rat.'ue , haiie a grear connexion betvvccnc rhcm* 
felucs : yet b^caufcpJI true andfnii'efull l^turdi 
Philofophie ^ hach A donhle ScaU ox Liddtr^ Afcetf- 
dent ^w^ Defcendent ^ afcending from experiments 
to i\\t Inue /it 10 » ofc^njes'^^nd 'crccndin^from caii- 
fes , to the InaentwnofneweexperiwentS'^ riiercforc 
I iiidgc it mort tcquilitc that thele two parts be fe- 
ucrally confidcred and handled. 

, Natttr all Science oi Theory isdcuidcd into Phi- 
pckeT^dMeuphfJicke , wherein I dcfirc , it may be 
Goriceiued , that I vie x.\\Q\^ox<\Metaphsficke ^ in a 
difft ring fence , from that, that is rcceiued : And 
in like manner I doubt not, but it will cafily appcarc 
tomenof iudgement, that in this and other parti- 
culars, wheiefocucrmy Conception and Notion 
may differ from the Auneicnt , yet I am ftudious to 
kecpc the A'xicnt Termcs. 

For hopii"!g well to deliiier my fclfc from mifta • 
king, by the order and pcrfpicuous cxprelfing of 
that I do2 propound: I am othcrwife zealous and 
affcdionate to recede as litrle from Anciqui'vie , ci- 
ther in tearnics or opinions,as may rtand with tri|th, 
and the proficience of Knowledge. - .-?. 

And 1 .«rcin I cannot a iittle maruailcat the Phi- 
lofbpher Andotle ; that did proojcde in fuch a 
Spirite of difference and contradtdion towards all 
Antiquitic, vidertaking not onely to frame newc 
words of Science at pleaiure : but to confound and 
extinguifh all ancient Wifcdome \ in fo much as he 


ncuci naiTicch or mcntioneth an J^ncient Authot 
oropinion^buttocGnfureandrcproiic: wherein for 
g'ory, and drawing toilowcrs anJ diloplcs^tic tookc 
the rie! tcourlt.* 

For ccrcaiacly inere commcch t6pailejand hatfe 
place in humanje triuh , that.whfWwa^ noted and 
pronounced in' ?he h'gficil'tVuth ; " V^Ht mkpmne 
Fatris^ Kec ruiptis Mc^St c^m venertt tn »p^mefko, 
eHmreciptitif", Buti!i ttis diuJn^Aph©rirrtic(con» 
fidering , to whonvitv^as applied ^ Namely to ^n- 
t/chrifty the highcft deceiucr;) vve may.difcernc well 
that th€ C9mmi*igm a Ma^.sdw»e.''mwe\ fwiiJiQut re- 
gard oi Antiquity, oipnt^rmty 5 is no goodfi 'iic of 
truth-, although it be ibyned with the fortiinc and 
fiicceiTe of an Bum rec/p/et^.^^''^^-\'^^-^ ' ■■ '■; - ; ' 

But for this excellent ^^tfoi}^r/fioi/eltmil 
tliinke of him , thath^ learned tha^'hurnou'r of his 
Scholler ^ with whom, it fccmcth , he did emulate, 
the one to conquer all Opih*ions , as the other to 
conqiicr all Nations. \A herein neucrthelcfle it 
may be , he may at fomc mens hands , that are of 
a bitter difpofition, get a like title as his Scholler 

FceZ/x terurum fr^Ao^ non vtile munde 
EAitHs exemplum.d-Cy So 
Faltx di/^ri»ie Prado. 

But tome on the other fide that do dcfirc as much 
as lycth in my Pennc, to ground a fociable enter- 

S I courle 


140 Oftheaduancem ent of Learnings 

^Durfcbctwecne Anriqiiity and Proficicncc , it fee 
ipethbeft, tokcpeway with Antiquity v[que ad 
dr4s i And therefore to retains the ancient tcarmes, 
though I fometimes alter th: vfcs and definitions, 
according to the Moderne proceeding in Ciuill 
Gouerncmentj where although there bee Ibmc 
alteration , yet that holdeth which Tacittts wifely 

Eddim Mafifiraiuvm vocAbuU, 
To rcturnc therefore to the vfe and acception 
©fthc itkxmz MetAfhtfieke ^ as I do now vnderAand 
the Word 5 It appeareth by that which hath becne 
-already fayd, that I intend, PhHoffhu prma-. Sum- 
tn^vy Fhilofopby ^ and Met^^htficke , which heretq- 
fore hauc btne'confounded as ont^t© be two diftini^t 

For the one, I h^uensiade as a Parent, or common 
Anceftortoall Knowledge j And the other I hauc 
now brought in, asa Braunch or defcendent o^NA" 
tural^Scifftce-jitaipipGnrtih likewifethatlhauc aflig- 
ned to SHmmiry Philo/ophie ihc common princi- 
ples and Axiomcs which are promifcuous and in- 
di^erent to feucrall Sciences ; I haue afllgned vnt® 
it likewife the inqufry tonch'tng the operation ofth e Rem 
latme and Aduentmi Lharaliers dfEJfetiCss^ as Quan" 
t'ny^Sim'tlttude^Diuerfute ^ fofibtltty^ and ihfirer^; 
with this diftin^ion , and prouifion : that they be 
handled as they haue cfficacic in Nature, and not 
Logically, It appeareth likewilc, tlia.t N/nnr^U 
^h&l(ff/f which heretofore hath beene handl d 


T'kefecond^ooJ^e. ij^x 

corifufcdly with Meta^h'tjuke ^ I h«ue inclofcd and 
bounded by ii fclfe. 

It is therefore now a quefti©n , what is left rt- 
maining for Meuffhificke : wherein I reiay without 
prciudice pr'efjructhus mticft of the conccitc of 
Antiquity J that /'/^//z^:)^^ ihould cetitemplate that 
which is inherent in Matter , and therefore tranfi- 
tory, and Metaphiflcke ^ that which is abftradied 
and fixed. 

And agamtf that Thificke fhoiM Taandle that 
which fuppofeth in Nature diely a being ^nd mo- 
uingj znd Meu^hijicke fhould handle that which 
fuppofeth sfurthcr in Nature , a teafbn , vndaftan. 
ding , and platforme. But the differcace perfpi. 
cwoufly cxpredcd , is moft familiar aftd (cnfi- 

For as wee dcuided N&turnU rh'ilofdphy in Gene- 
f^// into {he EnqutYte of C4»/?/,and ProiuBiomoi 
Effii^s : So that part which concerncth the Eftquiris 
o\Cmf(s ^ wee doe fubdiuide, according to the 
recciucd and found deuifion of Caufes-ylChc one 
part which is t'hijkke enquirethand handiech the 
Matifidl/and Efficient Caufes and the other which 
is Metafkificke handlcth the FormaS and FinnU 

pkificke , ( taking it according to the deriua- 
tions , and not according to our Idiorac , for M$» 
dtctne) isfcituated ina middlctcarme ordiftancc 
betwccne Naturall ff/Jforj^Aad MeUphifich, For 
KatmAll H$Hory dcfcribeth the VAtiety ofthl 

' tmim X 

14.Z Of the aduancementofLearnin^^ 

Pk/jicke the ^attfes , but f^jtrhUe 01 ^ef^icliue 
CA^fes 5 and Metxfhifcke tlis FixeX-kwdi Confl:int 

l^imm VI htc dftrefcit/itc q- vt Car a ifqasfcit^ 
^y99€94i^qt*e^.gni. '- 

Fire is the caufe of induration , biit rcfpcifiriic, 
clay : Fire is ihe caufe of colliquatibn but refpc^tiuc^ 
ip Wax. But fire is no coalUnt caufe csithcf ^f iridu-** 
rations or col iquition : So then the t^hificall caulcs 
are but tB*^ ^Science and the I^atrer. ^[^ ' ^ !/,' 
pht/jcki haih three parts , \vhcreofE,w-d'rvff>'e(l{^ 
i^^nncrfiftedor celUCieJ, , the third cphkmpUtcih 
Nature d'^'^fedox difirthuud. Nature iseirher in- 
to one cntycr Totail^ox elfe into the fame Principdl 
oxSe dfs. So as the firft do<5tri!^eis TeHchi»gi\\Q 
Contexture or Configuration o^Thmgs , as De Mun- 
do^ de vn'mcrfiUte Rerum, 

T)x fccond is the D<)£lrinc Concertth^ th~ ?rm- 
€ipies or On^tnals o'iTtmcs j The third is the Do;l-' 
imc Comernini^ all rarCfy^nd Parfc<cu/:irjty ofor 
Th/n^s : \JvhcthcT it bee of the differing liibftanccs, 
their diffcringqiia!iries and Natures 5 whereof there 
needeih no cnume'itionjthis part bring but as 
a C7/<?J or Para^hrds that alfendeth vpo 1 the Text of 

' Of tiiefc three I cannot report any as 
(deficient, In what truJi or perfection they are 
handled , I make not now any ludgement : 
' But 

But they arc parts of Knowledge noc dcfcrted by the 
Labour of Hm; 

Fet C^Utdphijlckc^ , wfe haue afligncd vn- 
to it the Enquiry of Fo&fnill ^ and Fimli Cdufes^ 
which aflignation , as to the former of tKcm 
may fcemc to bee Nugatory and voydc, becauie 
of the receiucd and inueteratc Opinions, that 
the inquifition of man , is not competent to findc 
o\M EfSemtAU formes y or True d/ffere»ces -^oiwhioh 
Opinion wee take this holds : That the Inuention 
of Formes is of all other parts of Knowledge the 
worthieft to bee {ought ^ if it bee poffibic to bee 

As for the pofUbility , they are ill Difco'jererSg 
that thinkc there is no Land ^ when they can fee no- 
thing but Sea. 

But it is manifefl j that.p/m in his Opiriioti eC 
idea^ J is one that had a wit .©F elevation fcitn- 
ate as vponaCIilfe, did defcry, tkitfoymssv^sn 
the true ohte^f of knowlidge ; but lofi the r«a!l fruic^ 
of !iis opinioa by confidcring of fl^rmci ^ asabfo-' 
hitc'y abftrac^ed from mattfr^ and noi coml-cd 
and dctejminisdby mattet : md To turiii!T;ghis^« 
pinion vppon Theo/ogy ^ vvhcrevvithsU his NaUuall 
Phylofophy is inf:<5lc'd, ,, ..!.,. 

But if any man fhall kccpe ^contmwall watch- 
full and feuu^re eye vpon ad^ion , operation-, .iu4 
the v(e of KnouMen'gc , hee may adtiifc a^-Ki fake 
Notice,' wh,ip arc the formes, the difc.loii^rcs. 
whcieof are fruitcful! and important to the' Sratc 

T of 

14.4 Ofthe^JmncwimtofLearmng^ 

of man. For as to the f&rma of fubAanccs (Man 
ondy orc^pr , ) of whom n is fay d , Formmtt ho- 

mtmm de Umo ierr<£ ^ C^ fpfrmh m JAc'tcm ain;. fp'h 
TAculum V2t£ , and nor as of 2II oth.r Creatures, 
Preducam aqf4£ ^ producap tcrrt ^ ti/)e forma oj fui?- 
JiAnus \ 1 fa) (as rhty are now by compounding and 
tranlplantingmultiplicdjarcfo perplexed, as ihey 
arc not to be enquired. No more then it were cy- 
tber pcflible or 10 purpofe, to fccke in grofJe T/?^ 
Jormts of thof. fyunds rchkh make roorKes ^ which 
by compodtion and tranfpofitionof Letters arc if> 

But on the other fide , to enquire the forme of 
thefi Sounds or Voices, Vilnch make jimple Letters ^ is 
ciiily con-ip chj^nbic , and being knowncj^duccrh 
and manifclkth the formes ofnords , which confift,. 
an \ arc compounded of them 5 in the.fdmemann.r 
to tnc^ixcthe forme of a Lyon, ©f anOkc, of Q AJ : 
Nay of W atcr, of AyfCj is a vayne putfiit .-Dn.'t 
to ciiquire the formes of Scnce , of voluntary Moti- 
on, of Vegetation , of Colours, of Grnuityand 
L"uity,of Dcnfiry,of Tenuity, of Hcare, of ^c IJ, 
and all other Natures and qualities , which like ?.n 
t^lphahet arc no,t many., and of which the cflcn- 
CCS ^vphcld by Ma'^ter) of a I Creatures t-oc 
confift : To enq'Jtrc , I fay ihe true formes of thcfc, 
is that i^zxto? A^etaphijicke^ ^ wliich v/eenowd;;- 
fine of. ^ ' 

Not but that Ph'/J:tk<LJ doth make enquiry, 
and wke confidctation of che fame Natures , ^ut 

ho A? 

how ?'0.icly, as to the materhUAndfujftfientCAufes 
ofthc{ asco/^ify(?r;w^f. For example, if 
tlic c:.ufe of rch:te?teffe in Saow or Froth be inquired^ 
and it be rendred chiis ; That the fnbttls irUermtx- 
ture of Ayre Afid tPAicr is the caafi , k is v^ cH rcndrcd, 
but ' cucrchclede is tfiis the forme oixphnenejfe? No, 
bat It IS the (jfutent^ which i% euer biu v^hiCaUm 

TnSj pare of /!/<?/ ^fhijlcke : I doe not fiadc; ia- 
boiTzd and performed, Whereat I mariiayle nut. Be« Metafhy^e^, 
cajfrl huld t not pdflible lo bee imiented by that Jtttt de f^rmU 
coiitfcof inuciitionuhichhathbeene vft^ J "^ii-j re & Ftft^M 
g.^rd that men (which is the Rootc of allcttor) haue ^^ *^' 
ma^c too vnHmcly a departure, and to remote a re- 
c^Jlc frf>m particulars. 

But the vfe of this part of MetAph/jtcke \v\\ich 
I r-porc as deficient, is of the reft, the qiofi cxceU 
knc in two refpcifts ; The one bccaufe it is the 
diiry and vctruco. all Knowledge to abridge the 
infinite of indiuidualf experience^ as much as the 
conception of Tru^h wi'I permit , and to remedy 
the complaint of ^'/r4 l^reuU^ ars longa ^ which is per* 
formed by vniring the Notions andConcqnions 
of Sciences : For Knowledges are the Pyramides, 
'w\\zvtii'i Htflory is the Bajts : So q( NAtur.iU Phy^ 
lofophy^xhzBafis is NAtnrAU Hifory : The StA^e next 
the BaJjs is Phyficke : Thv St Age next ih' F-erttCAU 
j'Oint 15 Mit.ifhficke : As for the yert'icall Poynt : 
Opmquodopsrdtur deu^s A'prmc/pjo vfque Ad Ji/um^ 
■ihe SummArfLvxoj NAture , wc know not whet her 

1 2 Mails 

1 4.6 Of the aduancement of Learnings 

Mans enquiry can attaync vnto ir. But thcfc 
three bee the true stages of Knowledge, and arc 
to them that are depraucd , no better then the Gy- 
ants Hills. 

Ter funt coriAtt imfomre Pelto 0([Am\ 
Scilicet atqtte Olfajrondofumiauoluere Olmpum, 

But to thofe which referre all things to the 
Glory of GOD, they arc the three acclamati- 
ons ; SAni^€^^ S ancles ^ San B(L^ ; holy in the de- 
fctiption,oc dilatacionof Ins workcs, holy in the 
connexion , or concatenation of them , and holy 
inthevnion oithem in a perpetuall and vniforme 

And therefore the fpcculation was excellent in 
P^rw^w^^/ and P/i/t?, although but a fpeeula^ion in 
them, That all things by fcale didafcend to vntity. 
So then alwaycs that knowledge is worthieft, which 
is charged with leaft mul tiplicity , which appeareth 
tohse Metaph if /cke ^ as that which confidereth//'^ 
Jimple formes or differences of things^ which are few 
in number, and the degrees and co-or^tMAtions whtre-i 
of, makeih all this variety. 

The fecond refpedV which val ueth and com mend-r 
cth this part of MUafhtficke is, that it doth enfranJ 
chife the power of xVlan vnto the greateft libertyjand 
pofIi,bi.ity of workes and effects. For Phyficke carri- 
eth men m narrow and reftrayned wayes , fubiecSt t® 
3CQan^ accidents of impediments, imitating the ordi- 


nary flcxuous courfes of Nature ■; But L^tAmndi^ 
que JufJt fi^ientibi^ vU >' To fapiciicc ( which was 
.anciently defined ro bee Rerum diuwArum^ ^ httmA- 
narum fcientu) cherc is cucr choyfe of Meancs. For 
FkjficdlcAuft's^xwz light ro aew inuention in Simih 
materia . But vv hofoeuer knowerh ^\\^ jorme know- 
eth the vtmoft poJfibUny oi jufet'tnciucmg that Nim 
ture \^pox\aKj> variety of matter ^ and fo is lefTere* 
flrayned in op3*arion, eyjher to the Bafts oitht mat- 
ter ^ oxihccondiUon oi the ^^V/f»/ .-which kinde^i 
knowledge S.ihmon likevvife , thoiigh i)i a, more Di« 
nine foit elegantly defcribeth, No» arSiabumur 
^refm tui^C' cmrem non^habeyis offendiculum. The 
vvaycs of fapienceare not much lyable^eitlacr.tQ pafi^ 
ticL^latityorshapce. , V, . ^:*):^\*,vV!rt^^ki. m 

. the fecond.part oi Metaphificke is the ev^iry 
of Fiffa// Caufei , which I am mooued to report^ 
not as omitted , but as iniflplaccdij and yet if it 
were but a fault in order , I would not Ipcake of it. 
For order is matter of illuftration , but pertayncch 
not to the fubftanccof Sciences ; Buc this mif-pla- 
cing hath caufed a dcficicnce , or at Icafl a great im- 
proficiencc in the Sciences thcmfeliics. FoFthe 
handling oi finaU caufes mixed with the reft i» ^y. 
ficall Enquiries , hath intercepted the feuere and di- 
ligent enquiry of all Reall and PhyftcallcaufeSy and 
giucn men the occafion, to ftay vppon thefe /i//j/4- 
. liory and fpeciom caufes , to the great arrcft and prc- 
iudiceof tuttherDilcouery. 

For this I findc done not oncly by il4$o ^ who 
T 3 cucr 

IJ^S Oftheaduancemefn of Learnings 

cucr ancrcth vppon chat flioare, but by Ariflote^ 
Galen , and others, which doe vfirally likcwife Fall 
vppon thcfc flats of drfcoarfih^CAufes^ : For to {ay 
that the hayrcs of ihc Eji-lUdes are for a q>ikkt fa 
And, fence about the Sight '- Or , that the firmeneffe of 
the Skinnesani Hides of ttuw^ Creatures hto defend 
them from the exlreamnts of heate ^ or colde ; Or^ 
that tht. bones are for the Columnes or Beames^ whre^ 
appon the frarrn of the bodies of itHihjr^ Creatures are 
butlte ; Or, that the leaties of Trees are for the prg^ 
te^imgof the Prune : Or, thatthe Claudes are for 
rpatertngof the Enth : Orjhtthefolidn'Jffe of the 
Earth ufor the it at lo^ and man f on of limngCrea* 
Utres I And t-hc 'ike, is w li cnqu red and Coileded 
IB Metaphijicke^buz in rhfficke they arc i npertment, 
'Nay, I' cy are indecdii but Remorats and hindcranccs 
toftayand flange the^S ippc from further lay fine;', 
andhauc brought ths co pa Te , that the fearc i of 
thzPhyjicAll Causes hath bc^Q; ncglcdcd, and [ alcd 

L: ■ And rhercfore thenaiiiTaH Phylofophy ofDemo- 

fr/£iw:,andfoTne ot erSjWho did not fuppof a minde 

or Rgafin in tHc frame of tning% but attributed ihe 

forme thereof able to matntayne it feljc to infinite ef 

fayes or proof ei of Nature ^ which they rearmcF^r- 

tune-^ lecmeth to mee fas farrc as I can iudge by the 

recitall and fragments which rcmaync vnto vs) i\\ 

particularities of Hhyficall caufe? ri^orercafl and be • 

ter enquired th.n 'Awi o{ Arifletle^n'S Plato j\\'hcTCio£ 

(fboth inter mingled^/?:!// caufes , thi one as a pai t of 

'. ' 7 heolcgv^ 

T^eff/(^Vj 3tx! iheothcras a p^rt c^^Xn^tche , which 
were xtic faucurtie studies rcipcd'uc'y of both thofe 
per (on *^. 

^i'^ihf^cm^cihokfinil/caufes arc not true, and 
worthy io be cnqirrcd , being kept within their owne 
proiiinc C'jhn! brcaufstlicir excurfions into the limits 
of PbyfiCail cAhfis , hath bred a vaftn.fTc and foli- 
tud^: in tfiat Tiddi. For otherwile keeping their pre- 
ci' ds snd Bor crs , men arc cx'reamcJy dccciucd 
if they thinkc there is an Enmity ^ or repugnancy 
at rill bciwcc- c t' c ^^ For tb - caufe rendered thit- 
The H Ayr's aho. lit theeys Itddes ^ dre for ihefafi'T^rd 
ofthefi^iit^ dorh nor iinpu^ ic th:cau{crcndrcd,. 
T^At r$to fitter is incU^nlto Orsfres of AiotHurei 
Mufofifontcs ^crc Nor the cawfe rendred that the ' 
firmrjc/eoj //. dts ts (or the Armour of the body aiashfl 
extreamitia of heate or cold :do'\\f\oi impugnc chc 
ca life rendred , XhAt comrxdictfonoffores it inci- 
dertt to the outWAvdefipArtS'^in teg ra of thar Aducenct 
to forr eigne or VffitLe Mies j and (o of the reft j 
boih Caufes beeing true a id CompacibI , ih; 
one declat ing an Imentfon , the other a ConJ^qm^it 

o >cly. ';;,•:•- ?fiJfii ilo 

Neythcr cJoth'tMs cat! in qucftion, or dero- 
gate fiom Diiiine Pf ouidencc , bit highly confirmc 
and exalt ir. For as jn < iuijl a6lioii>» he is trie greater 
and deeper poliitii^uc, that can make Other men the 
In Uuments of bis will ai<dcndcs and ycc ncucr 
acqiuinti cnWit'i his puipofe : So as ihcy ft)a'| 
doe it 5 and yet not know what ihcy doc, then hec 


r^o Of the adtumement of learning, 

that imparteth bis meaning to thofe hce employ^ 
€th : So is the VVifedome of God more admirable, 
when nature intendeth one Thing, nnd Prouidcnce 
dMvvcth foorch another * then if hce bad commu- 
nicated to particular Creatures and Motions the 
Chara<5letsand Impreflions of his Proiiidence ^ and 
thus much ^ot MHapbtjlcke ^ the latter part where- 
of 3 ' J allow as extant , - but v^iOi it confined to his 
proper ola&e. 

'.^ Neucrthclcffc there rcmayncth yet another 

jiatt of NatttTn^d Phylofophtc^ , which is com^ 

monly made a principail part , and holdeth 

ranke with Phyjickc^ fpeeiali , and C^etaphi' 

ja^kt^: Which is MathemMfckc^ ^ botlthinkc 

it Aiorc agreeable to the nature of thingcs, and 

tb the light of order, to place it as a Branch of 

MftMphtfake : For the fubiect of Jt being, ^^»^/0', 

not Quantity I^tdtfinite : which is but a ReUtiue^ and 

belongcth to ihiiefo^htA prima (as hath bccne fayi:?,) 

but Qumtily determined ^ or proportionable ^ itap- 

pc'areth'to be one of the eJJenttaU /(?rw^/ of thingsj 

2^:1 thaitv that is caufatiuc in'nature of a number 

ot cflfeds 5 infomuch as wee lee in the Sclioolcs 

bdth of Btmocritus , and of PythAgoras , that the 

owe Didafcrike Figure to fhe fir (I feeds of things ^znd 

ftit^ihct did fitppofe nufnbeirs to bee the prmctpafls 

, ink 'origtnnlh 6f "things '; Arid it is true afo that of 

all oi her 'fbrtnes ..fas' wee vnde^'fland formes ) it \i 

th^'nk),ft aftjfti'aded, ^tfd fefwrable from matter 

and thct^fore mo(i proper tdMeCaphtfickc^ 5 which 

♦ hath 

ThefecmdlSo^^. ijl 

hath likcwifc bceHc thccaufc, why it hath bcenc 
better laboured, an J enquired ^ chcnanyofthc 
othct formes y which arc more immcrfcd into 

For it bccing the Nature of the Mindc of 
Man ( to the cxtreamc preiudicc of knowledge) to 
dclivhc m the fpacioas Lbcrty of generalities , as 
in a champioo Region ^ and not in the inclofurci 
of parcicuUrity •, the M-^thematicks of all other 
knowledge w«f the goodhcft ficldcs re fatiffic thae 
appetite. \\ • V, 

But for the p-acing of this Sciences , it is 
not much Matcriail ; onely wee haue endeuoa- 
icd in th-fcout Parcidons to obferue akind of 
petfp^ ifliue , that one part may caU light vpon ancN. 

The Math emdticks arc either Pure, oiMtxti 
To the Pure Mathemaucks arc thofe Sciences be- 
longing , which handle Qjtxmitte determmate 
mecrciy fcuercd from any Axiomes of T^tnrtdl 
Phy^of^fhy : aad thcfe are two , Gcomst,y and 
Artthitmticke ^ The one handling Qtiantity conti- 
nued 5 and the other difleucred. 
. vi/zj^r hath for fubic*^ feme Axiomes or parts 
of Nacurall Phylofophy :and confidcreth Q^iantity 
dcrermided , as it {% auxiliane and incident vnro 

For many parts of Nature can neu-r bee fr> 
wcintcdvyri lufficii-nt (ubcihy, nor dcmonllratcd 
with fuilicitjiU pcrfpicuity, nor ;;ccomnr;darccl 

V vmo 

151 Of the aduancement cf Learning. 

vnto 'vfe with ftifficknt dcixrcrity , wichour the 
aydeandintertieyafng of the Maihcmatickes : of 
\»;hich foTt arc Perfpecimc^ ^ Mttficki^^ AJlronQ^ 
my , Cofmograph/c^ , Architeclurc^ , IngmAric^^. 
and diuers others. 

In the MAthematkkei , I can report nodcfici- 
ence \ except ic be that men doc notifuffkicntly vn- 
derftand-the cxcclknc v{e c^ th<^ pur<_j Mathema- 
tickts 5 i in that (hey doc remedy and cure many de- 
(eds irfthc Wit^ , aii^J. Faculties Intcllc^iiaJK For^ 
if the Wit bee dull , they fharpen it ; iftbc^^wan- 
dring,they fixe it : iftoo inherent in the fcnfe^ they 
abftrad it. So that, as Tennis is a Game of no 
vfe in itlelfe , but of great vfe , m refp dt it rna- 
Icthaqiiickceyc^-anda body ready to put ic .fclfe 
into all poftures : Soin theM.ithcmuickes, that 
vfe which is collaterall iind intcruemcnt , • i^s no 
leftcwocthyj then that which is principa Handing 

And as for the Mixt Maihemitkkes^ I may only 
make this prcdidion , that there cannot faylc to bee 
jDOcc kindcs of them, as Nature growcs further dif- 
clo fed. 

Thus much o^^ Natural Uieme ^ or the part of 
Nacurall Speculative, 

For NAturaU Prudence, or the psirtOperaf^ue 
of Natural phiiofophy , wtc will deuide it into three 
parts. Experimental/ ^ Fhdofophkal ^ and Ma^tcai^ 
which three parts A^hcj , liaue a corrcfponJcnce 
3nd Aoalo^Y wijh the three parts SpicaUtiue'-NatH' 


M^ H/Jfory J Ph/Jickc^ , "audi A/efaphfJif'kc^ ': For 
many operations tiauc bc^nc iniisntcdfomcrinia by 
a^afuall incidence aud occurjcocc ,• fornetiincs by 
a p^i;p®rcd ^xpcriip:ienc r-and'bf ihofe; which^bau& 
bcencfoimd by an intcntionall experiment , fame. 
hauc bcetia found out by vax^fing, or extending 
the ftms experiment , fomc by iranffcning and 
com pouodingcliueEs experiments the one into the 
other, whipbkindeof iauentionan Empcrickemay 
ffianage. j , ^^ • , . ■, . ^r...- ^ ' , -:; 

Agaync , , by the knowledge ofPhyficall cawfej, 
tTicirc cannot fayle to follow, many indications an^ 
dcfignations of new particulars!, if men in their 
fjpcculation will keeps one eye vpon vfe and pradifc. 
Bur cbcfc are but Coaftings along the {ho re , Prh 
meftdo l/ttw in^quum ^ For >t (qcmeth comcc, thcic 
can hardly bcc D<(coucrcd any radrcallrpt fundai- 
maiiail alterations, and ;iiii)<^Mati<i^J^fi in Nature, 
cyihcr by the Fortune i^nd, r £ifeye%^ Of experi- 
menfs, or by the light an(4 dirc^itiori ;p/ Pi'^j * 

It therefore wee hauc reported Mfff^h^fifkcif 
deficient ^ . itjmufl to llo.w , , jfaat wee doe the. like of ^ ^^^"^^ 

is mention |ia Book?s ^ c^n tayning qcttay ne etc- i<,r., 
dulous and ,ruptrilitious Conc^itesand Obferu^ti- 
ons of SympAtliies ^ and ^fftitpath/eijsn<^ hi'ddeh Pro- 

^frietjc^^a^nh iame fiiuqlou^ LXpcrimcncs , flrangc ra- 

j'^hejifjl)^, diij|»^l^^ii^cnj^5^ ihc^m^^ 

V 2 farre 


15^ Oftheaduancement of Learnings 

farrc differing in truth of Nature, from fiich a know- 
ledge as wee require, as the Story of King 4'thur 
of Brtttim<^'^oi Hugh o^ Burdeaux^ dififers from 
C^efsrs Commentaries m truth of Srory. For it is 
manifcft that c<«/^«r did greater things drvero , tV'en 
tbolc Im^giKury Htr&es w^ re fayncd to doe. Bit 
hec did them not in that fabulous manner. Of this 
kindeof Learning the F^ble of Ixtonyssis a figure: 
who dcfigned toenioy luno the Goddcffcof power j 
and in (lead of her , had Copulation with a Cl'^ud: 
oi which mixture were begotten Ccntaurcs , and 

V So whofocuer fhall enter tayne high and vapo- 
rous imaginations, in ftcedc of a labourious and 
fobcr enquiry of truth, fhall beget hopes and be- 
Icefes ©f ftrangc^nd impofliblc fhapcs. And there- 
fore wee may note in thefe Sciences, which holdc 
fjh much of imagination and belecfc , as this degc- 
iieraie Naturall Magicke , Alchymy , Adrology, 
and the like , that m their proportions, the defcrip- 
cionofthe nneanes, is euermorc monftrous, then 
the pretence or end. 

For it is a thin^ more probable, then hee that 
knoweth well the Natjjrcs ol Wefght^o£ (Colour ^oi Pit', 
»##, and rri«g//fittrcif>>(^'>f the Hammer, o^voU' 
V fi/5rand j?^^5 in refpcd . >f the fire, and the refl, may 
fup. tiuduccvponfomc ^1ettlethe nature and forme 
of Gold by ftich MCihantcke as longeth to the pro- 
du^ionofthe Natures afore rehearfed, then that 
ibme giayncs of the Medicine proic^ed , (hould in 

Tkefecmd'Book^. ijf 

a Tew Moments of time, turnca Sea^fQL>ickc» 
filucr or oi her Matcriall into GoId.So that it is more 
probable that he that knowcth the Nature of Arefd* 
^/e>/» J the Nature o^ AffimiUtien ^ of nourilTimeiit 
to thcthii gnourifhed; ihe manner of ^/rfr<r4/f, and 
clearing of ff^rits : the manner of the depreditsdm^ 
Tphtch Sf'trtts make vfon the humors And JolUe fxrts : 
flialljby Ambages of dyers, bathings, annoynrmgs, 
medicines^ motions and the like, prolong life, or rc- 
ftore fome degree* of youth or viuacity, then that it 
can be done with the vfc of a few drops, orfcruples 
of a liquor or rcccite. To conclude thcrcfore,fhc true 
NAturall A4^gtcke^ which is that gre^it liberty and la- 
titude of operation, which depcndeth vppon the 
knowledg«0f/<7fwr/,I may report deficient, as the 
Relatiuc thereof is ; To which part if wee bcftrious, 
and incline not to vanities and plaufible Difcourfc, 
befides the dcriuing and deducing the. Opcrati' 
ons themfeLies from Metaph/Jukc^ , there are per- 
tinent two poynts of much pnrpofe , the one by 
way of prcpa'ation , the other by way oFcaution i 
The firft is, that there be ma'^e a Kilenderrtfemyitng 
dn Inntntofy of the eftatc of man , conraining all the 
inucntions j(being the workes or fruits of Nature or ItmeMt^trium 
Arte) which arc now extant, and whereof man is OpumhumA' 
already pofTcffed , out of which dorh naturally re- *'»'^««». 
fult a Note , what things are yet held impofllble,or 
notinuentcd, which ^^^^^r will bee the more 
artificial and fcruiceabic, if to eucry refuted mj>of> 
fibdny^ you addc what thing is extant, which 

y 3 com- 

ti6 Oftheaduancement of Learnings 

cpmnicth the necreft in degree to that Imfofji^- 
//0rj^p^thc qrt<;l,tiiacby ibJefe Opiatiues and Potentials^ 
Mans incjuiry iriay .bei^ chc niorcawakc in diducin^ 
dire<5i.ion of workes ftom the fpeciilatfoiT ofcaufes. 
And fecpndjy , that thofc experiments be not oncly 
efteemed which haue an innnediate and prefcnt vfe, 
but thofc principally which are of moft VniuerfaU 
eonfequsnce for inuention of other experiments, 
and thofc which giiie moft haht to the Inuention. of 

^aiifts \ for the Iniicniion of the Marri^crs Needle, 
which giueih the Jireftion , is of noleflc benefit for 
Nauigation, w ci the iiiueiitionoft^e Saylcs 
which giue the Moti* n. ». *. „« -:■.. ? V. aj^vj' 

-fit .Thushauc 1 paflfed chiough NMurall Phylofa- 

i^A/'c^, a^d the dcficicnces Hereof 5 wherein if I 
il^ue ditftrcjd fipm the, ancient , and recciucd Do- 
6l<'ocs 5 (and thereby (hall moous contraction; far 
il>y p^n ,. as laffc<5i oottodiflentjlo I purpofe not 
fo contend : If it be Truth. 

^-, Xsion €Ammt*^fHfetu refpondent omnhfylua: 

' .trTheypyGCof Nature will confent , whether the 
voyte of m^n cjoe or no. And a^ Mexa-nhr BergU 
was wont tofdy of tjieocpedition of the Frcixh.for 
1.:^*^ iViy^/jthattiieycarnc with Chaulke in theii hands 

jm4 is«*^ f ;to markc vp their lodgings , an |not with weapons 
.«vv>.w . tp fight ; Sol like better that entry of truth which 
commeth peaceably with Chaulke , to markc vp 
thofeMindcs, which arc capable to lodge and har- 
bour it ,, then that v/hich commeth with pugnacity 
and contention, i 2:r?ni j^ilv/ -xoh^. .•, r V But 

1 bt jecmd BOOtsC. 157 

But tlicrc If maynctn a diuifion of Narurall Phyv 
jofophy accord in g to ihc Refort vf the enqntry , and 
nothiiigconcerning the Matter or (tibied, and that 
\sPoJtiiHg and ConfiAerdtiue : when the enquiry rc- 
potreth cyihcr an Affertton^ or a Vjouht ; Thele Aoubti 
o r Non Ij quels , are of two lb rt s, Parttcutar and T*?' 
/</(^. For the fii ft, wee ice a good example thereof in 
v^r///<?//^iProbIcmeSj' which delcriicd to haue hada 
better eontinuanccj but loneueithclefTcj as thcreis 
one poynt, whereof warning is to bee giuen and ta- 
ken ; Thie Re^idring of doubis hath two excellent 
vfcs : The one that it laueth Phyfofbphy frbmcfirors 
and fail>ioods : when that which is not fully appca« 
ring,is nbfcbllci^ed iiiroanertion , whereby err bur 
might draw epyoiix^ but rcfcriicdm doubt, - The o« 
tiKt that the entry of doubts are as fo many fuckcrf 
or /pongeSjfo'dfaw vfe bf Knowledge, infomuch as 
that which if doubts had not preceded, a man fhould 
ncucr hauc aduifed, but paffed it oucr without Note, 
by thefuggcftioriand foljicitation of doubts is made 
to bee attended and applied. Butbotii rhcfc com- 
modities doc fcarcelycounteruay^e^^n incbnurni- 
encCjWhich will intrude it fcifcif it be not debarred, 
-which is that when a doubt is once recciucd , men 
labour rather how to kiepe it adoubtftill, then 
how to folueit, and accordingly bend their Wits. 
Of this wee fee the familiar example in Lawyers and 
Scholers, both which if ihey hauc once admit- 
ted a doubt, it goeth eucr after Aufhoriz.dfora 
doubt, iiut that vfe of Wit and Knowl*.dge is to be 



m HtfltrtM 


158 Of the aduancement of Lcdrmng, 

allowed which 'abourech to make doubtfull things 
certaync, and 1.0c thofe which labour to make 
c;crcayne ti.ings doubtfull. Therefore ihcCc Ka/e;^- 
dtts of duuhti , 1 commended as excellent things, fo 
tfiat iheic h^ti^Ai caution v(cd , that when they bee 
thiough!v fifccd and brought to rcfolution, they be 
fioin (hence fo.tho;n:f ted, dccardcd, and not conti- 
rued to chersfh , and encourage men in doubting. 
To which Kalcnuer of doubts or ProblemeSj I aduifc 
be anncx:d anoth r Kiie*idir as much or more Marc- 
riall , which m^ K.4cnder gf pnulir Error sXm^%x\z 
chiefly, in naiuraU H.lkory luch aspaflc infpccch 
and conccitc , and are ncuenhclcflc apparantly dc- 
tcdcd and conui^cd of vntruth , that Mans know- 
ledge bee not weakened nor fuch droffc 
and vanity. ?;r'(^h } > ?-!?t>!>'!i r 

As for chc touytsor Nonliqit9ts geuerMl or m T^al, 

Ivndciftand thofe diftcrcnccs of opinions touching 

the principles of Nature , and the fundameiitall 

poyntsof the fame , which hauecaufcd thcdiuer- 

fity of Se<^s, Schooles, and P/iylofophies, as that of 

BmpedacUs^PythagorM^ Democrstm^ Parwemdes yind 

the reft. For although ArtflotU as though he had bin 

of the Race of the OttomAns^ thought he could not 

Raignc J except the firft thing he did he killed all his 

Brethren 5 yet to thofe that feekc Truth and not Ma- 

pBrality^ it cannot b.ut fecmc a Matter of great pro* 

fiCjto fee before them the fcuerall opinions touching 

the foundations of Nature , not for any exad Truth 

thai can bee expelled i n thoie Ther.nes : For as the 


fimc^f^^ff^f9fe»d \n Aihonamic arcilitisiiedby the ^ 
receiucd Aftfonomieof the diun«a!l Mocion, and 
thf proper Morions of th€ PLmetSjWith their Bccen- 
triqttes and Epkickst^nd hkewifc by the Thcoricdf 
Coperftfctfs, who iuppf^Ccd thcEirth to mouc5& the 
Calculations arc indifferently agrcc.ible to both: So 
chcordinarie face and view oi experience is many 
rimes fatisfied by feuerall Theoricf & Philo fop hies, 
whereas to finde the reaii trufh requircth another 
manner offeijeritie& attention. For^as AriJl^tU 
faitTi that ehildren atche fir ft will call eucry woman 
moiher; but afterward they come to diftinguifh 
according to truth : So ExperienccTif it be in cbild- 
hoodjWill call euerj Phtlofophie Mothtr-^ but when ic 
commeth to ripeneflc, it will difcerne the true Mo- 
ther, So as in the mcane time iris good to fee the 
Scuerall GIofTes and Opinions vpon Nature, wher- 
ofit may bee eucry one in ibmc one point, hath 
fcene clearer then his fellows 'Therefor i: I wifli (omc 
colledion to be midc painfully and vnderftanding- 
ly de Anti^uii ^hilofophijs out o[ all the poffible Ught ^' ^^^^^ 
which rcmainethtovs of them. Which kindeof ^f" P^/A>; 
woike I finde deficient- But heerc I muft giuc^^'* 
warning, that it bee done diftindlyand (cucredly. 
The Philofopbies of euery one throughont by 
themfclucs; and not by titles packed, and fagottcd 
vp together, ashathbrcne done by Plut4rch,Vot 
it is the harmonic of a Pbilofophie in it felfe, which 
giueth it light andcredenccj whereas if it bee firi- 
glcd and broken, it will fceme raoTe forraine and 

X ' diiTgnitnc. 

t6o Of the aduancement of learning 

difTonanr. For as, when I read in Taeitw, the Ac- 
tions of Nero^ or Claudius^ with circumftanccs of 
timeSj induccHients and occafions, I findcjthcra not, 
£o ftrangejbut when I rcad^thcm in SueUnitu Tran^ 
qui Uu^ gathered into titles andbundles>andnotin 
order of timej they feeme more monftrous and in- 
crcdiblcjSi) is it of any Philofophy reported entier, 
and dirmcmbrcd by Articles. Neither doe I ex- 
clude opinions of latter times to bee likewife reprc* 
femed, in this Kilendcr of Seds of Philofopbie, as 
that oiTheophraJius^ Paracelfus^^cXoc^ejktXy reduced 
into an harmonic, by the Pennc of SeuerivHs the 
I>dnei And th^t oiTyleJif^y and his Scholler De- 
fifuf, being as a Paftorail Philofophy, full of fenfe, 
but of no great depth. And that of Fratafieriud^ 
who though hec pretended not to make any 
Hcw Philolophy, yet did vfetheabfolutenc/Teof 
his owne lenfe^ vpon the oldc. And that oiGilber- 
tfi^, (Xjr countreyman, who reuiued, with fomc 
alterations, and demonilrations, the opinions of 
Xefjophdnes^ and any other worthy to be admitted. 
Thus hauc we now dealt with two of the three 
hamfsoi Mms knowledge, that is Ridim dire^uiy 
which is referred to Naturcj/?^^^//^ RtfrACius^^\iiQ\i 
is referred to Cod, and cmnot report truely bc- 
€aufc of the inequalitic of the Medin-, There refteth 
Radim Keflex its^vihziob^ lAm bcholdcthand con- 
iDemplateth himfelfe. , ^j »• lo ^incov!r>! 
\1 V/E comcthereforc,now fathat knowlcdgr, 
I V^ V whcreunto theanci^^n Oiaclc dire<acth vs,, 


Vn^e fecond'Boof^. l6i 

which is^thc knowledge efourfelaes-.v^hkh dcfci ueth 
the more accurate handling, by how much it tou- 
cheth vsmore neercly. This knowledge as ic is the 
end and Tcrme of Naturall Philofophy in the men- 
tion of Man : So notwithftanding ir is but a portion 
of Natural! Philofophy/;? the continent sf Nature : 
A ltd generally let this bea Rule^thar al partitions of 
knowicdges, be accepted rather for lines (^veines, 
then io^ fe^ions and fipArati^ns .♦ & that the con- 
tinuance and entirenes of knowledge be prefcrucd, 
Forthe contrary hereof hath ruidc particular Sci- 
ences, to become barren, fhallow,and erronious? 
while they haue not bin Nouridied and Maintained 
from the common fountaine; So we fee Cicero the 
O.ator complained o[Sectatessnd his SchooIe,thac 
he was the firfl that feparatcd Philofophyjand Rhe- 
torickc, whereupon Rhetoricke became an emptic 
and verbal! Art. So we may fee that the opinion of 
Cofernicm touching the rotation of the earth, which 
Aftronomie it fcifc cannot corre<5tj becaufc it is not 
repugnant to any of the Phainememt, yet Naturall 
Philofophy may corre<St. So we fee alfo that the 
Science ofMediciney if it be deftitutcd and forfaketi 
by Natural Philojephj, it is not much better then an 
Enapeiricall pradizc .♦ with this referuation there- 
fore we proceed to Humane Phikfofhj or Hums- 
nitie, which hath two parts .• The one confiderctb 
lAmfegregate^ordijiributiuely I The othticMgrC' 
gate or infecietie. So as urn ane Fhilofophy is either 
Simple and ParticuUr, or coniugacc and Ciuilcji 

X z Hnmsnitit 

i6z Of the aJaMc^mentoflearnwg 

J^ttmamtie Partkular confiCttth of ihc fame pirrs, 
whereof Man contiftcthjthar is,of Knorvkdgcs vs>htch 
Jicfpc^ the Bodjy and of Knowledges that refpeci 
the Mind.h'Ji bt fore we diflribHteio farrejr is good 
to cortjlitute. For \ doe take the confiJeration in 
general! J vni at large of Humane Naitsreiob^ fit to 
be emancipite and made aknowkdge by it ftifcj 
Noi To much in rcgird ofthofc delightfull and 
elegant difcouifes, which haue bin made of the 
djgnitie of Man, of his m'lUiks, of his Bate and 
life, and the Hke K^diun^s of his common and ^'»- 
diuidedNaturejbMt chiefely in regard ot the know- 
ledge concerning the fjmfathits and concordances 
betwcene the mind and hody, which being mixed, 
cannot be properly afifigned to the Iciences of 

This knowledge hath two branches; for 9S all 
le2g,uesand Aoiitiesconfift; ofrautuail Inteliigence^ 
and mutuall offices-. Sothis Icagiie of mindand bo- 
dy yhath thefe two parts,H^^i' the one dijclofe4h the ^ 
iher^and^how. the one worketh vpon the other. /)/'- 
ffoueriei,ind InoprepomThff former of thcfe hath be. 
gatten. two. AitSy. both oi Frtdidi&nox pyen^tian^ 
whexcof iheoncishonoured with the enquiric of; 
Arifiettk^ and the other oi Hippocrates, And al-^ 
shough thcy.haueof later time bcene vfed to bee 
(S5upled with fuperftitious^ and fsntaflicall arts; yet 
bcing^pur^dawd reftoredto their true ftatej they 
hauc both of them alplidc ground in nature, anda< 
BJ^sy^l^^yr^ iftii^ . TJhe fir ft is Fhyftognemie, 

which difcoucreththc difpoftf ion of the mind; by 
rhe Line2ii>ents ofihebodie. Thcfeeoxidis^chc Ex* 
fofttiofi' ofNAtunU I>fr>i|ig^/:, .whJchidtfcQUcretb 
theftatc of the bodie, by the imaginatibos of rh^ 
minde. In the former of thcfc^I natcadbfici^iacf.' 
Vot^A^rijlatU hath verieingeniouily, and diligent^' 
ly handled the fa(5^ures of the bodie^ butnot th^ 
gefturcs ofthebodKj which arc no lefiTc compif- 
henfibleby art, and of greater vfe:, and aduantage. 
For the Lineamsnts of the badkdcb difdlofc ehe 
difpofiiionanjd incJinatiorj' of the-iRfrimJe in^gene^ 
rail} but..the Motioos of theco8iiicaftBct5 aft4 paits^ 
doenoponely fo^buc doe further difclcrfb ihe pre- 
fent humour anilflate ofebc ERittdrand?wilJi For as 
your Miieftic fay th raoftaptJy and elcgaDtlV; o^/ 
iJjt T&ng»€f^eak€iht.d<thc- Sare^fi tJlre ge/Iure'/peaketk 
to the Eye^ And tbercfore ar?umber of fubiile pcr- 
fonsywhofe. eyes doe dwdlvpon the feces and h' 
fhions of men^doc wellknow th^e adaamage-of tWs 
obferoatiopjas being raojft pact of their^jfitie; nd- 
tJiercan irbcedenkdyb^ttbatitb^ great difcoue* 

rie of 4^in^lation$3.aiwi 9igreai.dir«(2ion in Bu- 
fineflfevi : i.j ,:, . .vj io rioiittsbllnoa 5dr (.Mnoai 

.. Thelriter Bram^<?h>. touching imprefs fhnh^tH 

norbecne GoUeded into Art* but hath beenctod- 

kd difpsrftdly; and it haththe fame relation oft >^^ 

'p^rcphe-y that thte former lmt» Fop thtcotilid^i^- 

tionis^ dembi?, Either hw, and htn^ fArrt'ithe'hi$^^ 

mours And'Affeas cfthjt. hodie^ doe alter &r workt 

vp$nthc mhd^<ytzgmt,Umandihm hm J4rre 

;,:i.ii'^:f X 3: the 

1^4 Of the aduancement of learning 

tbefafhnsj er Af^rthenfions »fthe minde, doe alter 
er worke vpon the Bodie, The former of thelc, hath 
bccnc enquired and confideredj as a parr, and ap- ^ 
pendix of Medicine, but much more as a part of Re- 
ligion or fuperflition. For the Phyfitian prefcriberh 
Cures of the mindc inPhrenfies, and melancholy 
paflionsj and prtftendcth alfo co cxhibice Medicines 
to exhilarate the minde, to confirme the courage, 
toclarific the wits, to corroborate the raemarie, 
and the like .-but the fcruples and fupcrflicions of 
Diet, and other Regiment of the body in the fed of 
the Pythagoreans, in the Herefic of the Manicheas, 
zv\d'\mh.QL2Vf oi Mahumet doecxeeede; So like- 
wife the ordinances in the CercrooniaH Lawjinter- 
di<Sing the caring of the blood, and the fat-, diftin- 
guifhing bet ween e beafts clcanc and vndeane for 
mcatcj are many and ftrid. Nay, the faith it felfe, 
being cleercand ferenc from all cloudes of Ceremo- 
nie, yetretaincth the vfcoffaflings, abftinences, 
and other Macerations ai^d humiliations ofthebo- 
dic, as things reall, and not ftguratiue. The rootc 
and life of all which prefcripts^is fbcfides the Cerc- 
monie,) the confiderttion of that dependencie, 
which the afft^ions of the mindc are fubmirred vn-' 
to, vpon the flatc and difpofition of the bodic. And 
ifanymanof weakeiudgementdoe conceiae, that 
this fufFering ol the mindc from the bodic, doth 
ciiherqucftion the Immortalitie, or derogate from 
the foucraigntie of the foule, hee may be taught in 
€aGe inflaaccs, that th^ Infant in the mothers 


Thefecond TBooke. i6$ 

wombc, IS compatible with the mother, and yet 
reparable : And tne moft abfolutc Monarch is fomc- 
timzi Icdde by his feruants, and yet without fub- 
k^'ion. As for the reciprocal! knowledge, which 
is the operation of the conceits and pafsions of the 
minde vpon the bodie; Wee fee all wife Phyfirians 
in the prcfcriptions of their regiments to their Pa- 
tients, doc cucr confider Accidentia unimi ; as of 
great force to further or hinder remedies, or reco- 
ueriesjand more fpecially it is an inquirie of greajc 
depth and worth concerning Imagination ^ how, 
and how farrc it alceret h the bodie proper of the 
Imaginani. Foralthoogh it hath a manifeft power to 
hurt, it f olloweth not, it hath the fame degree of 
power to helpe^No more than aman can conclude, 
that bccaufe there be peftilent AyreSjable fodainely 
colcillaman in health; therefore there fhould bee 
foueraigneay res,able fodainely to care a man in fick- 
neflc^But the inquiStion of this part is of great vfe, 
though if needeth, as Socrates faid,^ Delian diuer, 
being difficult and profound.But vnto all this know- 
ledge De Cemmnni vinculo^ of the Concordances 
betwecnc the Mind and the bodie : that part of 
Enquirieis moft neceflaric, which confidereth of 
the Seatesymd Domiciles which the icuerall facul- 
ties of the raide,doe rake & occupatc in the Organs 
ofthe bodie, which knowledge hath becnc attem- 
pted,anci is controuerted,and defcructh to be mach 
better inquired. For the opinion ol Flata^ who 
placed thrndirfi4mli»ginPh€ BrMm^ Animofitit^ 

V (which 

i46 Of the 4^^n^mefH^ learnings 

^whtch hec did VD fitly call ;^;3r^^r, hauinga greater 
mixture with Fride) in the Heart -^ and Ct^ncupifce^ce 
or S.enfHalitie in the Liner , dcferucih not to bee dcf- 
pifed, but much Icflc to be allowed. So then wc 
haue condituted (asinourowne wifhand aduife) 
the inquirie Touching humdm HAtttre entire'^ as a iuft 
portion of knowledge, to be handled apart, 
;< The knowledge that concern cth mans bodie, 
isdiuided as the good ofmansfcodie is diuided, 
vnto which it rcferreth. The good of mans body, 
is of foure kindcs; titdth^Btautie, Strength ^ and 
Pieafure : So, the knowledges are Medicine^ or Art 
itfCnreiArt of Dec0yatim,y/hich is called Cejmettkei 
Kj^rt of x^ffiuitie , which is called Athletike: 
and Art yoluptuiirie,vfh\ch Tacitus trueiy calleth 
£ruditHs Lnxus, This Subie^i of tnans bodie, is of 
all other tbingsiin Nature, moft fufceptible ofre- 
medie; but then thatRemcdie ismoft fufceptible 
of errour. For the fame Subtilide of rhc fubie(5^, 
doth caufe large pofsibiliric, and cafie fay ling .- 2nd 
therefore the enquiric ought to be the more cx3(5^. 
To fpeakc there fore of ^^^/W«tf, and to refumc 
that we hauc fayd, afcending a little higher. The 
ancient opinion that Man was Microcofmus^ an 
Abftrador Modell of the world, hath bcciie fantaf- 
tically ftreyncd by FarAce-lfus^ and the AJchimifts, 
as if there were to be found iniw^;;/ b&dj ccrrainc 
correfpondcnocs, and parallclls, which fliouW hauc 
rcfpe^ to all varicties^f fhings,is ftarrcs, planets, 
roincralls, which; arc cxt«tc in the great world. 


The fecondlBook^. I<Jp 

Butthus much is euidencly true, that ofall fubftan- 
ceSj which Nature hath produced, mans bodic is 
the moft cxcreamly compounded. For we fee 
hcarbs and plants are nourilhed by earth & waters 
Beafts for the moft part, by hearbs and fruits-, Man 
by the flertiof Bcafts,Bitds, FifhesjHcarbSjGrains, 
FruitS5Water,& the manifold altcrationSjdrcirings, 
and preparations of thcfe fcuerall bodies, before 
they come to be his food & aUment. Addc hereunto 
that Beafts hauc a morefimplc order of life, & leflc 
change of AfFc<^ions to worke vpon their bodies, 
whereas man in his Manfion, flcepe, exercife, paffi- 
ons,hath infinitvariations^and it cannot bedeni« 
ed, but that the Mie of Man of all other things is of 
the moft compounded MiffcT he fiule on the other 
^dQjs the iimplcd of fubfiances^as is well cxpeflied. 
'^10: - Purumq-^ reliqttit 

£ %/£thereHmfinfMm, at que Aurai pmflicis ignem. 
So that it is no maruaile, though /^tfj^«/(ffo pla- 
jccd, cnioy no rcfl, if that principle be true, that 
MotHs rerum efi rapidus extra hcumjPUcidus i» l0c». 
But to the purpofc, this variable compofition of 
mans bodie hath made it as an Inflruroent eafieto 
diftempef; and therefore the Poets did well tocon- 
ioync Muficke and Medicine in ApolU^ bccaufc the 
Office of Medicine,is but to tune this curious Harpc 
of mans bodie, and to reduce it to Harmonic. So 
then the SnbieSi being To FAtidble, hath made 
the Art byconfequentmorc c6me6iufAll,zxid Art 
being Conie4^urall| hath made fo much the more 

Y place 

lyo Of the adudncement of learning 

plice tob eliftforimpofturc. Foralmoft all other 
A li «»J Stienceti, areiudgcd by A^fts, or Maftet- 
pe ccs> as I n^y tfrme ihem^and not by the fuc. 
celTes, and cuenfs. T ,e Lawyer isiudged by the 
vciriif of his | kadi ng,;jnd not by ifTue of the caufc: 
TiicMcifttr in the Shippe, isiudged by the dire 6t- 
jr g hk> courfc aright, and not by the fortune of the 
Voyager' tti the PlMfinan,& perhaps the Politique, 
hath no puticular A<fb deraonftratiue of bis abili* 
tie, but j4 judged mottby the cuent r which is eucr 
but as itistakcifor who can tclhif a Patient die orre- 
Goucr,or if a Scaic be preferucd^or ruyncd,whethcr 
it be Art or accident ? And therefore many times 
the Tmpoftor is prized, and the man of vertue tax** 
edi Nay we fee weakencffe and crcduli^ie of men, 
h fuch, as they will often prefrrrea Monrabankc or 
Wi'^ch, before a learned Piiyfitian. And therefore 
the Poets were clecrc ffghtcd in difcerning this ex- 
trcame folly,whcn rhey made %/£fcuUfius, & Circe y 
Biocherand Sidcr, both Children of the Sunne^af 
in the verfes. 

Jffe rffm$rem medicine tAlis ^ arthf 
^j« Fulmtm ^hctbigcnsLO^jiygiasdeirMftt advn^sy 
„ n: And againe, , ! 

V. ; Dhes inAcce^os vhi Solis filia Lucos, (§*c, 
-^ For in all times in the opinion of the multitude, 
WircheSjand old womenj^nd I«Jpof^ors haue had a 
Coospcticion with Phifitians. And what follow eth? 
Euen thiSj that Phifidan i, fay tc ibcrofelucsjas Salo. 
»«^ eistpK&th it vpon an higber occifion vifMe* 

Thefecond^oo^. 17c 

ftUtd me, 4S befdOeth it thtfosUx^ wbyjhouldl Ub$ttr 
ts be m^Yt wife? And therefore I cannor much bljrmc 
Phifiriins, thsc they vfc commonly to intend fome 
other Arc or pradifCjWhich they fanciejmore than 
their profeflijn. For you fhali haue of them : Anti- 
quaries, Poets, Humanift3,Scarer-men,M3rebantS5 
Diuincs, and in eucrie of thefe better feene, than in 
their prorel]Ton,& -K) doubtjVpon this groandjrhac 
they nndjthat mediocrity and excellency in their 
Art, nVakcth no difference \n profit or rf^puratioa 
towards their fortune : for the wcakenclTe of P;ti- 
entSj and fwectneflTe of h'fe, and nature of hope, 
makerh men depend vpon PhifitianSj with all their 
defers. But neuerthelefTc, thefs things which wee 
haue rpoken of, are courfet begotten bctwecne a 
little occafion, & a great dcale of floatb and default.' 
for ifwe wiU excite and awake our obferuation, we 
fijalifeein familiar inftances, what a predominant 
facultie, The SubiiUie oi Spirit^ hath ouer the 
yarietie of Matter ^ or Forme : Norhing more 
variable then faces and countenances / y^'t men 
can beare in memoric the infinite diftin^ions of 
them. Nay, a Painter with a few {hells of colours, 
and the benefit of kis Eye, and habite of his ima- 
gination can imitate thfm all that euer hiue been, 
are, or may be, if they were brought b fotehira. 
Nothing more variable than voices, yet men can 
likewife difcern them pe rronally,nay you fli j11 haue 
a Bt$ffon^ or Vanttmimm will expreffe as man y as he 
plcafcth; Nothing more variablc,than the diff nng; 

Y 2 Hounds 

172 Of the aduancement of learning 

founds of words,yec men haue found the W2y to re- 
duce the to a few fimple Lcttcrs-jlo that it is not the 
infttjficiency or incapacity efmans mlnd'^\xx it is the 
rtmottfianding or placing tkerof^that brccdeth thef c 
Mazes and incomprehenfionsj for as the fcnfe a far 
off, is full of miftaking, but is exail at hand, foit is 
of the vnderftandingj The remedie whereof^ is not 
to quicken or ftrengihen the Organ,but togoe ncc- 
rcrtochc obi£<5i;and therefore there is nodoubr, 
but if the Phifitians will Icarnejand v(e the true ap^ 
proachesand /^«f;?«rjof Nature, they may aflu^nc?] 
asmuchasthePoetfaithi .re, 

Et quomam variant MorBij variaBiwus artes, 

MiUe Malifptcies^ rniHe Salutis eruns. 
Which that they (hould doe, the noblenefle of 
their Art doth deferuc; well (hadowedby the Po.^ 
cts, icvthat they made Mfeulapim to be the fonne of 
theSun,the one being the fountainc of lifc,the other 
as the fccond ftrcamc j but infinitely more honored 
by the example of our Sauiour^who made the body 
of man theobie^ of his miracles, as the fouIcwaS; 
the obiedofhis Dodrine. For wee rcade not that 
cuer he vouchfafed to doe any miracle about honor, 
ar money, (except that one for giuing Tribute to 
C^far) but onely about the prcferuing,, fuftaining^ 
and healing the bodic of man,. 
i Medicine is a Science, which hath becnc (as wc 
Ikiuc faid): more profcflred,thanlabored,& yet more 
labored, tha» ad uaneedj the labor hauing becne, in 
my iudgpmcQC) rather ia circle,,thaa in progreiTion. 
-?bniio! ' - ' ^or 

Thefecond ^oo^e. 175 

For I finde much Iteration, but fmall Addition. Ic- 
confideretti cdufes of Dijeafesy with the occafions d/ \ 
imfulftom : Thi Difeafes themjelues^ with the Acci*^ 
dents : and the Curesy with the Preferuati&ns. The ^ 
Dcficicnces which I thinke good to note^beinga - 
fewofraany,&thoreruch,asareofa more opcn& 
manifeft nature, I will enumerate, and not place. 

Thefirftis the d^ifcontinuancc of the ancient ^^ 
and ferious diligence of Hippocrates^ which vied to „\^^'f^i, 
let downc a Narratiue of the (peciali ca(cs of his pa- cinahs. 
tients, and how they procecded5& ho\V they were 
judged by rcebuefy or death. Therefore hauing'^ 
an example proper in the father of the art^I fhall not ' 
needetoalledge an example forraine, of the wife- 
deraeofthe Lawyers, who are careful! to report 
new cafes and dcpifions^ for thedire(5iiOn of future » 
iudgements.This continuance of ji/^^/V/>d//^//?<?r;', 
1 find deficient, which I vnderfland neither to be fo 
infinite as to extend to! eu^y Common Cafe.not fo re- 
fcriied, as to admit none but ir^;t?^^r/ : for many^ / 

things are new \n the^ cManner, which are not new^ 
in the KindeyZnci if men will intend co bbferuejthey 
fhallfinde much worthy to obferue. '^ 3ri!>ir:: vjt' 

In the inquirie which is made by AffAtomieylEM \^>*^toma 
much dcficience; for they enquire of the Farts jznd ^omfar^ta* 
their S»^Jlawes, F^urcs, and CoBocattons-^ But they ' 
enquiry ttot of the Diuerfipiesofthe Parts-^ the Secre- 
cies oftU FjfageS'^and the feats or nefi lings 9f tb^ hu- 
moursynQt much Of the Foot-Jleps.andimprepons of 
l>ifiafes^lhe rcafoii of which omiiliorts, Ifuppofc^ 

1 74. Of the ddu'ancement of learning 

CO be, becaufc the firft cnquiric may be fatisficd, in 
the view ofone or a few Anator^ies : but the latter 
being comparauuc and cafuall, muft arifefrom the 
view: of many. And as to tbediQerfitic of parrSjthcrc 
is no doubt but tl c fa«5ture orframing of the inward 
partSj is as full of difference, as the outward, and in 
that, is the CAufe CpHtinent of many difeafet, which 
not being oblcrued, they quarrrii many times with 

.^•;_ " >thc hunjofs which are not in fault, the faulc being in^; 

* ^'V'^^.. the vt ry franje and Mechaoicke otthc part, which i 
' cannot be remoued by medicine ^lt:pratiue,but muft j 
be accomodate' an^ p;^hatt by,.dyf?tsa!H^ medicines 
familiar. And for the paflages and pores, iris true : 
which was anciently noted, (hat the more fubiile,, 
of them appcaic not in anatomies, becaufc they are, 
{hut and latent in d<ad bodies,thpugh they be open, 
and manifcft in litie/ which being fuppoled,though t 
tiieinhumaniry oMj»4*tf«r/4'y/Wm was by Celfks] 
iuftly reproued: yet in .regard of the great vfe of 
this ebfcruation,theinquiry needed not by himfo! 
flLighilytohaucbecn relinquiflicd altogether, on 
referred to the cafuajl pra^ifes of Surgcrie,- 
but might haue beenc well diuerted vpon thet 
diffedion of beafts aliue, which nptwithftanding 
the diflimilitude of their part;s,may (ufliciently fatis- 
fie tjiis inquirie. And for i^e humors, they are 
commonly i^afTed ouer in Anatomies, as purga- 
inems^ whereas it is moft necelTarie to obferue, 
what cauicies, nefts and receptacles the humors doc 
findeioche parcsj wicli the diferiog kindeof the 


humor fo lodged and recciiiedr And as for the 
footfteps ofdireafes, and thdr deuaftationsof the 
in ward par tjiiD poftumaciofisexulctrations^dircbh- 
tinuations, putKfadion*^ cortftUi) prions, contradli- 
ons, exrepvfionfc, conv4lfit>n$, difiocations, ob- 
ftru(5tions,tepletfWi5, together with all prcterna- 
turail fubftanccs^as ftones, carnofitieSjearcrefcences, 
wormcs,andthe like; they ought to hauebecneex- 
a<5^Iy obferued by mijkltude of Anatomies, and 
the contribution oEaaeiis feucrall experiences; arfd 
carefully fct downie both hiftorically according to 
theappearances, and artificially with a reference to 
the difeafes and (yfflptomes which refulted frofn 
them,in cafe where the Anatoniy 1$ of a d rfun H pa- 
tienrjwheras now vpon apening of bodics,they arc 
paffed ouer fJeightly^vand in filertc^^ ' - - -^ - > 

Inthe inquiric of difeafes^ tbey'/Sbc'sbah^Jim 
the cures ofmany,fome as in tbdr nature incurablc-s ^^^^P** 
and othcrs,a$ pafFed the periodof ciirej(0thai;5^/. '^mTi* 
Ia & the Trittmvirs ncucr profcriblcd fo many men njab^^* 
to die, as they doe by their ignorant tdi(as,wherc. : ' " 

of numb rs do cfcapc with fcflfe diffidulty^then they ' ^^ 
did inthe Romanc profcriptioris. Therefore I Will 
not doubt,ro noteas a dcffciencc, that thty inquire 
not the pei fit cores of many difeafes, or ixtremi- 
ticsof difeafes, but pronoundhg them inciicabl^, 
doc cna<aslawofneglcd, tM txtxxr^tlgmt^^z 
from difcrcdfr. 

Nay further, I eftccme it the office of a Kiyfiri- ^tf*'*^ 
aanoc onely to rcftorc health, hut to mitigacc pain ^^**^ 
■. -v^iijv- -— and ' 

i'j6 Of the adudncement of learning 

and dolors, and noc oncly when fuch mitigation 
may conduce to rccouery, but when it may (cruc to 
nnakc a faircand eafie paflTage •• for it is no fmall fc- 
licitic which i^ugttfiu^ Cxfar. waa wontto wrfli to 
himfcIfCjthar fame^£»/A4;5?4/^4^nd.which was fpcd- 
ally noted in the death oi Antoninns Pit«St vvhofe 
death was after the fa(hion and femblance of a kind- 
ly & pleafant flccpc. So it is written of Epicurm^ 
that after his difcafe wis iudged defpcwte, he 
drownediiis ftpipacl^e & fcnfcs w ith a large:draoghc 
and ingufgitation of wine- whejsetipon the Epigram 
was made* Hincfiygia^ Bbrius fjaufit aquas : He 
wasnoc fober enough to tafte any bittcrncflc of the 
ftygian water. But the Phyficians contrariwifedo^ 
inakcakindeof fcruplc and Religion to ftay with 
the patient after the difeafcj^ deplored, whcras, in 
. myiudgment they ought both to cfrquirc the skill, 
^:ii\5»^«' and to giuc the attendances for the facilitating and 
v, <^ii,\ y aflwaging of the paines and agonies of death, 
Muf^irti^ In the confideration of the Cures of difeafeSjvI 
txf&imtH' fi"de a deficicnce in the Receipts of proprietie, re- 
taltt, fpe<5ting the particular cures of difcafes : for the 

Phyfitians haue fruftrated the fruit of tradition and^ 
. experience by their magiftralities, . in adding and 
"taking out and changing £luidfro quo^ in the rc- 
ceipcs» a|: their plcafurcs, commanding foouerthe 
Doedicinejas the medicine cannot command ouer 
the difcafe ; For except it be Treacle and Mythrida- 
. " ..a-^CL tura,and of late piAfcoridum^znd a few morc^they 
tycthemfclMcsto bo receipts fcucrcjy and religi- 

oufly .* 

.^isx^vTheJeconJ^oo^. 1 77 

oufly •• for as to the confections offalc, which 
arcinthenioppes,theyaie for readineflTe, and not 
for proprictie : for they are vpon gencrall inten- 
tions ot purging, opening, comforting, altering, 
and not much appropriate to particular Dileafesj 
and this is the caufe why EinperiqueSj& old women 
arc more happie many times in their Cures, than 
learned Phyfitiansj becaufe they are more reh'gious 
in holding their Medicines. Therefore here is the 
deficienccwhfchi finde,thatPhyfician$ hauc not 
partly out of their ovync pra(^ize5 partly out of the 
conftant probations reported in bookesj and partly 
out of the traditions of Emperiquesj fee downe and 
deliuered oucr, cerrainc Experimentdli Medicines, 
for the Cure of particular Difeafesj befides their 
owne Ccme^uraU and MagiJlraS defcriptions. For 
as they were the men of the beft Compofitionin 
xhzSi^icoiRome, which either being Confuls in- 
clined to the pcoplcj or being Tribunes inclined 
to the Senite: fo in the matter we now handle, they 
be the beft Phyfitians, which being learned incline 
to the traditions of experience^ or being Empc- ^*''^*w°* 
riques^ incline to the methods of learning. NMwr^m 

In preparation of McdicineSjI doe findc ftrange, ^*^^*f* ^ 
fpedally^confidering how minerall Medicines hau€Tf'^^^ 
becne extolled; and that they arc fafer, for th« o«it. ^ 
Avardjthan inward parts, that no man hath fbughf, 
tomakean Imitaio.i by Art of Naturall Bathes, 
and MedicinabIefoun:aines : which neucrtheleflfc 
arcconfcITcdto rccciue their vcrtucs from Mine- 

Z, ralcsf 

liittm Me^ 

dkinale, fi- 
ne de vtci- 
hns AdedL 


178 Of the 4ilft4nt!tm€nt of learning. 

rals : and Bot To oneIy,but difcerned-aBddiftingut- - 
flicd fiom what particular Minfrjllihey rcccWe 
Tint^turejas'Siilphiii', Vitriole, ftccle^ or thclik'c 'i 
which Nature if it may be reduced to compofi'fdns 
of arc, both the varieiicofthcm willbccncrcafccf, 
and the temper of rhem will be more commanded. 
But left I grow to be more particular, than is a. 
grecable, either to my inter tion, or to proportion; 
I will conclude this part with the notcofonedcfi- 
ciericc marcswhich fecmcch tom:ofgreateft confc- 
quence, which Isy that the prcfcripts in vfc^, are too 
compendious toactainetheircnd:for to my vndcr- 
ftanding, it is a vainc and flattering opinioHj to 
thinkc any Medicine can be fo foucraigne, or [6 
happiCjas that the Reccit or vfcof itjCan worke any 
great eflTcdl ypon the bodie of man • if were a ftrange 
(peechjWbich, fpokcn, or fpoken off, fhould/re- 
claime a man from a vice, to which he were by 
nature fabie6l : it is order, purfuite, fequence, and 
interchange of applicatioUj which is mightic in na- 
ture; which although it require raorccx3(5l know- 
ledge in prefcribing, and more precife obedience in 
obferuing, yet is recompcnced with the magnitude 
ofefFeds.' And although a man would thinke by 
the daily vifitations of the Phyfitians, that there 
vt^ere a purfuance in the curej yet let a man lookc in- 
to their pre fcripts and miniftrations, and he (hall 
fijfide them but inconftancies, andcuerie dayes de- 
tiifes, wirhout any fetled prouidcncc or proiedj 
Not that cuerie icrupulous or fuperftiuous pre- 
' ~ Tcript 

fcript iscffc^iiall,no more thm cueric ftreighc way, 
is the way to heaucn, but the truth of the dlreCiion 
mutt prcczdtfeuentfe ofohferuance. 

For Cofmetique^ it hath parts Ciuile, and parts 
Effeminate : for cleannelTc of bodie, was eucr eftec- 
med CO proceed from a due reuercnce ro God,to fo- 
cietiejandroourfclues. Asforarti(i:ialld€corati- 
oniit is well worthy of the dcfiticnces which it bath: 
being neither fine enough to decciue, nor hand- 
fome to vie, nor wholcfonic to plcafe. 

For Athktique^ I take the fubied of it largely, 
that is to fay, for any point of abihtiejwhereunto the 
bodieof man may be brought, wiiether it be of 
i^3ihitie^ or oi Patience ^.whereof A&iuitie hath 
twoparts^^^/r^/?^^^ and Smftfie/e : And Patie/tce 
likewife h«h tw-o parts, Ha/dmS^ agatnfi wants and 
extremiti^^ and Indurance of paine^ \er torment • 
whereof we fee the prac^ifes in Tumblers, inSaug. 
gcSjandinthofethat fufFer punifhment : Nay, if 
there be any other faculf ie, which fallsnot within 
any of the former diuifions, as in thofc that dile, 
rhae obtained! flrange power of containing refptl=a- j 
tibfiand the like,! referre it to this part* pithcfc 
th in »5the prai'Jlifes are kno wne : but |hc tPhilofo-l 
phie that corteerneth them is not much enquired,- 
the ra^l^er^ I thinke, becaufe they are fupppfcd 
f o be o?>t^ ified, either by an aptncfle of N^tur^a 
which cannot be taught • or onely by continual! 
cii^omc; which is foone prefcribedj which though 
it bchot true ; yet I forbearc to note any dcficica- 

Z z CC$ I 


\So Of the dmdncement oflearnmg, 

CCS :for the Olympian Games are dcwne long fince; 
and the rocdiocritie of thcfe things is for v(e: As for 
the excellency of them, it fcructh for the moft parr, 
bir for mercenary oftcrntation. 

For Arts of^leafurefenfuAll^ the chiefc dcficlencc 
in them, i« ot Liwcsto rcprefle them. For as it hath 
becne well obferucd, that the Arts which flouriih 
in times, while vertueisin growth, are Militant: 
and while vcrtue is in S:arc, are Libtrall : and while 
vertue is in declination,gre vohptuarie : fo Idonbr, 
that this age ofihe world,is foniewhat vpon the de- 
fccnr of the wheele. with Arts volf^ptuarieyl couple 
^xz6tiCc$ locuUrie-Jot the deceiuing of the fenfes, 
is one of the pleafures of the fenfes. As for Games 
of recreation, I hold theta to belong to Ciuile life, 
and education. And thus much of that particular 
Humane Philofophie^ \Mch concernes the Bodie^ 
whieh is but the Tabernacle of the mindc. 

FOf Humane knotpie^ige, which conctrnei the 
minde^ it hath two parts, the one that enqui- 
rcth of Thefnbft4nce,orn£tureofthefouU er 
msnde^C^ othcr,thar cnquireth of the Faculties er 
functi&ns thereof i vntothc firft of thcfe, the conii- 
derjtibns of the OrigtnaU of the Joule, whether it be 
natiue $r aduentiue-^ and how farre it is exempted 
fr$m Lawes of Matter t^^vid of the Immortalitie there^ 
f^5 and raanyothcr points doe appcrtainc, which 
baoc becnc not more laborioufly enquired, than 
^Variouflyrcportcds To as thetrauailc therein taken, 
• ?'^ fccmeih 

feemeth to haae bccnc rather in a M^zc, than in 
a way. But although I am of opinion, that this 
knowledgs may be more really and foundly enqui- 
red euen in Niture, than ic hath beenc-yetlhold, 
that in the end it mufl be bounded by Rcligion5 or 
clfeir wi!lbee(ubic(3to deceit and delufion :foras 
the fubftancG ofthc foulc in iht Creation, was not 
cxtra^cd out of the MafFe of heaucn and earth, by 
the bcnedi(^ion of a ProJucat . but was imracdiice- 
ly infpired from God; fo itis notpoflfiblc tharit 
fhouid bee (otbcrwife than by accident) fubiecSt 
U the Lawes ofHeauen and EArth\ which arc thi 
]uhii6i 0fPbii0fpphie'j And therefore the true know- 
ledge of the nature, and ftate ofthc foule, muft 
come by the fame inrpiration, that gauc the fufa- 
(lance. Vnto this part of kriowlcdge touching the 
foulc, there be twoappcndiccs, which as they hauc 
bcenc handled, haue rather vapoured forth fables, 
than kindled truth; Bimnathrty and F afcinatiotf* i 
DiuinAtion^ hath bcenc anciently and fitly diui- 
dcd into K^rtificUH 4nd Naturally whereof Ani- 
ficUU is, when the mindemaketh a prcdiifiion by 
argutnent,concludingvpon (ignes and.tokeos :.Na' 
x^rjiZis, when the mind hath a prcfention byanin- 
fcrnall power, without the inducement ofaiigHC. 
\^r$ifici43 is of two forts, either when the argu- 
ment is coupled with a deriuationQfcaurcs,which 
israthnAQ^ or when itis onely grounded vpon a 
Coincidence ofthc cfFe^, which is experimentaH'^ 
whereof tnc latter for jhe mofl parr, is fupcrfliii- 

Z 3 OUS.' 

i82 Of the aSamement of learning. 

ous ; Such as were the Heathen obferuations, vp. 
OHthe infpeftion of Sacrifices, the flights of birds, 
the fwarming of BccsjancI ftich as was the chaldcm 
t^flrdiopis^andihe like. Icoi Artijicall Dwifnitiett^ 
thefeuerali kinds thereof arc diflributed aniongft 
particular knowledges. The AHnnomer hath his 
predi^iionSj as of coniundlions, afptr^s, Eclipfes, 
and the like. ThePhyfitian hath his predi(5lions,of 
deach,ofreGOuerie, of the accidents and iflfucs of 
Direafcs. The Politique hath his prfdi(5iionsj o 
fvrbem vdnalem,^ cito fenturamyft tmpoum in* 
uenerit', which ftayed not iong to bee perfoimcd in 
SylU firft, and after in C^ar. So as thcfe predifii- 
onsarenow impertinent, and to be referred ouer. 
But the Dimmtiofi^ which fpringeth from the in- 
tcrnall nature of the fouJcjis that which we now 
ipeakeof; which hath, beene made to be of two 
iortS; Prmitiue znd by Jnfluxion. Primitiue \s 
grounded vpon the fuppofitiqn, that, the raindc 
when it is withdrawne & coHedcd into it felfc^and 
not diffuftd inrothc Organcsof the bodie, hath 
fome extent and latitude of prcnotionj which there- 
fore appcarexh naoft in fleepe, in extafies, and nccre 
df-arh^and more rarely in waking apprcherifions^ 
and is induced and furriiercdby thofe abftinences, 
andorftruances, which mske the minde .raofl to 
coiitiftiaitfclfe; By. jnfluxion- is grounded vp- 
■ on fheconccir^thatThe mincle^ai? a mirror orglaffe, 
?^^fiiould take lilnmination from the ioiCr knowledge 
^ItlGod, and Ipirits, vnto which the fame Regimenc 
' iN*o doth 

.dpth liVsNyife conduce.: Fotjthcxctyring of the 
ipinde within k felfc,,is the Scare which is moft 
iafcGptible Qri dfiiine infloxions>faifr lJ)a> it is aecoiri- 
fanied in this cafe with a ferDencie ^nd elcuatiorj, 
(which the ancients noted by furie) and not with 
a rcpofe and quiec, as it is in the other. 

FafcinAtion is the power and a«5i of Imaginationj 
ihtenfiuit vpon other bodies, than the bodic of the 
Imaginani's fof of tfaatwe fpake in the proper place? 
wherein the Schoole oi Paracelfus, and the Difci- 
plcsof pretenjicd Naturali Msgickej^haue beenefo 
inccmpctate, asihcy haucexalted the power of the 
imagination, to bee much one with the power of 
Miracle-working faith ; others that draw neerer 
to Pfobabtiitie, Galling to their view - the fecree pkf- 
fages of .things, and fpecially ofjthc Cbitragion that 
paflcth from bodie to bodic, doc concdiicicfhould 
likewife be agreeable to Nature, that there fliould 
befoiBe tranfmiffions and operations from fpirit to 
Ipirity without the mediation of the fenfcs, whence 
the conceits haue growne, (now. almoft made 
ciuilc)oi th^ Maijftring Spirt, aod the force of con- 
fidence, and the like^ Incident vnto this, is the irt- 
quirie how to raife andforciffc the imagination, for 
if the Imagination fortified hauc power, then it is 
raateriall to know how to fortiiie and exalt it. And 
herein in crookedly and dangeroufly^a pal!«- 
" tion of a great pirt of Cmm^niill MA^Jik'i^ For 
it may \^% pretended that Ceremonies, Characters ^$c 
Charmis4oQYf(yik^, flot by any Tdafe or S4cramef^- 

184- Ofthe ddnMbement of learning. 

ull cifttrd^ with euill fpirks; but ferue onely to 
ftrengtben the imagination of him thnt vfeth iti as 
Images are faid by theRfimarte Chared, to fix the 
cogitations, and raifcthe dcuotions of them that 
pray before them. But for mine {ownc iadgemcnt, 
ifit be admitted that Imagination harh powcr^and 
that Ceremonies fortifie Imagination, and that they 
be \£Qd finccrely and intentionally for that pur- 
pofe : yet I (houid hold them vnlawfull,as ©ppofing 
to that nrft cdi(5^, which God gaue vnto man; in 
fttdorevultus comedisPdnem tnum. For they pro- 
poundt hofe noble effeds which God hath fet forth 
vnto man, to be bought at the price of labor, to be 
attained by a few cafic and floathfull obfcruances.' 
Dcficienccsin thefc knowledges I will report 
none,othertKan the gencrall deficicnce,ihatii is not 
knowne, how much of them is vcritie, and how 
much vanitie, 
ty. The knowkdge which refpe^eth the faculties »f 
4he minde ofntAnM of two kinds: The one rcfpe€^ing 
his vnderfianding and Reafon^^nd the other hhwill, 
4pfet$te, and Afft^iion, whereof the former pro- 
duccth DinBion or Decne^^cUxtx AHion or Bx». 
tcution. It is true thatthe lmdgindtion\'& an Agent ^ 
otNuntiuf in both prouinccs, both thcludiciaHySc 
the MinifieriaU. For Senfe (endeth ouer to Jmdgiud- 
iitfff, before Reafon haueiudgcd : and Red/on fend- 
«th ouer to Intdginatign^ before the Decree can bee 
«Aed. For Irndgindtiom cuer preccdcth Feluntdry 
U$tm. Sauing that this lant^ oi lmdgindti»n hath 
, : differing 

differing faccs; for the f*?ce towards Rtafff^, hath 
the print of Truth. But the face towards ^^/^», 
hath the print of (7o^. which ncuerthdcfTc are faces. 
^n^des decet efefororum. Neither is the 

Jmagtff^fioft fimply and oncly a MelTenger^ but is 
inueftcdvvith, or at leaftwife vfurpeth nofmall 
auchoritie in it felfe; l^fideS the duty of the 
Mcflage. For it was well faid by K^rijlotle : thdt 
the mindi hAth $utr the Bodie that Commande' 
mspt which the Lord hath euer a BondmAri'^ But 
that Reafonlhaih euer ihe Jmaginatien that Com-, 
mandemcm y which a CMagiflrate hath ouer i- 
fret Citi^fi'j who may come alfo to rule in his; 
luraeo For wee fcci -that in matters of i^4/>/& 
and Religion^ we raifc our Imaginatioft aboue our 
Reafon^ which is thecaufe why i?^//^/^« fobghc 
euet acce ffe to rH e minde by Similitudes y Types^ P4- 
yaifies, jfifiom^ Dreames, Andagainein allper^; 
fwaiiofls thaViare wrought by ctequetiice, and- 6-^ 
ther impreffibnoflikc Nature, which doe paint 
and difguife the tfue appearance of things, the 
chi?fci recommendation vnto Reafen^ is from the 
Imagination^ NeucrthelelTe, becaufc I findc not 
any Science, that doth properly or ^^y per- 
u\n^Kc^%\\r^ Imagination y I fecflocaufb toaster the 
former diuifion. For as for Pocfie it is rather 
pleafure^ or play of' imagination, than a Workc 
or dutie tl^creof. And If it bea worke^ weelpeake 
np,t now of fuch partes of learning, as the ftn»* 
gination produecth, but of fuch Sciences, as handle 

Aa and 

1^6 Of t}}$i4du4n.Qm^yti of learning. 

a^4 coaltder- off the ImagiMilen, No more than 

vve^&^ll Tpeake novv-of fqqh KvQjvbdgcs^zs rea-. 

fbn'proJtjcef h,(for tb^t-cxi ed^th to all Pbilofophy)r 

hi\l piXudi KifVivledges^-3^^d.(K handle and enquire 

(^the;hqul^^^pf i(f4/ff/?j$o as Poejie had his xmz- 

place. A-fsfpr the, power of rhe im^gindtion inna-' 

ty|:>q,ai)dthc marjficr 9f f<5rtifying che faxnc, wccf' 

h^^.e mentjoaejc^ il ift the Doctrine Be Anmiy 

wHcreui?to fpoft firly itibclongeth. And laftly, for 

Jmagin^iue^ qt liifinnatme R^Apfn, Vvhich is the 

fi^^e^Tt pi RhetiGfitkp> wee ibi^kcit beft to rcfer-re 

if t9.x|?c ArU of Reason. So^iheicforc we content 

QijftieJqesvyitb, the former diuKion, that Huma«fi' 

' philoTophy, whijQh refpedjtcth the faculties of the- 

n^&flc o^ rq^ji., hath tw.o parts^ Rafimai sind 

_ Tb^, part of hunaane Philofopbie^ which is Ra- 
tigaialj, isof ?}I knoj^ledgeSj to the mofi wits^ the 
Ig^ 4ejigl>tfi*H i^ sft^d feemcth butai^BtolfobtilL 
tif;a,rHi ip^Ro^cje., F,or as .it was trudy fai<}, that 
tnowkdge is FaMnmAttim'^ So in the Nature^ of 
i^^nsappc^t^tothis foode, mod men arc of the 
taii and ftQinach of the Ifraelitcs in the defcrr, 
thatw^njd i^ine hauc returned Adollas carmum^ 
ajpdjWCfe ^veatie of 3/4^»;?/i, which though it wcre- 
cg(i^igll,r yetvffc^cd lefTe nutritfuc andcorofor- 
t^fe v?9. geqerally men taft well knowledges thae-' 
a55;^a[Rcbf d ,Hiifl(c(b.and blood, CistiU ffijlor/e^ 
I^^tiip, ^i%^^flboiit thewhifh mens affediofjs^ 
p^^f, fort&H)^4.c^ cucno snd axe comierbnc ; B^t 

bfii \ tf. ' ibis, 

this fame Lumen ftccum^ doth parch and ofFcbd 
liioft mens watry and fofc natures. But to fpeakc 
truly of things as they are in worth, RatimaH 
Knowledges-^ are the kcycs of all other Arts^ For 
as Arifiotle faith aptly and eleganrly,T^4/ the hand 
is the Inflrtiment oflnfiruments^ and the minde is the 
Formslf formes : So thefc be rrucly faid to bo'the ' 
Art of Arts .• Neitiicr doe they oncly dire<5t,jbit 
likewife confirme and ftcengthen^ : eucn as-tfic 
, hibifeof fhooringjdorbnot oneiy inable toihoote 
a neerer (hootejbut- aJfo rc^dravvVa, ft^miger EoWe. 
' The Arts inteiltci nail, are fourciili number, diui- 
dtd according to tbeends whcrelinto they- art rcw 
ferrcd r for aians labour is to /»«tf»ii\^ri33£ which'is 
flfi'^fjt o'v fr^foiiHdid r^ QT to\ waJ^i^ lilwt which is 
fnuented ; 'or>tt> r^}ai/te that Whichf^ rs^ ^d^di: tQito 
delmtr ouer^ttlit which ra reuiked. %h a&the Arts 
hi H (t hz-^ lire ■ : Art of Bne^ airJe or innemiim .: Au 
of^x^mnathff ot Judgment : Art of CufinMt^ cr 
•Memories stid Art 6fmKti^o:tfOt Tr4dit{oifivc{'s^i 
Inftentidn U '&[ tv^^^ itindes much .d!iffeii» 
The one o^ Arts and Sciences ^^ the other ais^eco 
and K^rgnments. The former of ChcfCj I doe 
report defieiertr .• which feemeth.tofmetbhccfadi 
a defick?nce;-a84fiii.thdarKiking ^lanrlnBciwiorie', 
totith'ingchfe Sme o^ddefunS, ir.'fla^Dld-bscict 
downe, That theft U no' rea^e Maneff,cBo^i^iif^ms^ 
m\l fetch all other commodities- fo this know- , 
ledge w'that which Yhould purchpife ail <tfic feftd 
Ana like as the fVeflJndieshad nctfei! been difcdue^ 

Aa 2 red; 

iSB Of the aduahcement ofkarning. 

edjifthe vfeof the Mariners Needle, had not been 
firftdifcoucred; though the one bee vaft Regions, 
and the other a fmall Motion. So it carjnoc be 
found ftrangc, if Sciences bee no further difcouer- 
ed, if the Art it felfe oi Inuenthn and Difcoscrie^ 
bad been e pa fled ouer. , . 

That this part of Knowledge k wanting, to my 
lodgement, ftanderh plaincly confcflcd ; for firft 
X^^iPit^doth not pretend to inuent Sciences or the. 
Axia^ns^oi Sciences^\M pafleth it ouer wich a Cnic^ 
.infudariecredendum. And Celfiis acknowlcdgeih 
icgrauely, fpcaking of the Empiricall and Dogms- 
■ticall Se(^s of Phyfitians, That Medicines and 
€nrcs^ xverefirjifonnd out, afidthen after the Reafotts 
T^fdufes v^eredifcffurfid:^ not (he Caufes firft foun4 
•out^dni'hylt^htfrom them the Medicines and Cur a 
^iifiouered. 'And PLtto in bis Thetetetus noreth 
well, That particulars are infinite, and the higher 
generalities giue m frfftcient dire6itott .• and that 
the fyihe of 'AU Sciences y which maketh the Art^- 
fnan differ from the inexpert^ is in the middle pro. 
fafitions^ which in euerie particular knowledge are 
ukettfiom Tradition and Experience, And there- 
fore wee ice, that .they which difcouiile of theln- 
pcmiansahd Originallsrof.things, r&ferrc them 
rathcc to.Chance^\htn to L4rt, and r^thex to Beails^ 
-Mirds^Fjfbes, SMrpcnts^ than to Men^\ \x^ 
~v;oti}! i-i: ■■ .--'■'... ■ ■ " •]. 

« hi^iBdmnum genetrix Cretxa carpi db ida^ 
kiittAtrihni cdnkmfol^s, &flore ctmantem 
,Q?r " £ eA THrpuree: 

' Pttrptireo : non ilUferis incognita Ca^ris, 
Ci.raTfiirJa cumtcrgo vclucref b^fercfigitt/r.. 
So that it was no maruaile, (the manner of Ami- 
qititie being to confecratc Inuentbrs^ that the 
z^gyptians had fo few humane I dols in their Tem- 
ples, but aloioftall Brute .- 
OmnigenHmqure Dettm mo»ftray^ UtratorAnubis 
'ComraNepttWH(i^ VeHerem,c6ntraq'^ Mweruam,d^c* 
- And it you like better the tradition of the Gre- 
cians, and afcribe the firft Inuentionsto Men, yet 
you will rather bcleeue that Prometheu4 firft ftroakc 
the flints, and maruailed atthcfparke, thanthac 
when he firft ftroake the flints, he expeded the 
fparke; and therefore wee fee the Wefi Indian Pro* 
methctiSj had no inreiligencc with the Europeean^ 
becaufe of the rareneffe with them of flint, that 
gauc the firft occafion ; fo as it fliould feem€,that 
hitherto men are rather beholden to a wild Goat 
forSurgerie, or to a Nightingale for Mufiquc, or 
lothc/^Af for (omep^rt of Phificke, or to the Pot 
lidde, that flew open for Artillerie, or generally to 
Chauna^ or any thing elfe^ than to Logicke for the 
Inuention of Arts and Sciences. Neither is the 
forme of Inuention^which ^/>^//y defer ibeth much 

Vt varioi vfus meditando extunderet artes^ 

PaaUtim, iL.:..,ii- 

Forifyouobferue the words well, it is no otfact 

methodc, than that which brute Beafts arc capable 

ofy and doc put in vre^ which is aperpetuall intend" 

Aaa ing 


tp€> Of the aduancement of learning. 

Ji»g orpra^ifirfgfome er/ethingvrgeddnd impojed, 
Sy an abfslute necefttic ofconferuAtion of bcing'^ For 
fo QV^/'tf faith veiie trulyj Vjns vnirti diditus, ^ 
NAttiTAmd" Arum [Afe vincit : And therefore if 
icbcefaid of Men, 

Lahr omnia mncit 
Jmfydbuiy ^ duris vr^em in rebtu egefiaS'^ 
-Ic is hkewife faid of beads, ^pf Pftttacs decuit 
fuMm-)^^' who taught the Rauen in a drowth to 
throw pibbks into an hollowtree, where fhc fpyed 
water, that the water might rife, fo as (hee might 
come to it f who taught the Bee to faylc through 
fuchavaft Sea of ay remand tofindethe way from a 
field in flower, a great way off, to her Hiue ? who 
taught the Ant to bite eucrie graincef Cornc, that 
(heburicth in her hill, leaft it Hiould take roote and 
grow ^ Adde then the word Ex/undere,v/hich im. 
pocreth the extreame difficultic, and the word 
FauUtipf, which importeth thcextreame flownefle; 
«nd wee ar e where wee were, euen amongft the 
Sgipians Cois, there being little left to the facukie 
of Reafifft itid nothing to the dutie of Jrt for 
matter oUmention. 

Secondly, the Indu^ion which the Logitians 
fpeakc of, and which feemeth famihar with ?Ut9^ 
whereby the Principles of Sciences may foe pre- 
tended to be inucnted, and fo the middle peopofi- 
tions by deriuation from the Principles^ their 
forraeoflndu^ioh,! fay is vtterly vitious and in- 
CQjopccetit : wherein their cr rour is the foler, bee 


jcVufcirlsihe duric of Art loperfcv^ and exalt Na- 
ture ; buxthey contrariewife hauc vviongcd, abu- 
ledj^ad traduced Nature. For hee thatlhallat- 
tenfiuelyobreruehow the minde doth gather this 
eKcellcnEd;;w oifKaow ledge, like vnto that which 
the Poet Tpeaketh of Acre melHs cdejiia dfna^ 
diftilling and contriuing it out of particulars na- 
turaj! andartJficiall, as the flowers of the field and 
Garden : iTiall finde that the minde of her felfc 
byNitureboth mannage, and Ade an Indudiion, 
much better thaniheydefcribeir. For to con- 
clude 'vpon An\ Emr»4rAt'ton offurticuhrs without 
iftjlarjce cemraJicierie : is no conclufion ; but: a 
cpnieifi^irQ. for whocanaffure (in manyfubiecf^s) 
ypon thofc particulars, which appearc of a fide, 
that there are not other on the contraric fide which 
appears not ?^ As if SanMcU fhould baue refted 
vpon thofc Sonnesof ^^h which were brought 
before hitn, and failed of/)4«^^,whichwas in the 
field. And this forme (to fay truth) isfagroffe^ 
as it had not beene poflfible |br wittes fo fubtile, 
ashiuemannagedthefe things, to hauc offered it 
to the world.but; chat they haftcd to their Thesries 
& DogrnaticdSf^nd were imperious and fcornefull 
tQward particulars, which thek manner was to 
v|e, , but as LUhrts and VtAteres for Sargcanfs 
arid Whii^cxs^K^^/ummfiiteAil'tm turham^to make 
way and make roonae for their opinions, rather 
tb,aa in, their true vfc and feruicej ccrtainely, it is a 
thing may touch a s^io with, a religious, wonder, 


ip 2 Of the aduancem ent oflearning»^ 

to fee how the footfteps of feducemcnr, arc the 
very fame inDiuine and Humane truth ; for as in 
Diuinc truth, Man cannot endure to become as a 
Child; So in Humane, they rcpntedthe attending 
the Induftions f whereof wee fpeakej as if it were 
a fecond Ihfancie or Child hood. 

Thirdly, allow fomc Piifjciples oxAxiomes were 
rightlyinduced^ yet neuerthclefle ccrtainc it is, that 
Middle Prdpo fit ioKSy cannot be deduced fiora them 
in SuhieBcf Nature by Syllogifmej that is, by Touch 
And ReduMo» of them to Princip.les in a Middle 
TeArme. It is true, that the Sciences popular, as 
i^ordlities, Laws^andthG iikejyea, and Diuinitie 
(becaufe it pleafcth God to apply himfclfe to the 
capacity of the fimpleft) that forme may haue vfe, 
and in NatttnU Phibfepkie likewife, by way of ar- 
gument or r3tisfa(aorie Reafon, ^ua ofenfum pdrit, 
Operis Effceta eft : Butthefubtiltie of Nature and 
Operations will not bee inchained in thofe bonds ; 
For Arguments confift of Propofitions, and Propo- 
Jttions, of Words, and Wordes are but the Current 
Tokens or Markes of popular Notions of things : 
which Notions if they bee groflfely and variably 
coUe^ed out of particulars; It is not the laborious 
examination either of Confequences of Arguments, 
^r ofthetruthof Propofitions that caneucr corrciS 
that Errour, being (as the Phyfitians fpeake) ill 
the firft digeftion* And therefore it was not with. 
out caufc, that fo many excellent Phylofbphers be- 

^ %XKv.:^heJecmd^ooke. ipj 

ameScepti^ttaatid Jca^emi^uesy 2r\6 denied any 
certainwcof Knowledge, or Comprehenfion, and 
held opinion that the knowkdgcof man extended^ 
onely to Appearances, and Probabiiicies. It i 
true, that in Socrates it was fuppofed to bee but a 
forme of" Jrofiy, ScUntUm dtJl'tmHlando ftmulauit : 
Forheevfed todilable bis knowledge, to the end 
to inhanfc his Knowledge, like the Humor of 
Tiberit4s in his beginnings, that would Raignc, 
bot would not acknowledge fo much*, And in the 
larcr Acadtmj , which Cictro embraced; this 
opinion alfo of Jcatalipfia (I doubt) was not held 
fincerely .-for that all thofc which excelled in 
Copie of fpccch, feeme to hauc chofen that Se<S^ 
as that which was fitted to giuc glorie to their 
eloquence, and variable difcourfcs .* being rather 
like Progre0cs of plcafure,than lournies to ao : 
end. But affuredly many fcattercd in both Ac4^ 
^i^4v/V/,didhoIditin fubciltie, and integritie. Bae 
here was their chiefe Errourj They charged the 
deceite vpon T&e Semes • which in my Judge* 
ment (notwithdanding all their Cauillations) are 
¥erie fufficient to ccrtifie and report truth Cthough 
not alwaies immediately, yet by comparifonj) by 
helpe of inftrumcnt; and by producing, and vr- 
ging fuch things, as are too fubtilc for the fence, to 
fome effe(5l comprehenfible,by the fence,and other 
like affiftance. But they ought to hauc charged the 
deceit vf6HthemdkeneJfe fifthe intelleeiuaU pewers^ 
Md vf0M 4k maner of €9(le6iing^ And f including 

B b vpn . 

ip4- Of the kMMcement o/learmng. 

vpoff the reverts of the f en ft s. Tii is I fpcake not ro 
difablc the minde of man, but to ftirre ic vp to feckC 
hclpc:- far no man, be he ncucr focitnnif^g or 
pradlifed, can maKea ftraight liric or perrc6l circle 
by fteadineflccf hand, whicbm:^y bee cafiiy dor.c 
by hcipe of a R «l s r or Com p ifTe. 

This ^aiXtoilnuentio^yCor^ctr\mo\\\clnuc»ti»n 
fi^n^Z ^^ Sciences,,! pwpoik ( if God glue mfc lea c; 
(^mterpre- hereafter to propound : hauing digcftcd it inro 
tatioNtttftrA two p^rrs : wlicreoF the one I fearmc Experiemis 
literata^ and the other Interpret at ie NAturx- : The 
former,. being but a dx grec ami rudiment of the la- 
ter. But I will not dwell too long, nor jpeakc too 
grcatvponapromifc* '^' 

The InuentioH of fpccch or argument is not 
properly an Imfeamn xioiiolnuentis todifcbuttl 
that we knaw nor, ind r.ot to rccourr or reTuffiit 
mon that which wee alnrii^ic V oW; and the vfi^ 
of this Inuetition, is no othtr j Hut out of the Know, 
ledge^whereefourmitide is alreadie foffefi^ to draw 
foorth, or caU before vs thattphtch pi ay bee pertinent 
ti the pur^ofe, which wee tJie intomr corTfijderdtfOffi 
So as to Ipeakctrulji^^ir is b-^ lnuentfo>ffhm Re' 
membrance or Sug^eHioni Wi\h a AfpiJC5tiOfl j'' 
Which is the caufc why hcScHooles d c 'f lacirit 
after ludgement, as fub^cq cnt aid riot precedent 
Nc'uCrthelcfl[e,bccaufe wc< doe acq(^unt i a Chafdj 
afwcll of Deere in an incMeiJ Pi^ej.^slrvaFor- 
rcft at large : and cha^ it hacH ult^at^ic ob>taincd^ 
the name: Let it bee xalcd /«?«^^^'<?/^5 To a?^t't>^ 

pcrcc iKd 

^he fecmd^oof^kv A 195 

percciurdand difcerncd, that the Scope and end 
oftliis Inuintien^ is readincffeand prcfcnt vfe of 
our knowledge, and not addition or amplificarion 

To procure this readic vfe of Knowledge,? here 
arc rwo Caurfes : Preparatio-a and Snggcftioi}, 
The forme of thefe, fccmc h fcarcely a part of 
Knowledge; confiftirg rarhcr of Dligcn'Cc, than 
of any artificiail crudi i n. And herein ^^rifiotU 
wktily,bur hurtfuliy doih deride rhc Sffphifls^nccve 
his time, faying; They did as if om tljAt frofefjeA 
the Art vfShooC'maktng.jhaitld not teach how to wake 
vp A Shooe^ but enclj exhihite in a readsnefje a number 
ef shoots ofallfafhiom AndSizes3ni yet aman might 
reply, rha' if a Shooe-makcr fliculd h luelo Saoccs 
in his Shoppe, buronely worke, ashc isbGfpckcn 
he (bould bee wcakdy cnftomrd Burour Sauiour, 
rpeaking of Diuine Knowledge, faith : That the 
Khgdomeof tieauen^ is like a good Ho«fl)older, thai 
hringcth foorth both new and old Ji ore ; And wee 
fee tiie ancient Writers of Rhetoricke Aot giue it 
in precepts : That Pleadersihouldhaiiethc Places, 
whereof they naue moft contiouall vie, rcadie 
handled in all the varictie that may bee, as thar. 
To fpeakc for the htcrall Injerprctatioi> of the 
Law agdinft Hquitic, and Contraric : and to 
ipcakc for P re f^urn prions and Inferences againft 
TcftinnoMir ; and Contr; rie .• And C/Vfr<? himfclfeg 
being broken vnro it bygreat expcricrcf, delmer. 
cthitplainclyj. That wbaifocuer a man fli)!! haua 

Bfb a occaOon 

1^6 Of the admncement of learning. 

occafion ro fpeakc of, (if he will r^ke the paines)he 
raayhaue it in tffcd prcm?<Jiute, and handled in 
thofe.S ) that when he commcth to a particiilar,hc 
fliallhiiuc r.othirg to do, but t« put ro Names, and 
times, and placcsj and fuch other Circumftances 
of Indiiiiduals. We fee likewifc the great cxa<a 
diligence of Demojlhenes^ who in regard of the 
great foxe, that the entrance and accefTe into 
caufeshjth to make a good imprefiion; had readic 
framed a number ot Prefaces for Orations and 
Speeches. All which Authorities andPrefidents 
may oner-weigh o/f//?^//fi opinion, that would 
haue vs change a rich Wardrobe, for a paire of 

ButthcNatureoftheColIedionof thisPrtf»//7- 
en or Preparatoriefiorej though it be common, both 
to Logtcke, and Rhetoncke; yea hauing made an en- 
try of it here, where ic came fir ft to be fpoken of* 
Ithinkc fitte to refcrre ouerthe iurther handling 
of it to Rheuricke* 

The other part of Jnuenthn, which I terme 
Suggefiitn^ doth aflignc and dired vs to certaine 
liarkes or PUca, which may excite our Mindc 
to retyrne and produce (uch Knowledge, as it hath 
formerly colledcd : to the end wee may make vfc 
thereof. Ncicheristhisvfe (truly takenj onely 
to fiirnifli argument, to difpure probably with 
others; But likewifc to Minifter vnto our ludge- 
ment to conclude aright within our ielues* Neithef 
may vhcfc places ftruc ondy to apprompt our In- 


uentlo'ijbutalforo dire<5tojr enquirif. For a fj- 
cultieofwifc interrogating is halfe a knowledge; 
For as Plata Ciuh-^ Whcfseuer/eeketb, knowethtkat 
which he jeeketh for^ in a generAll N^tion-^ Elfeh$w 
P}4libt know it^xvhen hi hMh found i» f And there- 
fore the larger your Anticipation is, the more dheA 
and compendious is your fcarch. But the fame 
Places which will heipe vs whar to produce, of that 
whch we know alreadic; will alfo helpe vs, if a 
mm of experience were before vs, what qurfiions 
toa«ke;orif w: hmeBookesaod Authors, to in- 
ftruclvswha'" points to fcarch and reuolue .• fbas 
I cannot report, that this part oUnnextian, which 
is chat which the Schoolcs call Tofiquesy is dc- ^ 

NeuerthelefTe Topiqnes arc of two forts, generdU 
ind fpecidll, ThcgeneraS vfc haue fpoken to. boc 
th; particular harh becne touched by fome, but rc- 
ie(5led generally, as inartificiall and variable. But 
leauing the humor which hath raigned coo much 
in the Schoolcs (which is to be vainely fubrilc in a 
few things, which are within their command, and 
CO reie^ the reft) I doerecciue particular Toptques^ 
that is places or dxr^ddomoi lnuenth»zmlnquu 
rie in eucry particular knowledge, as things of great 
vfej being Mixtures oiLogiq^e with the Matter of 
Sciences : forinthefe it holdeth* Ars WMet$itfnU 
dioUfcctcam inutntk : for as in going of a wayi 
wee doe not onely ga'ne that part of the way 
which is pafTed^ buc wccgainethe better (Ight of 

Bb 3 thu 


i^S Of the aduancement of learning* 

that part of the way which rcmaincth: So euerie 
degree of proceeding in a Science giucrh ali^htto 
thac which foiljwcth. which light if wccftrcng- 
thenjby drawingicfoorth into queftions cr places 
of inquirie, wee docgr( acly aduancc our purfuitc. 

Now vfc pafTe vnto the ^^rtes of tudgement^ 
V hlch handle the Natures of P7f(?/f J and Demon* 
Jirathns^ which as lo indi'Mien hath a Coincidence 
with Inuentidfi : For in aH Indaciiom whether in 
good or vitiom forme i the fame a^iionofthe Mindt 
which Inuenuthy ^udgeth-^ all one as in the fence : 
But other wife it is in proofc by Sylhgijme : Far 
the proofc being not immediate but by m^'anc ; 
ihz Indention of the Means is one thing : and the 
Judgement of the Confeqitence is another. The one 
Exciting onely: ihcothn Examining: There- 
fore for the rcalland eXad forme of ludgemenr, 
wee rcfcrrc our felues to that which wc haue fpoken 
cf Interpretation of Nature^ 
>^ For the other Iiidgem( nr by SyJiogifne^ as it h a 

thing moft agreeable t j the M^nd of Man . So 
^it hath beene vehemently and excellently labou^ 
se^v -For the Nature of Man doth cxrreanely 
couef, CO haue fomcwhat in his Vndcrftanding 
fix d and vnmoueable, and asaReiJ, and Sup*, 
port of the Mind. And therefore as AriflotlcctX'- 
ieupAJr^Jch to prooue, that in alf Morion, there is 
Jome pointe quicfccnt. and as hee elegantly ex^ 
poundeththc ancient Fable of Atlas^ (»hatuood 
fKsdj^ and bare vp the Hcauen froin fulling) to bee 
u^t meant 

meant of the Poles or Astcl-trce of Hcauen, u here- 
vpjH'jht Conu-rfi iriis accompIinicd^fo^fTuredly 
men ha jca dflirt^^ to haue an ^itds or AxcF-trec 
withm.: to kccpe them from fl.nfiuacionj which is 
like to:^;p?rpctiuil pcrill of falling: Therefore m n 
did li-uft-n ro fer dviwn fomc Principles, about 
wjiica ch'j varieric of ^hcir difpurations mighc 

So t/icn this Art of laigemerjt^ is but the JtduEiU 
9n oF frQpfitioni^Vo Principles in a Middle Teari^c, 
The fr/^a/^/^/tobcca^Tefd by all, and exempted 
from Arguni?ntjTlie Middle tedrmho bee ele'ded 
at the libertic ot euerie Mans Inuention : the i?f- 
dfi^iontobscoi twokind^s Dirt£t^ and Inuerted- 
the one when ihe Propcfttiom is reduced to the 
FftnfJple,- vvhiich they tcrme a Probation e^hfme : 
the other when the co jtraJi(5^arie of the Propoff- 
tjon is reduced to the contradioiorie of the Prin- 
ciple, which is, that which they call P^-a* Irjcommo* 
dumy or f^cpng an abfurditie : the Number or 
Htddk TersTiestobrc^ as the Prepefition(kmdeAh, 
Degrees more or kfTcjremoucd from the Principle, 

But this Art hath two feuerall Methods of 
D Jcirine ; the one by way ofDire&ioU, the other 
by way of Cautton : the former fr^mcihand fcttcth 
downe a true Forme$f Cenfequence, by the varia- 
tions a id deflexions, from which Errours and In- 
conf-'q icna-s may bee txJMStly iudgcd. Toward 
thc;Cv)»npofi ionandftru^urc of which forme, iC 
is iaad^^it to handle the parts thereof, whteTi arc 

aoo Of the aduancemmt of learning. 

Fropeftthns, and the parts of Prfiptjiiions^ which 
Tilt StmpU Words. And this is that part oiLegicke^ 
which is comprehended in the Analytiques. 

ThefccondMc hod of Doctrine, was introdu- 
ced for expedite vfe, 2ndafrurancc fakcj difcoucr- 
ing the more fubtile formes of Sophifmcs, and 1H4- 
qucdtions^mxh their redargtttiom^ which is that 
which is rearmed Blenches. For although in the 
more grofTeforfcs of Fallacies ir hcppcncrh (as Sc- 
necA maketh the compar Ton well) as in iugling 
fcatcs, which though wet know not how ihcy arc 
doncj yet wee know wcU ic is nor^ as it fcemcth to 
bee : ycc the more fiibtilc fort of them doth not 
oncly put a man befidcs his anfwerc , but |doth 
many time, abufe hislad^^mcnt. 

Tbis pjrt concerning Blenches^ is excellently 
handled by ArtftotU in Precept, h\M more excellent- 
ly by TUto in Example : not onely in the pcrfons of 
the SophiJlSf but euen in Socrates himfclfc, who 
profcfnngtoaftirme nothing, but ro infirme that 
which was affirmed by another, bath exa^ly ex- 
prcflcd all the formes of obiedion, failace and re- 
dargution. And although wee haue fasd that the 
vfe of this Do^rinc is for Rtdarguthri : yet it is 
manifeft, the degeneracc and corrupt vfe is for 
Caption and ContrAdi^i$n, which pafTeth for a 
great facultie, and no doubt, is of verie great sd* 
iiant?g"; though the diflPercnce bee good which 
was made bet weenc Orators and SophiflcrS) that 
the one is as the Grcyhound,which hach his aduan- 

irhfecon d ^ool^. . 3P i 

tsgc ia the race, and the orher as the Hare, which 
h^iih heraduancagc in rhe turnc, {q as it is the ad- 
vantage of the weaker creature. 

Bucyct further, this "D odix'mt o^ Elenches ,h2i\\i 
a more Ample latitude and extent, than isperccx- 
yed ; namely vnto diucrs parts of Knowledge : 
whereof fomc arc laboured, and other omitted. 
For firft, Iconceiue (though it may feerae at firfl: 
fomewhat ftrange ) that that part which is variably 
referred, fometimes to Logickej^omzt\mt% ro Met/i-. 
phjjich, tou:hingthe Common adiun^s of Bjfe»ces, 
is but an Elenche : for the great Sophifmc of^M So- 
phifmes, being ^/EquiuocAtion or iSdwhiguitie cf 
Words and Pbrafe^ fpccially of fuch wordes as arc 
moftgeneralland interuene ineuerieEnquiric: fc 
fcemeth to me that the true & fruitfuli vfcs, (leauing 
vaine fubtilitie$,and fpeculationsj of the Enquiric 
of 14 At or it ie^ Mi /fori fie, Priori tie, Poficrioritie^ 
J dent i tie, Diuerfitie^ PofMitie, C^^, Titalitie, 
pArts^ Exigence, PriuAtion^ and the like, arc but 
wife Cautions againft Ambiguities of Speech. So 
againe, the diftiibution of things into ccrtaine 
Tribes, which we call CAtegories or PredicAments^ 
arc but Cautions againft the confufion of Defiftith 
ons and Diuijtons. 

Secondly, there is a (cdacement that woikech 
by the ftrength of the ImprelHon, and not by 
the fubtiltie of the Illaqueation , not fo mnch 
perplexing the Rcafon, as ouer-ruling it by 
power of the ImAginatioA, But this parclthinke 

Cc VBM^ 

liOi Of the aduancement of learning. 

more p oper co handle, when I (hall fpeake of 

But laftly, there is yet a much more important 
and profound kinde of Fallacies in the Mindc 
of Man, which I findenot obfcruc-dor enquired 
at all, and thinke good to place here, ai that which 
of all others appertaineth moft to redifie Judge* 
went. The force whereof is fuch, as it doth noc 
dazle,or fnare the vndcrftanding in fome parricu- 
brs, but dorh more generally, and inwardly in- 
fed^ and corrupt the ftate thereof. For the mindc 
ofMin is farrc from the Nature of a cleare and 
equiiiglaflc, wherein ihebeames of things {hould 
refle(5t according to their true incidence^ N^y, \t 
h rather like an inchantcdglaife, full of fuperftition 
and Impoffure, if it bee not deliuered and reduced. 
For this purpoie, let vs confider the filfe ap- 
pearances, that are impofed vpon vs by rhegene- 
rall Nature of the mmde, beholding them in ai^ 
example or two, as firfl in the inftance which is 
the rooteof allfupeifli-ion : Namely, ThAt to the 
Nature of the Mwde oJaU Men it kconfonunt for the 
AffirmAtine^ or ABiue to afftciy more than the »ega» 
tine or FriuAtiae. Sothat a few times hitting, or 
prefence, counteru3ile5 ofr-tiraes failing, or 
abfcncej as was well anfwered hY.vDiaggras^ to 
him that; (bewed him in N.ej>tunesjcm\>\c^'x\\c 
greartiumber of pi»5iurcs, of fuch ashad fcaped 
S^ippc-wr^ke, and had paide their Vowes xo 
ar</*/w»iS, faying : Adttife nmeyjou that thinkejfi 


fiMjip i»HOcate Neptumintemfejl : Ted^ to f faith 
D Ultras) where Are tbej pairtted that are drowned ? 
Lee vs behold it in another inftancc, namely, T/'ijf 
the ffirit ef mdrty being of an equal/ artd 'uniforms 
ftibftance^ dothvfuallj fupfofeandfaine in Nainrea 
greater equalitie and 'vntformitie, than is in truth -^ 
Hence it coii1meth,that the Mtthematicianx can- 
not idtisfie thcmfcJucs, except they reduce the 
Motions of t^)e Celeftiall bodies , to perfc(^ 
Circles, reie<5^ino fpirall lines, and labouring co be 
difchargtd orE<^(3eritriqi]cs. Hcnc6 it commcth, 
ihatUvriereas there arc' many things in Nature, as 
ItwacMonodica : Jtti luris-^ Yet thccogirationsof 
Man, d>e fainc vrito them Reiatiues^ ParaUetles, 
and ConiHgateSj whercasnofuch thing isj as they 
haue fained an Element of fire to keepe fquarc 
with Eeartb, Water, and Ayre>ahd thelikfjNay, 
it is not credible, till it bee opened, what a num- 
ber offi«flions andfantafies, the fimilitude of hu- 
mane Anions, and Arrs, together with the making 
of Man Communis Menfura, haue brought into 
naturall Philofophie ; not much better, than the 
Hcrcfie of the jinthrepomorphites bred in the 
Gcllcs of grofleand (olitaric Monkef, and the 
opinon of £/»/V«r/i<tf, anfwerable to tbefhmein 
heaihenifme, who fuppofcd the Gods to bee of 
humane Shape. And therefore VeMttt the 
Epicurian needeid not to haue asked, why God 
(hould haue adorned the Heauens with Starrcs, as 
if he had beeneane^^;//^.* One that (hould haue 

Cc 2 fee 

2o^ Of the aduancement of learning. 

fee forth forae magnificent fhewes er plaics i for 
if that great Woikc-mafler had bccnc of an Hu- 
mane difpofition, hcc would haue caft the ftarrc* 
into fome pleafant and beautifull works, and or- 
ders, like the fiettes in the Roofes of Houfcs, 
whereas ooc canftarcc findc a Pofture in fquare^ 
or tri*ngle^ or ftrcight line amorgft fuch an in- 
finite nunibefj fo differing an Harmonic, there is 
betweene she fpirit of Man,^ and the Ipirit of 

Let vs canfider againe, the faJ'c appearances 
impofed vpon vs by cucric Mans owne indiuiduall 
Nature and Cuftome in that faincd fuppolition, 
that PUt(y makcth of the Caue .• for certaincly, 
ifachildc were continued in inaGrotte orCauc, 
vnderthe Earth, vntill raafwritie of age, and came 
fuddainely abroade, hec woold haue flrange and 
abfurd Imaginations^ SoinHkemarner, ahhougb 
our pcrfonsh'uc in the view of Heauen, yet our 
Ipirits are included in the Ciues of cur ownc 
compleiions and Guftomes ; which nainifter vnto 
vs infinite Erroursand vaine oj)inionSj if they bee 
not recalled to examination. Buc hereof wee 
haue ginea many examples in one of the Errorsj 
or peccant humours, whLh wee rannc bricfely 
ouer in our firft Booke» 

Andlaftly, let vs confider the falfc appearan- 
ces^ that arc irapofcd vpon vs by words, which 
ireframed, and applied according to the conceit, 
and capacities of the Vulgar forte ; And although 

\^^\^^ V Ultfecond ^oof^Aih ^05 

wcc thinkc wee goucrnc our wordc8,and prc- 
fgribc it well. LoquendumvtFttlgMyfemientiam'trt 
jApientes : Yet ccrcaiac it ts, that worses, as a 
Traurs Bowe, doe ftwote backc vpon the vn- 
derftanding ofthcwifeft, and mightily entangle, 
andperuert the ludgement. So as it is almoft 
neceflarie in all controuerfics and difputations^to 
imicatc the wif:dome of the Math<maticiam^ \n 
fccting downc in the vcric beginning, the definiti- 
ons of our words and teariocs, that others may 
know how wee accept and vnderfland them, and 
whether thoyconcurrc with vsor no. For iccom- 
met h to paflTc for wint of this, that wee are furc 
to end there where wc ought to haue begun, which 
is in qucflions and differences about words. To 
conclude therefore, it inuf! be confcflcd that it is 
nor poffible todiuorce our fclucs fro the/e fallacies 
find falfe appearances, bccaufe they arc infcparablc 
from; our ^Nature and Condition of lifcj Soycc 
ncucrtheicrfc the Caution of them (foe all EUnshts £it„chi\ 
as was laid, are but Cautions) doth cxtreamely ;„^.«;yj-^ 
import the true condu<5t of Humane Iudgc-<^p/^J^4 
mcnt. The particular Bknchts or Cmtions againfl »«»» httmam^ 
thefc. three falfe appcaraDces^ Ifinde altogether de- namisx^ g^ 
jicient. Htntitijs, 

There remaincth one part of ludgcmcnt of 
great cxccllencie, whictitoajinc vndcrflanding is 
fa fleightly touched, as iinaay, report that iilfo d«. 
ficienr, which is the application of thfe differing 
kinds of Proofed to Che differing kindes of Sub* 

Cc 3 ic^ 

.wj^u? ■. 


^06 Of the 4(kMcement of learning. 

icds : for there being but fourc kirides of dcmon- 
ftratibns, that is bythc ittifh'ediatc C<>;j/?»r of the 
c^ inde otSenfe-^ hf lndu6iion'^ by Sjllogifme-^ and 
by Cangruitie, which is that which \^Hfidtk 
c^\\zih Dem&n^rathnin (>r he ^ or C7/>f /^, tirid not a 
Nouorihrn^ euerie of thdc hath certaine Subieds 
in the Matterof Sciences, in which refpcdiueiy 
they hauc chicfeft vfe* and certaine other, from 
which refpedtiaeiyithey ought to be excluded, 
and the rigt)ur, , ^d curibfitie, in rcquirihgth^ 
mor^ rcuerePrdoteiiifOnlg things, and chicfely 
ihc facilitie in consenting our felues, with the 
niore remiflTe Proofcs in others hath beenc a- 
mohgft the greateft caufesofdetrimehc and hin-. 
derancc to Knowledge. The diftributions and 
aflignations of demonftrations , according 
DtA^alo' tojthe Analogic of Sciences, I note as defici- 

gis Demon- ^nf. v; , -^ - 

firattinum. ^j-jj^ Guftodie br''rhaining' oF Kdowlecfge; 

■ -,- is either in Writing xit tMemprie • wheredf 

• ^ v»'^^*: Wrttmgy hath two parts- The Nature of the 

CbAraher'^ and the order of the Entrie .• for the 

Art of CharA^iers^ or other vifible notes of Words 

:. ', ..«^ or things, it hath neercftconiugation with Gram- 

.,4m»v nj^j.^ and therefore I refcrre it to the duepl^ce- 

for the Difpofitim ^tid CoUdta^ififf oFxhkt Know* 

ledge which wee preferue in Writing. It con- 

i fifteth in a good Dig^fli of Gorttrhonr PlaccSj 

wherein I am not ignokhc of the preiiidice im-, 

putcdtothe ^kol[cmmcn-pl^6 S<fokes,2scauhng 

3 retardation of Reading, and feme florh or r»- 
lax ition of Memorie. But bccaufc it is but a 
cou-mcrfeit thing in Knowledges to bee forward 
and prcgnarir, except a man bee deepe and full. 
I hold the Entrie of Commonplaces, to bee a 
macter otgrcatvfe andefTenccinftudyirrg^as that 
which afTuretb copie of Inucnrion, and contra(5lcth 
ludgcmenc to a ftrengdi. But this is true^ that 
efthc Mcthodes Qi Commm-fUces^^xhzx. I haue feen, 
there is none of any (ufficient woorrh, all of thera 
carying mcerely the face ofzSchosk, and/not of 
a Werld^ and referring to vulgar mitcers, and Pe- 
danticall Diuifions without all life, or rcfpctft to 

/ For the other Principal! Part of the Guftodie 
of Knowledge, which is -^/^«;<?r/V. Ifindethat 
faculrie '\n my ludgement weakely inquired of; 
An Art fehereis extant of it; But itfeemethtome 
that there are better Precepts, than that Arr^and 
better pradifcis of that Art, than thafe re'ceiued. Ic 
is cf rtaine, the At t fas it is)may bee raifcd to points 
ofoftentation prodigious: But in vfc'Cas it is noW 
mannagcd j i" is barren, not burdcnfome, nor dan- 
gerous to Naturall Mcmorie, asis imagined, biK 
barren, that is, not dexterous to be applied to the 
ferious vfe of bufincfTc and occafions. And there- 
fore I make no more eftimation of repeating a 
great nuaaber of Names or Wordes vport once 
hcarwg; or the powring foorth of a namber^ of 
Ycrfcs or Rimes ex temper e^ or the making of a 


lo8 Of the dduancement oflearn'mg. 

SatjrUdS Simik ofcuericthing, orthe turning of 
eueric thing to aieft, or the falfifying or contra- 
dicing of cuerie thing by Cauill, or the likefwher- 
of in the faculties of the Minde, there is great Co- 
pie, and fuch, as by dcuife and pra<5iifc may be ex- 
altcd to an extreatne bcgrce of wonder.) than 
I doe of the trickcs of Tumlflers, FanAmbuloes, £4' 
ladjms*^ the one being the fame in the Minde^ thac 
the other is in rhe bodiej Matters of ftrangeoeHtf* 
without worthynefle. 

This Art of Memorit^\% but built vpon two Intcn*. 
tions : The one PrAmuon-^ the other EmbUm\frx* 
notioHt dilchargeth the Indefinite feeking of ihat we 
would remember, and diredeth vs to ^t^Vz in a 
oarrowe Compafic : thatis^ fomewhat that hath 
Congruitic without PUceof Memorie: Emblente 
reduceth conceits intclleduall to Images fen/ible, 
which ftrikc the Idcmorie more; out of which 
Jxhmes may bee drawnc much better Pracftique,- 
than that in vfc; and bcfides which Axiemes^ ^herc 
arc diuers moe,touching heipe of J/f/w^r/V, not in- 
ferior to them. But 1 did in the beginning diOin- 
guift, not to report thole things deficient, which 
are but onely ill Managed. 

There rcmaincth the fourth kinde oi Rithnai 
KntwUd^e, which is trandtiue, concerning the^jc*- 
frepng or trAmftrring our Knowledge to others, 
which I will tearmc by the generall name of Trddi^ 
thnir Dtliucrie, Tudiiiin hath three partes : 
the firft concerning ihc Org4ntffTr4diti$» : the (c- 


T^befecond^ooke. 3.0^ 

cond, cotvcerning the Method »f Tradithn : And 
the thiid, concerning the i//«/r4//<?« of Tradi- 

•^ For the Orgafte efTraaithfj^ kh ehhcr Speech 
orWriting:iox >^^//?^//^ faith well .• Words are the ^ 
ImAges of Cogitations^ and Ltttirs are the Images 
of Words : Butyetisnot ofnfcciliiie, that Cogtta- 
t/ofjsbce cxprefledby the Medium of Words. For 
foh^tfoeuer is citable of fufficient differences , and 
thoje perceptible by the fe/ife-^ is in Nature competent 
toexpreffe Cogttattons: And rhccforc wee Ice \t\ 
the Comm Tce of barbarous People, that vnder- 
ftand not one anothers l.^nouagc, and in the pra- 
difc oid'uers rhjt are dumbc and deafe, that naens 
mi '.ds arcexprdleiin gcftures though not exa<ft- 
ly,yc-' to fcr Jl the turn€. Hnd wee vnderftand 
further, thai i is the vfe of Chyna, and the King. 
domes oftl*cH -^h Leuam^ to wxvcinChara^erT y. 

reaff. which cap ciTcr.cihrr Letters^ nor wards m X 
grolfe. but Things f r Notions : in fo much as 
Countreys ind Prouinccs, which vnderftand not ' 

one anothrrs Unguage, ca^i neuerthcleflTcrcad one 
anothcrs Writings, b-^caufe the Chara^ers^zcczo 
ccpted mote ge^^crally, than the Languages doc 
extendj and therefore theyhauea vaft multitude 
oi characters, as many (I Juppofc,^ as Radical! 

Thefe Notes of Cogitations arc of two fortcsj 
The one when the Note hach {omz 
Congrnitii with the liQUfitt-^ The other ^d fla^ 

D d gitttm. 

OiioC Of the ddmncement of learning. 

^/V«;», hilling force onely by Comr&Ci ox Acce^* 
ration. Of the former fort are Bierogti^hickes, 
^ and Cejlures. For as to HinogUfhickcs^ Tthings 

of Ancient vfe, and embraced chiefely by the 
ty£gyptiaf!s, one of the mofi ancient Nations) they 
arc but 3S continacd Jmpreafes sind Em^lemes, And 
as for GefiureSf they ai e as Tranfitorie HkregU. 
fhickcs^ and are to Hierogliphickes^ as Words fpoken 
are to Wordesrvrittertj in that they abide nor;biit 
they haueeuer more as well, as the other an affini- 
tic with the things fjgnificd : as Periander being 
Gonfulted with how to prcferue a tyrannic new- 
ly vfwrpcd, bid the Meffenger attend, and report 
whathce faw him doe, and went into his Garden, 
'and topped all thehigeft flowers : fignifying that 
iteonliAedin the curting^off, and kreping low of 
the Nbbiliticand GrAndts^^ ^dPlacttuw, are the 
Cbara^ets rea/I bdore mentioned, zndfVordsi al- 
though fbme haue beene willing by Curious En. 
qoirie, or rather by apt faining, to haue deriufd 
impofition of Names, from Reafbn and Intend- 
ment : a Fpectilation elegant, and by reafon it fcar- 
cheth' into Antiquitie reuercnt .• but fparingly 
mixr with truth, and of fmallfriite,' Thisp6rtion 
TtlJ^l^*^ O' knowledge, touching the Notes of things^ and 
Cogitations in gcnerall, I finde not enquired, buc 
deficient. And although it may fceme of no great 
vfCj cortfidmng thstt Words,ind Writings by letters^ 
dot far cxcell all the other wayes : yet becaufe 
tfeisparuoftceractb, asit were the Mine of know- 
^^aVx^ ii Q ledge 


TJ:ie/econcI1Boo^. !lr| 

ledge (for words, arc the tokens currant and ac- 
cepted forcoiccitSjasMoneifs are far vafi'es,and 
that k is fit men. bee nor ignorant, that Moneys 
may bee of another kinde, than gold and fiiuer) 
1 th ought good to propound it to bercer En- 

Concerning Speech and Words, the Confi- 
dcration of rhem hjth produced the Science of 
Grammar : for Mm ftill ftriueth to rcinrcs'are 
bimlelk in thole bentdidions, from which by 
his fault h ?c hath becne depriued; And as bee 
hith ftriucn againft the firft general Curfc, by 
the Inucntion of all other Arcs : So hath hec 
fought to come foorth of the fecond general} 
Curfc, (which was the confufion of Tongues) by 
the Art o^ Grammar -^ whereotthe \[c in mother 
tongue is fmall : In a foftainc tongue more : 
but mjftinfuch Forrainc Tongues, as haueceale J 
to bee Vulgar Tortgues, and arc turned onely to 
learned tongues. The dutic of it is of two Na- 
t ures .• The one Popular^ which is for the fpeedic, 
and pcrfc<3 attaining Languages, as well for in* 
tcrcourfe of Speech, as for yndcrflanding of 
Authors .• The othcx PhilofophicaR, examining the 
power and Nature of Words, as they aw the 
foot-fteps and prints of Reafon r which kindc of 
K^nalogie betweene Words ^ and Ke^fon is handled 
^parfim^ brokenly, though not inrirdy : and tbcrc-- 
fore Ixanno5 rcporte ic deficient, though I tbinkc* 
itisveriewonhyto be reduced imo a Science by 
it fel/e. Dd a YW« 

^t Of the aduancement of learning. 

Vnto Grammar d\[oht\ov\gci\z% an Appendiif, 
the confi Jcrarion of the Accidents of Words, 
which are Mwafurc^fotiad, and Eleuation, or Ac- 
cent, and the fweccnefTc and hailhncflfeofthem : 
whcnc! hath ifTued (omc curious obferuaticns in 
Rhetorickey but chivTely Poefie^as wee confider it, 
in rdped of (he vcrle, and not af the Aigtiment: 
wherein though men in learned Tongues, doe 
tye rhf:mreli:cs to the Ancient McJiurcs, ycr in 
modcrnc Lrgunges, itft^cnieh to me, as free to 
mskc new Mcaiures of Vcri^s, as of Daunccs .• 
For a D'ynceisa meafurcd p c^*, as 'j. Vcrfe is a 
meafureci Speech. In thcfc things tnc Scnfcisbet- 
icr Iudge,thantlie Art. 

Carfj^fercaU noflr^i 
MAllem conuittid, quam yUcMJje Cocis. 

And ofthe fcruilc exprcfling t^ntiquitie in an 
vnhk'^and an vnfic Subicdl, it is well faid, ^sct 
tempore antiquum videtur^ idincongrmtau efi maxi^ 
me noniim 28 c2t^^i 

- For Cyphaf$if{\icy^tc commonly in Lcirers or 
Alphabets, but may btc in Words. The kindcs 
of Cjpbars^ fbcfidcs the Simple Cyphars with 
Crangcs, and interniixfurcs oiN»lUs^zv\d Non^ 
jignipafits) are many, according to the Nature 
<M Rolcof thcinfoulding : Wheck- ciphers^ Kay^ 
drphers^ Bou^lesy &c. But the vcrt-ucs of iliem, 
wKcr^y. ihey arc to bee preferred, are three j that 

V2iil "they 

Thefecond ^oof^e, Ijj 

they bee not laborious to write and reade^ that 
they bee impo/Iiblc to difciphcr- and in loroe 
caf s, that they bee without fuipition. Tiie highcft 
D.^gree whereof, is to write Omnia per omma\ 
w nich is vndoubtcdly pofiTible, with a proporcion 
Qnntuplcat moft, of the writing infoulding, to 
tiic writing infouldcd, and no other rcftraint^ 
v^hatfocucF. This A'te oi Ciphering^ hn\\ for 
Rditiuc, an Ar?: of D'tf ciphering-^ by fuppoffon 
vnprofitablcj but as things arc, ot great vfe. For 
fuppofe that Ciphers we c well mannaged, there 
bee Multitudes of them which exclude the /)//! 
cipherer. But ia rcgarde of the rawncile and vn- 
skilfulnciLofrlic handcs,rhrougb which they paHei' 
thegreateft Macter arc many umes carried in the 
weak: ft Ciphers, 

In the Enumeration of thcfc priuarc and rety- 
red Artcs it may bee thought I fecke to make a 
grcit Muftcr-Rowlc of Sciu-ncesj naming them 
forfhe\v and oftentarion, and to liccfc oih^r pur- 
pofe. But let thofc which are skill ullin thcn> 
indgc, whether I bring rhem onely for ipparance, 
or whetlicr in that which I ipeake of thcin 
f chough in few Markes) there bee not fome 
fecdc of proficiencc. And this muft bee remem- 
brfd, thit as there bee many of great account m 
their Countrcys and Prouinces, which when chey 
confie vp to thcSeate of the Eftatc, are but of 
m^anc Rankc and (carcely regarded: So thcfc Arts* 
being here placed with the printipall, aed fu- 


-JJ2J. Of the aduancement of learning. 

preamc Sciences, feemc petty things : yet to 
fuch as haue chofcn them to fpend their la- 
bours ftudics in them, they fcemc great MiC- 

For the Method of traditien, I fee it hath 
mooucd a Cont rouerfie in our time. But as in Ci- 
uile bufinefifej it there bee a meeting and men iall at 
Wordes, there is commonly an end of the M;^t- 
tcr for that time, and no proceeding at all •• So 
in Learning, where there is much controuerfie, 
there is many times httle Enquiric. For this part 
of knowledge of Methode fecm' th to mec ^o 
weakely enquired, as I fli ill report dc it ficien:. 
'' Methode hath beene placed, and that nor amifTe 
in Logicke as a part of ludgement^ For as the 
DoiSrincof .S/7/^^//?»« comprehendeth the rules 
of lodgement vpon that which is wuented- So 
the Dodrine oi Metbod contamth the rules of 
Judgement vpon that which is to bee deliuercd, 
for ludgement precedeth Deliuerie, as it followeth- 
Inuention* Neither is the Methde^ or the N/t- 
tare af the Tradition materiall oncly to the Vfe 
of Knowledge, but likcwife to the Progrepon of 
Knowledge; for fincc the labour and life of one 
jA^ man, cannot attaine to pcrfc(^ion of Knowledge; 

the Wifedtme of the Traditiorty is ihit which in- 
fpircththe felicitieof continuance,and preceding. 
And therefore the moft reall diucrfitie of Mothode^ 
is oi Methode referred to vfe^Bud Methode referred 
U Pr^^r(/jr/>;f,wher<eofthe one may bee tearjned 


Thefecond ^oo^e. Ti^- 

MAgiflraH, a^d the other of Probation. 

The later vvherfoFfeemcth x.o bee FtAciefertd ^ 
interclufa. For as Knowledges are now delivered, 
there is akinde of Conrad of Errour, bctvveenc 
theDdiuercr, andihcRecfiuer : for he that deli- 
uereth knowledge^ defireth to deliuer it in fuch 
forme^asmay bcbc'lbelecucdjandnot as may be 
beft examined ; and hce that rcceiucth knowledge, 
defireth rather prcfcnt fatisfai^ion, thancxpc(5tanc 
Enquirie, and fo rather not to doubt, than not to 
erre .• glorie making the Author not to hy open 
his weakneife, and floih making the Difciplc noC 
to know his ftrength. 

Bat knowledge, that isdeliuered as a threaJa^ 
to bee rpunne on, ought to bee dcliuered and 
intimated, if ic were poffible, Jn thejame Methedc 
wherein it rvas inuented-^ and fo is ir poftiblc of know- 
ledge induced. But in this fame anticipated and 
prcuented knowledge^ no man knoweth how hce 
came to the knowledge which bee hsth obtained. 
But yet neucithekfCc Secuntifim ntaius (^ minus, z 
man may rcuifite, and defcend veto the founda- 
tions of his Knowledge and Confent ; and fo 
tranfplantitinto another, asitgrewc in his owne 
Minde. For it is in Knowledges , as ic is in 
Plantcsi if you raeanc to vfc the Plant, it is no 
matter for the Rootes: But if you meane to re- 
mooueitto growe, then ic is more aflTured to 
reft vpon rootes, than Slippcs : So the diliueri'c 
of Knowleges (as it is now ski) \% as of fairc 


X X 

2i6 Of the aduancement of learning. 

bodies of Trees without the Rootcs : good for 
the Carpenter, bsit nor for the planter . But if 
you will haue Sciences grow; it is Itffe matter for 
T>e Methods chefbafte, or bodie ot the T ee, fo you lookc 
fj/ncera, fine vvell to thc taking vp of the Rootcs. Of which 
adflioi Set- j^jj^^g Qj^gl y.^ic j{^^ Methode of the Oliat&ema. 
mmrnm,^ ?/^//^i, in that Subied, hath fomc fhadow; but 
generally I fee it neither put in vre, nor put 
in Inquiliiion ; and therefore nore it for de- 

Another diuerfitie of CMethod rhrre is, which 
hath fome afFinitic with the former, vfed in 
fome cafes, by the difcretion of Auncicntsj but 
difgraced fincc by the Impoftures of many vainc 
perfons, who haue made it as a falfe light for 
their counterfeite Merchandizes • and that is 
EnigmaticallandDifclofed. The pretence where- 
of, is to remooue the vulgar C pacit<efiGm 
being admitted to the fecreces of Knowledges, 
and to rcfctuc them to fcle(5led Auditors T ®r 
wittes of fuch fharpeneffe as can pcircc the 

Another diuerfitie of Methode , wherrof 
the confequcnce is great, is the Ocliucric of know- 
ledge in C/ij>horiJmeSy or in Metbodes-^ wherein 
wee may obferue, that it hath bcene too much 
taken into Cuftomc, out of a few Axiomes or 
Obferuations, vpon any Subied^, to make a ^o. 
lemne, and form3ll Artj filling it with fome Dif- 
courfesy^nd illuflrating it with cxmples^and digt A- 


Thefecond^oof^e. 2\y 

ing it into a fenfible L^^thidcBm the wricingin 
i^pkonfmes^huh many excellent vertucs, where- 
to the writing in Methode doth not approach. 

For firft, it rrieth the Writer, whether hec bcc 
fuperficiall or folldc : For Aphorifmes^ except they 
fliould bse ridiculous, cannot bsc made but of 
the pyth and heart of Sciences .* for difcourfe 
of illuflracion is cut oflp, RccitjJles of examples 
are cut off : Difcourfe of Connexion, and or- 
der is cut off; Defcr'ptions of pra^ize, arc cut 
ofFi So there remaineth nothing to fiil the Apho, 
rifmes, butfome good quantitieof Obfc^uation; 
Andthcteforc no man can fuffice, nor in reafon 
will attempt to write Aphorifmes^ but hee that is 
found and grounded. But in LMethodcs* 

^ , Tdntum Series iuK^urAque P fillet , 
iiy^o'Tdntum de MedUftunptiSy Aisedit honms: 

As a Mam fhall make a great fiicw of an Art, 
which if it were difioynted, would come toHttlc. 
Secondly, Methddes arc more fie to winne Con- 
(cnr, or beiocfej butlefTe fie to point to A(aion| 
for they carriea kinde of Demonftration in Orbc 
or Circle, one parr illuminating anothers and there* 
fore fatJsfie. But particulars being difperfcd, 
doebcft agree with dxipcxkd dire^ions. And 
Jafily Aphonfmcs , reprefcnting a knowledge 

E e btoken. 


1 18 Of the adnancement af learning. 

broken , doe inuire men to inquire furthcp; 
whereas {J^.ethodcs carrying the (hew of a 
Torall, doe fccure mrnj as if they were at 

Another Diuerfiric of Methods ^ which is 
rikewlfeofgrcatweighCjis, The handling of know* 
ledge by Ajfertiom^ and their Proofs f, or by 
j^e/iiofJSjZnd their Beiermindtions : The latter 
kindc wheieof, if it bee imtnodcratcly followed, 
j*s as preiudiciall to the proceeding of Learning'^ 
as ith to the proceeding of sn Armie, ro gbe 
about to bcfijgc euerie little Forte, or Holdc* 
For if the Field bee kept, and the fummc of 
the Enterprize piiriued, thofe fmallcr things iviW 
come in of themfeluesj Indecde a Man would 
not leaue forae important peecc Enemie at his 
back?. In like manner, the vfe of Confutation 
in the dcliuerie of Sciences ought to dee veric fpa- 
ring5 and to feruc to remoouc ftrong Preoccu- 
pations and Preiudgements,and not to minifter and 
excite Difput Jtions and doubts. 

Another Diueificieof MethJes, iSfMcerdwg 
to thi SubieB or Matter, rphUb is handltd. For 
there i^ a great difference in Deiiueric of the 
U4t^em*iffjtteSt which are the mod abftra(5ted of 
Kiowlcdges, and Pelicicy which is the mod im-. 
ifietfedi And howfoeuer contention hath becnc 
m^P'^d, touching an vmformitie oi Met bode in 
Multiform itie of matter: Yer wee fee h6w that 
owqion, befides the w^akcnefTe of if, hath beenc 
.^^.t^icf 'of 

^he JccondlBool^. X\9 

of ill deferr, towardcs Learning, as that which 
cakech the way, to reduce Learning ro ccrtainc 
emp ie and barren Generalities; being bur the vc- 
rie Huskes, and Shales of Sciences, all the ker- 
nel! being forced out, and expulftd, with the 
torture and prefTe cf the Methods : And therefore 
as I ddi allow well of particular topiqutsiot Itiuefh 
thn : fo I doc allow likewife oipa>ttcffIar Methdes 

Another DIuetfitie oiludgemsnt in the delfueric 
and teaching of knowledge, is, According vnte the 
tight andprefuppofitiom of that which is deliuered: 
For that knowledge^ which is new. and foireinc 
from opinions recciued, is to bee dcliuered in an- 
other forme, than that that is agreeabfe andfami- 
liar; And therefore Ariflotle, when he thiokes to 
taxc Democritui, doth, in truth, commend hitiij 
where hcc faith .• if xvejhaHindeede diCptttc, a/tdnot 
foUom after Similitttdes, (jrc» For thofe, whofc 
canceitcs are feated in popular opinions needeonc- 
ly bucto proue or difpute > but thofe, whole 
Conceites arc beyonde popular opinions, hauc a 
double labour-, the one to make themfelues con- 
ceiued,andthe otbCr to prooue and deraonftratc. 
So that it is of necefifltie with them ro hauc rc- 
courfetofimilitudes, andtranflitions, to txpteifc 
thcmfelucs. And therefore in the Infancic of 
Learning, and in rudctimesjwbenchofe Concerts, 
which are now triuiall, were then new,the World 
was iuWoi P arables andS/mtluudes^iot^lk would 

Ec 2 men 




32 o Of the aduancement of kdrning. 

men ci?bcr haae piflcd < uer v/irhour MarkcjOrcIfe 
rcict^^ed for Pdiadoxes^ thac which vm, Lff^rcJ. 
beiore they had vnderftood or itdgcd. So-, in Di- 
nine Learning, v/ce fee Vow ficcucnr ParAhles 
and TV^^rjare. For ic is a Rule, That v^hatfoeuer 
^ Science is not confonantte^refuppofittotfs^ mufi ^raj 

"^ in A-jdeef Similitudes^ 

there be alfo other Diueifitics of Methode$ 
vulgar and receiued ; as thai of f.ejolution^ or AnA. 
Ijfts^ oiConflitution^ or Syflafts^ oi Concealment yOt 
Cryptique, &c, which Idoc allow well of; though 
I haue Itood vpon thofe which aie lead handled & 
obferu' d. Ail which I hauc rcmcmbrcd to this 
n t d ' p^rpo^^i becGufc I would cre(5t and conftiture 
TrMff^s^ onegcncrall Enquiric (which fccmcsto mce defi^ 
cicnrjiouchingthc Wifedome of Tradition, 

But vnto this part of Knowledge, concerning 
UtthodeSy doth further belong, not oncly the 
x^rchiteSiure of tl;e whole frame of a Worke, 
boc alfo the feuerallbearaes and Columnc si hereof; 
not as to tbeir ftufFe, but as to tl eir quan i ie, 
and figure : And therefore, Methode ccniidt rcrh, 
not oneIythedifpoficionofthel^r^«w^»;or5«^- 
/r(2Jbuclikewife the Prepofitions : net as to their 
Trttthov Matter^ but as to ihi:ix Limitation and 
Manner, Vox herein iJ<i«w« merited better a great 
deale,in rcuiuing the good Rules of PropoJitionSy 
K«tflo\««J«i^7wKie7«artt^'T^. (^c. than hc did in intro- 
ducing the Cmker of Bpitomes : And yet, (as ic is 
the Gondicion of Humane things that according 
njrn to 

Thefecmd 'Booke. M i 

to rhf ancient Fables, Tht mo ft frethus thtngs hauf 
them 9(1 fernitioi44 Keepers) U was fo^ that the at- ^^ 

tcmr>cot the one, made him full vpon the other. ^^^ 

For hcc had n -cde bz weli-«ondu(5icdj that fhou'Id ->^'^^^ 
dcfi^ne to miike Axiomes Conneriiblc : If he make 
them not withail Circular, and Nmffyomouent.oi 
Incurring inta themfeiuesrbsxt. y.ct the Intention was 
exccllcnr. ^'':*'i-" '?-••■''. 

ThcoLher Coofidcrations of Methede^conctt" 
v\\n% PropoJitiQus^ sre chiefcly touching' the vt- 
nioft PropofirionSj which limit the Dimenfions 
of Siccnccs : for eucrie Knowledge maybefi^ 
\y fiiid, be fides the Pf^yi»^//«( which is the truth 
and fubftanccot if, that makes it /^//W^j ro hauc 
a Longitfide-^md a LM'ttude : acounting the latitude - 
towards other Sciences ; and the Longitude to- 
vyards Aition .• thai is, from the greateft Genera- 
litie, to the moft parcicuLr Precept : The one 
giuech Rule how farre one knowledge ought to 
intermeddle within thr Prouince of anotherjWhieh 
isthc Rule they call k^G^v-tb. Theotber giucth Rule, 
ynto what degree of particuiaritie, a knowledge 
fcoulddefcend : which latter IfiadepaflTcd ouer 
infilcice;beinginmy ludgemenr, the more raa- 
teriill. For ccrcaincly, there mull bee fomewhat 
Icfcto praifiifc} but how much is worthy the En- 
quiric .■ wee fee remote and fuperficiall Gene- 
ralities, doe tut offer Knowledge, to fcophe of 
pradticall men; and are no more ay ding to pra ^^ife, 
than an or/f/Z/Kf vniuerfall Mjppc,isto diit:^ the 

E c 3 way 


1,1 2 Of the ndmncemmt of learning. 

way bctweene London ?nJ 7orke, The better 
fore of Rdilc5, huic bccne not vnfirly compared 
to gtalTes Tof Ikelc vnpullirtied; where you may 
fee the Images of things, but firft they muft be 
filed ; So the Rales will hcJpe, if they bee labou- 
red and puHifhed by pra<aife. But how Chriftal- 
iine they may bee made ac the firft and how 
farrc forth they may bfcpulliflicd aforehandjs 
the qjeftion* the Eaquirie whereof, fcemeth to 
■me deficient. 

There tiathbeenealfo laboured, and put in pra- 
^ife a Methode^ which is not a lawful! Methdde^ but 
aMethode otlmpcfiurf'^ which is to deliuer know- 
ledges infuch manner, as men may fpeedily come 
to raaice fhewc of Learning, who haue it not; 
fuch was thetrauaileofi?4^iw«Ww £«///W, in ma- 
king that Art, which bcarcs his name; not vn- 
like toTome Bookes o^ Typocofffty, /which banc 
bccnc made firtGe; being nothing but a Maflc 
of words of all Arc S; to giiie tticn countenancc,that 
thofc which: vfe tbfccamies- might bee thought 
to vnderftand the Ar^f ^which Collc^ions are much 
like a Frippers or Brokers Shoppc; that hath ends 
of cueric thing, but nothing of worth. 

Now wee defcend to that parf, which concer- 
ncch the lUafirAtion ef Tradition^ comprehended 
in that Science which wee call Rheteribke ', or Art 
rf Bleq»eHC€'^ A Science excellent, and excellent- 
ly wdl laboured. For although in true value, it 
isinferioar CO Wifedorae, as it is faidby God to 

(L^fi/?/,whcn he difaWed bJm 'elfe, for warn of {Mi: 
Facuitie, AAfon fhall hee thfffeAkcr^ aiidfSmfidU'^ 
hie to him as G&d : Yec wirli pceplii it is tFTertio^C: 
mightiejFar (o SAlo^'sn faith > SMfiens Ctfrdrap' 
pllAhittir Pxudens ; fe^ duUu Etoquia Maiora reie- 
mt : Signifyirvg that profoL^dncifc d^f WiTedohje^ 
will/heFpr aMsn to aNamd or Admii<afk>»' biit' 
t^ac ic is Eloijiiefice*, that pFtoaileth m a6'a(5^Qic 
M^t'y And as m i^he 'labourinfg of it, tivc Etiiulat JP 
Qft ^ AriJlotU^ ivirh ihtRhctmckns of his tiinr,^ 
ood ihe experience of C/i?^rf?, bath made them in 
their Woikis of RhePorickes, exceedc themfeluesii 
Againe, the exccllcncie of examples o^ Eloquence^ 
in the Qtmonso^ Demofikems and C/V/r^y, ad- 
ded to the perfedion of the Prcccptsof Ekqueffc(fy 
l)§th ^doubled the* pregreHion iit^this^Art rkn4 
therefotte, the Dificied^ces which! fhallnocCiwiH 
rarher beein ibmt Gollc^ioHSj Which may as 
H^ndf-noaidcs attend thc^Arf^ than ih the Ruleis.or 
vfj-of th0Aftit=/eIf(«.,^^:J^-^i ^^niujlorir; -^ifaiA^-ij 

Notwiihftatiding, t(S ili^^^fic EartH'a fttlc^;^ 
boutthe Rootesof this Sden€e,aswechautdontf 
ofchc reft. ThedurieandOflicc o{Rhtii)rtckth;f(f 
rf^/n^ Rcafan to /)»4j//;4;w», tor the better cnbo^itbg; 
of the wiltj, Fcir v^ce fee M^on is-^dfRurb<Jd^ % ^hp 
Admimftration tbetijOfb^ jhreeme'arie^hy i/S^i^^^^ 

ImA^inationtiTlmprePdrf^^hk^ p^ptamesf6 iffw^- 

Wi?^<r,andby Papon ox AfcWaff,'wk\c^fcnait\(:i 

ioMudki^ And as in Ncgoii^tion with orheis; 

»> men 

Iz^. Of the 4du4ncement of learning. 

men are wrought by cunning, by Importunifiejand 
by vchcmcncieySo in this Negotiation within our 
fclueSj men are vnderniined by Incmfcquenccs^ fol- 
liciced and iroportuncd,by Jmprefions or obfeniatU 
§»s^ and tranfported by Fajstons: Neither is the 
Nature ofManfovnfortunarcly built, as that thofe 
Powers and Arts (hould hiue force to difturbe Rca- 
ron,and not to eftablilh and aduance it.-For the end 
o^LogUki^isiQ teach a formeof Argumfnr,ro fe« 
cure Rejifon, and not toentrappe it. The end of 
M&r4liue^\^ to procure the Aflfedions to ob* y Rca- 
fon,andnottoinuade it. The end o{ Rhetoficktyls 
to fill the Imagination to fccond Hearon,and not to 
opprcfTx; it : for the fe abuics oi Arcs come m, bac 
■KAT^^^atf, for Caiitiop. h ?o i' if;'^^ 'j'l '=»• v'K,h 
\/^nd therefore it was frcat Iniufticein Plato^ 
though fpringing out of a iuft barred of the RhitorU 
Cf4»s of histincie,tpefteemc of Rhetericke, but as a 
volupcuarie Arte, rcfem^Iingic loCoolerie, that 
did marre wholfome Mcates, and helpc vnwholc- 
fome by varictie of fj^wces, to the pleafurc of the 
taflc. For wee fee that fpccch is much more con- 
ucifant in adorning that which is good, than in 
colouring that wh ch is euill .* for there is no roan 
but fpcaketh more honeftly, than he can doc or 
ihinkc; And it was excellently noted by Thucidides 
ixxCUon^ that becaufc he vkd to hold on the bad 
fide in Caufes of eftate- therefore becwaseuerin- 
ucyingagainft Eloquence, and good rpeecb^know- 
ing that no man can fpeake faitc of Coorfes for. 


nrhefecondTBooJ^e. ^i^ 

didc and bafc. And therefore as Plats faid elegant- 
ly ; That vertue^ ifjhee could bte feese^ weuld mooue 
great hue and affe^ign : So feeing chat (he cm- 
nor bee ihcwed to the Seafi, by cojporall fliape, 
the next degree is, to fhcw her to the Jmdgtftath» 
in liuely rcprcTcntation .• for to fhcw her to Re4fo», 
onely in fubtilitie of Argument, was a thing eucr 
derided in Chryfifpt^, and many of the Stoykcs, 
who thought to thruftvercuevpon men by fbarpe 
difpurarions and Conc!uiions,which haue no Sym- 
pathy with the will of Man. 

Againc, if the affcdions in ihemfdues were 
pliant and obedient to Reafon, it were true, 
there fliould bee no great vfe of pcrfwafions 
^nd indnuations to the will, more than of naked 
propofitionand proofes : but in regard of thecon- 
tinuall Mutinies and Seditions of the AfFe<5^ions : 

Video tffelhrdy Probsi^ue-^ Determafequdr*^ 

Reafon would become Capriue and feruilcjif 
Eloquence offerftvaftoKs^ did nor prac^ife and winac 
the Imagination^ from the ajfeiiions part, and con- 
tra<a3Confederacie bctweenc the Reafon znd lmd» 
gindtion^ againft the K^ffeiiions ; For the Affedi- 
ons them (clues, carrie rut ran appetite to good as 
Reafon doth .• The diffcunctis ^T hat the Afft^i* 
on beholdetb nteerely the prefent-^ Reafon Beholdeth 
thefuture^andjummeoftime. And therefore, the 
Prefent, filling the Imagination morej Reafon k 

Ff coEBiuonly 

Xi 6 Of the aduancement of learning* 

comnonly va iqul/lied. But after that To ce ofls/o- 
qaenc^ and pcrjfvaficfi^ hath msde thirgs future^and 
remote, apptarc as freftnt^xh-^n vpon the rcuoh of 
the Imagination, Reafon prcuailcth. 

Wcc conclude thereto; c, \h^t Rhetoricke c^n 
bee no more charged, wi h the colouiing of 'he 
vvorfc parr, than Lo^icke with Sephifrie, or M:>- 
raliiicwith Vice, For wee know the Dj^rines 
of Contraries arc the fame, though the vfc be op- 
pofitC'.' Ic appeareth alfo, that Z^^/V^^differeth 
from Rhetoricke, not onely as the fjl^ from the 
jfAwwe, the one clofe, the other at lar^e. but much 
more in this, that Logkke handleth Reafon cxa<5^5 
and in truth j and Rhetoric k handleth it, as it is 
pi anted in popular opinions and Manners .- And 
therefore v^r//?<?//(f doth wifely place Rhetoricke^ 
as bctwccneZo^/V^^ontheonc fide, and Moral! 
or Gioilc Knowledge on the other, as participa- 
ting of both : for the Proofcs and Demonftrati- 
ons of Logieke^ are toward all men indifferent, 
and the lame; ButthcProofesand perfwafions of 
jihetm€ke^ ought to differ according no the 

Orfhtta inSylmyinter Delphin^ Arioti'y 

'~WhIch application. In perfection of /^^<i, ought 
to extend fo farre : that if a Man fhoufd fpeakeof 
the fame thing to feuerall perfons: he (hould fpeakc 
tothem allreQ)Cvtiuely and feuerall way es : though 


Thefecond ^oo^e, iiy 

this Pdlitiquefart of Eloquence in priuate Speech, it \% 

cafie for the greateft Orators to want ; whilcft by 

the obfcruing their well graced formes of fpeech, 

they leefc the volubilicie of Application:and rherc- jyeprfdentk 

fore, it (hall not bee ami/Te to recommend this to/^riw*?^^ 

better cnquirie, not being curious, whether wtpriftati, 

place it here, or in that part which concerneth 


Now therefore will I dcfccnd to the d^dcU 
ences, which (as Ifaid) are but Attendances: and celoreshni 
firft, I doe not find^ the Wifedome and diligence ^^ ^^/^yj-^j 
of Arijlotle well purfued , who began i to make pUeis & €om^ 
a Colle(5lion of tke popular fignes and colours ofgoodparatu 
and euillj both fimple and comparatiue^ which arc 
as the Sophifmes of Rhetoricke^ (n I touched be- 
fore.) For Example. 

Sophism A. 

^Aod Uudatur^bonum'. ^lupdvUuperMHr^malttmi 


Laudat vxnales^ qui vult extrudert mircei. 

Malum eft, Malum efi {inquit Emptor) fed cum re* 
ceferity tumgloriabitur. The defects in the labour 
of Ariptle are three : One, that there be but a few 
ofmany ;anothcr,that their Blenches arc notannex- 
ed^ and the third, that hee concciucd but a part of 
the vfc of them ; for their vfc is not oneJy in pro- 

Ff^ bation. 

;«|«5l^^!;^ - 

1x8 Of the aduancement of learning, 

ballon, bac much more in ImprclTion. For many 
formes are equal in SignificAtion^ which arc diffe- 
ring in Imfreftoa : as the diffviencc is great in the 
piercing of that which is fharpe, and that which 
i$. flar, though the ftrcngth of the percuHion bee 
the fame : for there is no man,but will be a little 
more raift d by hearing it laid ; Tour enemies wiRifc 
glAd of this, 

HoclthACtu vdity(^ mAgncmtrcenturAtrid^, 

than by hearing it faid oncly. This is tuiQfcrjM, 

Secondly, I doc rcfume aira,that which I mcnti- 
oned before, touching -Prcuifion or Prdpdr^itont 
/tfr^jforthc Furniture of fpeech, and readincfle of 
Inuention; which appeareth to be oftwofortSjThc 
one in rcferablance to a (hoppeof peeces vnmsdc 
vp; the other to a ihoppc of things ready made vp, 
both to be applied to that which is frequent, and 
moft inrequeft; The former of thcfe I will -call 4»' 
tithetA, and the latter FormuU, 

Antithetd gutThtfes argued^^r^ (^ centra whcre- 

t/4ntsthet4 in men may be more large and laborious; but fin 

rimm, fuchas.aie able to doc it j to auoyd prolixity of 

cmry,Iwifh the fecdes of the fcuerall arguments 

tobecaft vpinto feme bricfc and acute fentences.' 

not to be cited : but to bee as Skaincs or Bottomcs 

of thread, to bee vnwindcd ac large, when 4hey 

come to be vfed : fupplying suthori icsjSnd Ex- 

.awplcs by reference. 

Thefecond^ooke^ Qtip 

Pro verbis. Ugiiy 

No efl iHterfretatie/eddimnatio^^Ha reetdit a littera^ 
Cum reeeditur a litter a ludtK srAnfu in legislator em ^ 


EX omnihus verbis efl elicienduifenfm ^ qtti interpre-' 
tatur fiftguU I 

FormuU are but decent and apt pafTages or con- 
ueisnccs of fpecch, which mayfcrue indifFertntly 
for diS^f ing fubicds, as of Pre/ace^ Concluftoft.DL 
grefsion^Tranfition, Excufatiort^^c. For as in build- 
ings there is great pleafure and vfc in the well 
calling of thc.ftairc cafcSjCntrieSjdooreSjWindowSi 
and thclikc,roinrpecchjtheconuciancesandpaflra- 
ges are of fpcciall ornament and cfFe^.. 

K^ conclufion in a Deliberatiui^ 

So mdj foe reieeme the faults ]>dfed Andpreitent the 
inconuenienees future. 

There reraainc two Appendices louching the tra- 
dition of knowledge, The one CriticdU^Thz other 
Fedanticafl, For all knowledges is cither deliucrcd 
by Teachers, or attained by mens proper cndc- 
uors: And therefore as the principal! part ofTra* 
dition of knowledge concerncth chiefly in jv;*///'^^ 
ofBookef', So thcRelatiue part thereof conctrncth 
redding of Bookes* Whcreuato appertaine incident- 

X^o Of the aduancement of learning. 

ly thcfc confidcracions. The firft is concern ing the 
true Cotre(5iion and edition of Authors, wherein 
ncuerthcleflc rafh diligence hath done great prciu- 
dice. For thcfe Cri//^«<ri haue often prefumedthax 
that which the y vnderftand not, is falic fee downcj 
Asthc Prieft, that where he found if written of^. 
Pauly Demijfusejlperfportam, mended his booke^ and 
made it Demijjus efiper fortam becoufe. Sport a. was 
an hard word, and outof his reading^ and furely 
their errors, though they be not fo palpable and 
ridicuIouSjyetarcofthefamekindc. And therefore 
asithathbeenc wifely noted, the moft corre«5icd 
copies are commonly the leaftcorred^. 

The fccond is concerning the expofiti'on and ex* 
plication of Authors,which refteth in Annotations 
and Commentaries, wherein it is ouer vfuall to 
blaunch the obfcure places, anddilcourfevponthe 

The third is concerning the times, which in 
many cafes giue great light to true Interpretations. 

The fourth is concerning fome briefe Cenftire 
andiudgcmentof the Authors, that men thereby 
may make forae eledion vnto themlclues, what 
Bookes to reade. 

And the fift is concerning the Syntax anddifpo- 
fiiion of ftudies, that men may know in what order 

For FedanticdS knowledge, it containcth that 
difFcrcncc of Tradition which is proper for youth: 
Whcrcunto appertaine diucrs confiderations of 
great^fruit. * As 

T^he Jecond'Book^. iji 

As firft the tyming and feafoning of knowIedgcSi 
as with what to initiarethcmjand from what for a 
time to refrainc them. 

Secondly, the confideration where tobegin with 
the caficft, and fo proceeds to the more difficult. 
And Id what courfesto prcfle the more di&culr, 
and then to turne them to the more cafic .♦ for it is 
one Mcthode to pr.: dife fwimming with bladders, 
and another to pra^^iiff dauncing wiih hcauy 

A third is the applicarion of learning according 
vnto the propriety of the witts- fonhereisno de- 
fe^ m the faculciesintcllcdualjbutfeemeth tohauc 
a proper cure contained in feme ftudiesj As for ex- 
ample. If a CnildbeBird-wittcdjthatis, hath not 
the facultie of atentionjthe Mathematiques giueih 
a remedy thereunto- for in them, if the wit bee 
caught away but a moment, one is new to begin. 
And asfcicnces hajea propriet/ to wards faculties 
for Cure and heipe- So faculties or powers hauca 
Sympathy towards Sciences for excellency or 
fpecdy profiting : And therefore it is an enquiry 
of great wifedomsr what kinds of wits and Natures 
are moft ape and proper for what fciences. 

Fourthly, the ordering of exercifes is matter of 
great confequence tohuriorhelpe^ For as is well 
obferacd by Cicero^mzn in exercifing their faculties 
if they be not well aduifed doe exercife their faults 
and gee ill habits as well as good5 fo as there is a 
great iudgerarnt to be bad in the continuance and 


J^i Oftheaduancement of learning. 

intermiifion of Exercifcs. Ic were too long to parti- 
cularize a number of other confiderations of' this 
nature, things bur of meanc appearance, but of 
Angular efficacy. For as the wronging or cheriih- 
ing of feeds or young plants, is i hat, that is mod 
important to their thriuing. And as ♦> was noted, 
that the firft(ixking8,'beifig in truth as Tutors of 
the S:ate of Rome in the infancy thereof, was the 
principall caufe of the invmenfe greatncffe of that 
flate which followed. So the culture and manu- 
ranee of Minds in youth, hath fuch a forcible 
(though vnfeene j operation, as hardly any length 
of time or contention of labour can countcruailc it 
afterwards. And it is not amific to obfcrue alfo,how 
fraall and meanc faculties gotten by Education, 
yet when they fall into great men or great matters, 
doe worke great and important effeds : whereof 
' we fee a notable example in Tacitm of two Stagc- 
^Xii^xs^ TerceHftius 2r\6^ Vibuknm^ who by their 
facultie of playing, put the Pannonian armies into 
an extreamc tumult and combuflion. For there 
arifinga mutinie amongftthem, vponibc death of 
Attgufliu Cafar^ Bhfus the lieutenant had com- 
mitted fomeoftheMuiincrs which were fuddenly 
refcued ; whereupon Vibulcntts got to bee heard 
fpeake, which be did in this manner, Thefe poore 
innocent wretches Apfointed to crueU death fyouhdut 
rejioredtdbihdld the light, Bftt who fhaff reft ore my 
hr other t$ me^ or life vnte my brother f that was fent 
hither iff me^gefrptn the legions ofOermsnjito treat 

T})efecond^ooke. 255 

if the commsft CAufe, dndhe hdth murdered him this 
lajtpight byfime of his fencers drtd ruffidns, thdi 
he hdth dhiut him for his executioners vport Souldi^ 
$urs : AnfwerBUfus^ vfhdtisdone mtb hishdie: 
The mertdlleji Enemies doe not deny buriall : when 
I hdue performed my Ufl duties to the Corses mtk 
kijfes, with teares^ command me to hejldine hefides 
him, fo that thefemy fettoms for our ^ood mednitog^ 
dnd our true hearts to the Legions may hdue leaue t$ 
iury vs. With which fpeccri he put the army in- 
to an iivfiaice fary and vprore, whereas truth was 
hec had no brother, neither was there anyfuch 
matter, bnt he plaidc it raeercly as if he had bsenc 
vpon the ftage. 

Buctorcturne, we are now come to a period of 
Rational! Knowledges ^ wherein iflhaucmadcthc 
diaifions other than thofe that arc rccciucd, yet 
would Inotbcthoughttodifallow aJI thofe diui- 
fions, which I doe not vfe. For there is a double ne- 
ceflity impofcd vpoii me of altering the diui/ions. 
The onejbecaufc it diifcrcth in end and purpofe, to 
fort together thofe things which are next in Na- 
ture, and thofe things which arc next in v(c. For 
if a fccrecary of Eftate, fliould fort his papers, it is 
like in his ftudy, orgcncrail Cabinet, he would 
fort together things of a Nature, as Treaties, In- 
ftrudlions, &c. But in his Boxes, or particular Cai 
binct, hec would fort together thofe that he were 
like to v(etogcther,thoughof feuerall Natures .* So 
intbisgenerailCabyoecof knowledge, it was ne- 
01 ^g ccflity 

^54- Of the ddMncemmt of learning. 

ccflfary for me to follow the diuifions K)f the Na- 
ture oFthings, whereas if my fclfe had becne xo 
handle any particular knowledge, 1 would \\mk 
refpcded the Dimfions frt'teft for vfe. Thb othff^ 
becaufc the bringing in of the Defidenc^^ did hy 
Conlcquence alter the Partitions of the reft. Fb'r 
kc the knowledge extant ffor denaonftration fake) 
be 1 5 . Let the knowledge with the D^ficicnccs be 
abiihepafts ofr5;' Srienotthepartsof 20. forthc 
parrs bfi 5, arc j: dnd 5. the parts of 20. arc 
iiv4.5, ahd 10. So^as tlrefe things are without 

Concradidion^ arid.could noiotherwire be* 

t'vv d b, :; 'it II c: ^i:::;.ii. ;; :..uAr ::,:. ..::..; ^^- -.a 

E proceed now to tha' kno^^Iedge wlifch 

confidereth of the appetite and VTiS of 

Mm-, ^\\txQo{ Sdohi&n faith , Ante omntit 

*'i'4t^-i'^-' 'fit cuflo^i'chr iunm^nam inAe proceduttt 

hBttnisvitA, In the handling'bf this fcience, th'of6 

"which hauc written fet me to me to haue doneas 

tfa man that prpfcflTcd to reach to write, did 'oneltf 

txfitbitfafire copies of Aiphahts.znd' letters ioyd- 

eij/withoucgiuingany precepts:or dire(5^ions, for 

the cariageofthe haqd'and fr^nmidg^ofthe lerterti 

So liatie Wj mad^^gobli iHd farre'^H^Pplars it^ 

tbfy^s; ;' 1:a}y'if)'gTh e' ' ^catjghVs ana' ^j[^6cirt ra itijr'ej 

oP Gw^f'J^erttfe\ ■ii>^^</j', '/'f/Zfi/^'f'' pro pound fng 

the'nif well deferibe^^i*tfii*'rrijb ttbicfeand fcop.^ 

©JiWans \^j[lt and*lfefirck' ??;^ut^W6w td'attsincVhefe 

feJKclleitf'markspyhiJ ;Hb-vv ro frgi^e 3nd fob'dtie 

^tiiSl! 6f < iwan to become frtfeaiid xbnf ormirbTd 

,^u\v\.N Thefecond ^oo^e. 2^^ 

to thcfe purfuites, they p.>irc it ouef alcogeihcr, or 
fl'^htly and vnprofirably. Tor it is not the tiifpi- 
tirg:Thac moral! veituesarcb theMindeof n?an 
by habitc aad nor by narwc •• orthc diftinguifiiing', 
Thai gv^nerous'lpiricsare winneby dodnnes aiid 
p.'rfwalions, and the vu'gar fort be reward and 
punifhmenr, arid the like fcattercd glances and 
tot3the;i|'^ that can? exciife rhe^abfencc of rhis pirr. 

The'reafon •of^tiBomifrr^v.i "fuppo'V ro be that 
hidden Rxkc-^ \yhcrcupon both this and raar.y 
other Bi-cjiics of knowledge haue becnc caftavvny; 
wbich^jjtha^nieQ haue difpilt'd to, be conucrCaiic 
in ordinary aad common matters, the iudicious 
dir^^dion whereof nCiicicheleire is the wifeft 
d.Q<^Mnei .-^fpr jife confifteth not innouclties nor 
fiibriiiaesjbytcontrariwifethey.hauc compounded 
Sclrnccs chiefly of a c'erta-ine „ refpiendenr oc 
la/iro^us maffe of m uter,chiofen to giue glary either 
tO'thc-fub:iiity ofiiifpucarionsjOttp the eloquence 
of. difcourfes* But Seneca^ giueth' an estccttent 
ciieckro;! eloquence^ Necet ijlis-eloquentia^ qnibu^ 
non rerum ctipiditatcm facit Jed fui y^octnnz^ fliould 
bejujcii ^,%^iljould make men iti iouc withtfee LcflTon, 
add no: with the Teacher, being direded to the 
Audicprs bcncfitc^ zn,i not to the Authors ^corn-, 
mepd^tion : Aad; t?Mr<fore ihpfe ane of . the right 
kindq.^bich m^fM^Vi^pt^h^^M'^A^BemofiheHCs 
coqciudes his com[^\^ ^<t ft fueritis non orator, 
rJm^uj9Uxat in fii^fenua U^ddhitis^fed vofmetiffep 
(ij^W'ff^ojta mftlt^pofi,Jlafu'Kcri4mvffirarftnf imUore. 

i.ift-nl:? pg * Neither 

1^6 Of the aduancement of learnings 

Neither needed men ©1 fo excellent parts to haoe 
dcfpaired of a Fortune, fwhich the Poet Firgilpvo- 
mifed himfclfe, and indeed obtained) who got as 
muchgloryofelcquence, wit, and learning in ihe 
cxprelfiog ofthcobferuarions of husbandry,, asol 
the hcroicall ads of t/£»^/*f. 

Necfitmafiimi dnbiua verbis €a vheere magnum, 
^luAmpt ^ angujln his adderc reb$ti hfinorem* 

And furely if the purpofc be in good earncft not 
CO write at leafure that which men raay read ar Ica- 
fure, but really to inftrucft and fuborne A<5iion and 
a^iuc life, thcfc Georgickes of the mindc concern- 
ing the husbadry & tillage thcreof,are no kflc wor- 
thy then the heroicall defcriptions of vertue^ dtttjy 
ZT\d felicity '^ wherefore the maine and primitiue di' 
aifion of A/^r4i5f knowledge fecmcth to be into the 
MxemfUr or Platformeoi Goed^ and the Regiment 
otCttltftrecf tk MiffJe- The one dcfcribing the 
nature of Good, the other prefcribing rules how 
to fubdue, apply and accomodate the will of man 

The Dodrine touching the Piatf&rme or na- 
fun of Ccfid confidcreth it cither Simple or Ow- 
fdred, either the kindes of Good or the degrees 
of Good .• In the later whereof thofe 'infinite dif- 
pucations, which were touching the fuprerae de- 
gree thereof, which they tcrmc Felicity, Beatitude, 
or the highefl Good, the dodrines concerning 
which were as the heacben Diuinicy, are by the 
'i^uibVi chriftiaa 

Thefecond^oof^. 257 

chriftian faith difchargcd. And as Arifiotle faith, 
Thitysng men m4j be haff^y^bnt rfot otherwife^bttt hj 
Hfipe-^So wc muft all acknowledge our Minority ,& 
embrace the felicity,which is by hope of the future 

Freed chcrcforejanddeliucred from this do^rinc 
higher eleuation of Mans Nature,then was; For wc 
fee in what an height offVilc Senecd writeih, Vert 
MAgnn,hAberefrAgilitAtembomit$i4^fecuritAt€ Dei*) 
We may with more fobricty & trueih rccciuethe 
refl of their Enquiries, and labors, wherein for the 
NAtureofGoodPofitiue^ or Jtmple, they hauc fet it 
downe excellcntly,in defcribing the formes oFver* 
tue & Duty,mih their fituatios & pofturcsjin diflri- 
buting them into their kinds,parts,Prouinces,Adi- 
ons, & Adminiftraiions, and the likcjNay further,, 
they hauc commertdcd them to Mans Nature, and 
fpirit, with great quickneffe of Argument, & beamy 
ofperfwafions, yea, and fortified and entrenched 
them ^as much as difcourfe can doe^againfi corrupt 
and popular opinions, Againe,/^r tht degrees y dnd 
CompATAtiui NAture of Good, they haue alfo excel- 
lently handled it in their: triplicity o£ Good*^ in the 
comparifons^^ betweene a Cdnteraplatiuc and an 
a(2iue !ife,in the diftindion bet ween yertue with re- 
Ia(a3tion5&vertucfeduced;in their encounters be- 
twcctihonefty &profit,in their balancing of yertuc 
with vertuc, and the like; fo as this part dcferueth 
to bee reported for excellently laboured. 

G g 3 NoC- 

2^8 Of thej.4j^Sncenimt](f learning. 

/.M^^i^^ik^Er\{k^^^.Ak^.y, h^^ comm^ to 
;Jy.i(^,pj^a^f cf-r^d paine, and tj^!5)f?ft^^ 

Rootes or Good 3hdeui!l,anathe Strings at cfigfe 

J[laQC^ tlicy }:^d giu€n:imjn)i.opiniqnja great ligfit 

. j|0!% haj:;\v hie h ^bU ovved;.^: fpci hlly 'dth^y.h'id^ co n - 

3? -Thcrcis/p^me^^ijfj cueLya|iipga,4oubi^ Na- 
j.urc.of Good; the 6n€f, as cucry thing is a] To/all 
.ojg(iibfl;antiue. JA J5 ^fi^lfcicfcc J0whcr,.as, iu, is jo p^^c 

is i«9^cg*ce/ the greater, and the v/ortliici?, ^^caule 
|ii(!t€n^eth';<)the conferHation of a.n^6re "gcnc'rall 

^Qrn^v^ Therefore we fee, ^|:ie Iron in pardculaj 
Jyiripi^hy ; rnoucthto iheLoad4one. But ypu'^c 
^^(jf ed^ certaine qaantity,ic forflkej h (^heaffffliop 
'"^ti^^i^a^aney and hke agopdpa^r'ipt f^pp'pthi^^ 
4lfefȤ^^^^> whiqh^is the Region anel , jCJf5uAtiy of 
,^iy^a$c Badiesjfo inay we goc fo;:ward, and fee that 
water dc Mdpc Mies moue to the center of the earthy 
3uC ratj>,^«:h^n |o fuff^r a diyul^opjn the cbjn'tinu- 
JMjceoffjaturCj. tbcy,wjli, n^o up vp wards jiipm-thjs 
CentQjofjt}ie Eju^th;: forfak^Rg t^ir du^ie io the 
M4^\h La regard of their duty to the World, This 
double na!:yrc,pf Cpp,d:i aj^d^tiitc conip^x^^iue.ft^re- 


of is mtidh mbTff^ engrkucri yporr mafi, ifclie dcgeno- 

»publik« ought .roc 5$ jftjiiclj itior^ifffidEious rl^o the 
^tfortfet^ 't<Sti ofiifo \Sd being -r aatotdin gJ td thac m& 

cosamrffifln of piiraeranteior a'fcimanc at Romcr, & 
being difTwaded with .great ^vdicmence &;inrhi®ce 
feyiiis fricnds^tJi^at hcihould narhazard hi mMk to 
Ssa in an* tJwf-ernfty jof wc^rherv^c faid baly tat be; 
Necefftefi vt tam'^u^ vi'vivam^rrw'y be tni\y 
affifrticd ihattbeic.tvtjs ncu^riarry Pbiiaroph^^Reh'* 
gioniJCM^iOcbeexJi&ijilmc^ wHic)! did4o pfaSilw 
higihiy exakihrgaad which ^is (lk»ttfl?i/V3r?ft'^,; and 
d*eprcirc\^he^<^od whidh^is |)riuatcarr;d par 
as>the Hbiyifaii h: wcl d^erlaririgythar if^ wis^thcifSmc 
God»thht:gmie the GhfiftiariJai:^ canicri^whblgfftm 
Ihoii^Iravt^srof ffatQre;^roitibriiiiiJcsj;©tcatutej3ch^^ 
wcc^ofer^PbgJrQrc j tdr weei^EaMf (tjiat dtfcelct^d 
2cd;y3nd ra&€d burof tfte^hooikc oOifef^rhfin imidk 
of fGhiviti^ 'a^ldiinfirtlTe' feeling:ofli3^f0;^^fe;(jiiw^ ^ <U 
.^ Tmsb^iiigCet/db^A<S^ry(*fl^onglydsmed'y'do 
rudgeiandi'di^rrtllrt<? IflofbxDf tJie do^fifh^vf^fir^^ 
it drfciifcehYt^^tltoffc^fcleWifaigs dWiffe^tiilrjl 
Of thid Gdwt'^pwCbjoeq jla«»eiifey^S^ d^i^»fh# 

fo* ihe {€o{«'^mpIarti«k^^a W'prftKir(?5>ta|]d: Ff^ed^rt^ 
the plcafurc and ^'\^t) itic of a fnam^clfe fin -whlcfiJ 
re^^oasfte^qucftio^fi the<:d'ntcnrf>1a'i)uic life b^th'tiic 
i>cs pre. 


24.0 Of the admncement oflearmngl 

prehemlnence) not much vnlike to cbat Cotnpari- 
fbn, vfhichPyth4garas made for the gradng sa\4 
magnifying of Philofophy, &Contrii^Iation,who 
being asked what he was, anfwered : Tb4tifHkr§ 
wert iuerdt the OljmfUngMmeSyhekntw the mdnner^ 
tb4tl$me cAme t$ trit their f$rt$tne fort he Prizes^and 
J&me CAme ai Mer^h Ants to vtter their commodities, 
•dndfome €Ame to mAke good cbeere^ And meete their 
friends^ And fomexAme toloake on^And that he was ont 
fcfthem thAtcameto Uoke on. But men muflknowi 
that in this Thcatcrof Mans life, it is refcrucd one- 
}y for God and Angels to be lookers on: Neythcr 
could the like queftion euer haue beenc receiued in 
the Church, notwithftanding their (Pretiofk in ocn. 
Of Domini mors fAnBorum eius)by which place they 
would exalt their Ciuile death, and regular pro- 
feflionSjbue vponthis defence, that the Monaflicall 
life is not fimply ContCBflplatiuc, butperformeth 
chedutyeitbccofincelTant prayers and fupplicati- 
ons which hath been truly efteeroedasan office in 
the church, orclfe of writing or taking Jinftrudii- 
ons for writing concerning the law of God, as Mo. 
fe$ didjWhcnhe abode ^ long in the Mount. And fo 
we fee Henoch the 7. from Adam^who was the firft 
Contemplariue and walked with God^yet did alfo 
endow the Church with prophefy which Saine 
Iffi&citeth.Butfor contemplation which fliould be 
finiihedinitrelfe without caftingbeameivponfb- 
dety^alTuredly diuinity knoweth it not. 
It dccidcth alfo the controueriks betwccoe zen^ 

TleJeconcTBoo^. 241 

and Sficrdtesy and their Schoolcs and fucccflions on 
the one ficle,who placed felicicic in vertue fimply or 
attended: thcai^ions and cxcrcifes whereof doe 
chiefly imbrace and concernc fociery; and on the 
other fide, the Circndiqttts and JEpfcureatis, who ^ 
placed it in pleafurc, and made vertue, (as it is v/cd ' 
in (ome comedies of Errors, wherein the Miftres 
and the M »ide change habits j to be but as a fcruanr, 
without which, plcafure cannot be ferued and at- 
tended, and the reformed fchoolc of the Epicure- > 
sns, which pl3c;:d it in ferenityofminde and free- 
dome from perturbation : as if they would hauc 
depofed lupiter againc, andrcftored5'4///r»f, and 
the firfta^c, when there was no fummcr nor winter, 
fpring nor Autumne3but ail after one aire & feafon. 
And HeriHus, which placed felicity in extinguifli- 
mentofthedifputs of the mindcj making no fix- 
ed nature of Good aad Euiil, efteeming thingsac* 
cording to the cleernefiTe of the defires, or the relu- 
Nation; which opinion was reuiued in the here/y of 
the Anabaptifts,meafuring things according to the 
motions of the fpirir, & the conftancy or waucring 
of oelecfe, ill which are manifeft to tend to priuate 
rcpofe & contentment, and not to point of fociety. 
It cenfureth alfo the philofophy ofEpr^esuf which 
perfuppofeth that felicity muft bee placed in thofc 
things: which are in our power, left we be liable to 
fortune, and difturbance: as if ie were not a thing 
much more happy to faile in good & vercuous ends 
fot the publike, then to obtaine all that we caa wtlh 


24* Of the aduancement of learning. 

to our fclues in our proper fortune :as Cenfalue faith 
to his fouldiersjftiewing them Naples^ protefting, 
he had rather die one foot forwards^ then tohaue 
his life fccured for long, by one foot of retrayt : 
Whereunto the wiledome of tbar heauenly Leader 
hath fignedj who hath affirmed that A^ood Cenfci^ 
inceis ^continuaH Feaji^ llitwing plainely that the 
confcienceof good intentions howfo(u:r fuccce- 
ding,is a more rontinuall ioy to nature, then all the 
prouifion which can be made for fecuricy&repofe*^ 
It confureth likcwife that abufe of Pnilofophy, 
whifih grew generaH abom the timeof £;>/^<r/w,iB 
conuertingitinroan occupatioD orprofcflTion: as if 
the purpofehad been, not to refift and extingui(h 
perturbations, but to flic and auoid the caufes ot 
chera,andto fliape a pirticubr hxxd 8c coyrfeof life 
to that end, wtrodueiug fuch an health of mind, as 
was that health of body ,Qf which ArifotU fpcaketh 
lokHcredUm^ who did nothing all his life long, but 
intend his health, whereas if men refer themfelues 
to dAjties of Society; as that health of Body is. bcfi, 
which is ablcftto endure all alterations & exrremi- 
ti€S| Solikewifcthatheakh of Mind is moft pro- 
per, which can goc through the grtateft temptati- 
^5i^^d p^rturbations.Soas Diagjenes opinion is to 
|)c acccpt€d,^wbQ commended not them which ab? 
%ined,J)ut thjcm wl?ich fi3ftaincd,and could rcfraine 
thsir Mii^d in PrtcifhfdOiZnd could gtuc veto the 
ioif^f^ (^ U vr$dia.hoffn;ianihip)the fhortefi ftop or 

Liftly, iccenlercth the Tcnderneflfc and want of 
appiicacianinfomGofctie moft ancient and rcuc-^ 
r€jKl Phibfbphersand Philofophicall ffven, that did 
rcfyrc too eafily from Ciuilebufinefle/orauoyding 
orindignitiesand percurbations, whereauh^refb- 
lution of m^n imly M<>Fal, ought to be fucbjasthc 
lame CoafdM fiid,thc honor of a fouldier Ihould be 
BteU Craficre^ and not fo fine, 35 that cuery thing 
(bould catch in, it, and endanger ic^o') q htii \_ 
, ■ Te refum€ frinateos fMficuUr gegd^it. falleih in- 
19 the di\AC\QnoiGe{>d A^ine and Fajfmc^ For this 
difference of Gg&d, (noc vnlike eo that which a- 
moagftihe RoHims w5s exprcffed in the familiaf 
ox houfhold terms of i*>t>»?/^, and Condus^yi% fornK 
ed aifo in all things, and is beft^ifclofcd in the two 
ieuerallAppetices i? creatures* the one to preferuc 
oc ^ontiQue ihem/elijes', and the ochcttbdihw 
or multiply them(dueSi whereof the later feeinaeth 
to be the worth ier;* For in N^urctbe heaHens, 
which aic the naore worthy, are the A^ent^ and the 
earth, which is the iede worthy htkPatknt. la 
the pleafurcs of iiuing creatures, that of generation 
is greater then that of food. In diuine DeiSh-inej 
Btatius eft dare quam acgipere: And in life there is no 
mana.fpirit fo Ibft, but efteeoaeth the eflR^dlihg of 
fomcwhat that be hath fixed in his dcfire,m6re then 
fcnfuality'^which priority of the A^i^e Goodj it 
much vpheld by the Confideration ofour efete to 
be morcall and e«pofed to fortune : for, if wee 
might haue a perpetuity and Ccrcainiy in our plca- 
^•5 Hha ^ furci^ 

244- Of the adudncemeht of learning. 

fureSjthe State of them wauld advance their price. 
Buc when we fee it is but ^agni ajlimamus Mori 
rradiu^, ^lyd Neglorieris dt cr&fmo^Ncfcis Fart u diet 
k maketh vs to defire to haue lorawhac fecurcd ;and 
exempted from Time, which are oncly our deedcs 
& works;as it is faid opera eorum fcquuntur eos. The 
prehemioence Hkewilc of this adiue good is vpheld 
bytheafFc<5lion whichisnaturall in man towards 
variety and proceed ing,which in the pleasures of the 
fcafe, which is the ptincipall part of Pafshe good, 
can haue no great latitude, Ccgita quamdiu eadet» 
fecerh Cibfts^ Somnui^Ludu4 per hnnc Circulum cur^ 
r'ttur^ msrivcUe nontarttHmJortis aut mifer autpur-^ 
deasfidetiam faflidiofus poteft. But in enterprifes, 
purfuitcs & purpofes of iife, there is much variety, 
whereof men are fenftbic with pleasure in their in- 
ccptionSj progrcffions,rccoilcs, reintegrations^ ap* 
proches and strainings to their ends. So asic was 
well {MiVitafwepupgfttoUHgmdaS' vaga eft. Nei- 
ther hath this A6tiue good any Identity wiih the 
good of Society though, in fome cafcjit hath an in- 
cidence into it:ForakhoDgh it do many times bring 
forth A<^ of Beneficence, -^^i it is with a rcfpe^ pri- 
vate to amans ownepowcr^ glory, araplifieation, 
continuance: asappearcth plainly when it findctha 
contraiy Sublet. For that Gygantinc flatcofmind 
which ppfledeththciroublers of the world, fuchas 
>vas Lucius Sylla ^infifiife other in fmaller model 
who would haue all menhappy oj? vnhappy as they 
w^K qjiejt ftkads oc EQcmic* A would giue forme 

to the vf arid according to their ownc humors 
C which is the truerv^tf»4f/6j^)pret5dcth^arpircrh 
to A(^iuegood, though it reccdcth furtheft from 
good of Society jvvhich we haue determined to the 
greater^ ;:^-' "' ''':<^>\u-^A *>::.:.:■ ^^^ 'J ■.:> v . . 
To rcfuraeP4/?wtf (7<79^,ic reccidetharubdiuifion 
of Conferuatiue and Ferfe5iiue, For let vs c-fec a brief 
Review of that which wehausfaidjWehauerpokcn 
firftoftheGoodofSociery,the intention whereof 
cmbraccth the f orme of Humme Nature, whd'rcof 
wcarc mcmbcrs&Portioils.-and not our owapro?- 
per & Indiuiduall forme: we hane {pofecn of A(5liuc 
^oodand fuppofed it as apart of Priuate &parrico- 
iar good. And rightly: For there is imprefTed vpon 
all things a triple dcfire or appetite proceeding from 
Joue to thcrofeJueSjOne o\j^rcftmiitfjtf3icomimi»g 
.their formc^ another of >^^/^4;JWjif& P^^r/^ their 
foraaey a nd a third oiMnltij>lying & cxrencfing»their 
for me vpon other things r-wbereof the flsultiplyinj^ 
bt fignature of kVpoD other things ,is that which we 
rhandled by the name of Aftiuegood. So as ther-e rc- 
maineththe cohferuing of it aodpcrfitingor railing 
-of it ; whichIarerasL,.tfiejhiglicft ilegfee oi Pa0iuc 
good.For to prcfcrue in ftatc is the lcflc,to ptdcrije 
-with aduancemcni is the greater. So in man. . ' 
. ylgntM efi hUtsyigoir^ ttplepUi9t^^M\% approach 
or AflTumptiontOpdiiiineorvAi^clicalJ Hatiire, is 
the perft^ion- of rhisfornac : She. error 'or falfc 
Imitationfof which gokid. is that vihich is ^e teno 
j>cfto£hutaaae^lifcwhile ni^m;v;ppa the InltiixS 
b ;j H h 3 of 

2j^6 Of the ddmmmm ofUdrnwg. 

of an aduancemem FormaR^ and Jijftntiatl is earned 
to fcekcan aduancemem Z<>^4/^. For as^thofc which 
are ficj?c,'and fiode do rcmedy^dQe tumble vp and 
downc and change placcas if by a Rcmojuc LocaU, 
they could obtaine a Remouc Intcrnall ;So is k 
with men inambitton,whe€ifailing of themcanc co 
cxalc tbfiic NAtHre^xh^y arc m a perpccuall cftuacioa 
;Co exalt their FUce* So then p4fme Geedy is,iis 
"iwasfaid, cither Conferutttwem PerfiBiu€. .; -1 U 
': . To reitimc. rbe good oiGovft^uAtion ^i-C^mfixn^ 
which confifteth mthefmhiepsfshat khkb kagret- 
4kUiQ9ttr K^PurtSy itleeniethrt>bethcino^jpurTc 
and Naturall of pleafuresibut yet thcfofteftahd tbas 
lowcft. And this alfo rccciueth a difFerence, which 
hatb neither becntc well iudgcd: of, nor well inqut- 
^cd^Poi: jhe gp©dsi)f ii uiiion or cooteocmcnr, is 
:fJacf^eichef vn^mtSi^titkiLnejJi oftimfmtUn^ or in 
lihc ^Mif^nf^ta^^tfgmofity.tkQ.oDC- fbpcrinduccd 
i>yti£/j«4i^/>i:thtoj&rhy^/^/m««/Ifc the one ha^- 
iiing Icrtc mixm^Q&Smii., t f cother more imprc fli- 
on of (/WiWbethcr oithcfie isthe greater good^is 
B qucftionc6na;ouca!:tcd,bt3r whether mans nature 
may/bee. i:apali>id-Qff;.both, isa queflton not in' 

ThciRiftncif qiieftitxnbstngdchatedbct^en S^ 
^rAtesi and:^ Sdjp^iji^joSi^miXrtiipiaeiii^feliciity.inan e- 
aquall and conftahtffl^ceof raMMl,anditfaeSophiftin 
iriuchdefiring,anfl nuach cnioyirig rnhey fijil frorti 
Aj^ument to ill/worda ; Xhe. Sojpihift laying that 
Sifhus felici^vsra^tbe felicity o£ablooke:t)rfl^e^ 
xQ I A^l and 

Thjecond^eol^tn \j 24.7 

and SocrAU'sS2,y\n% %h^t the Sophish fglicHy^ was 
the felicity of one that had the itch, wliadiduo- 
thing but itch sndskr^teh. And bojh thefe opini- 
ons doenot vvaflttbGiffopports. Forthc opinion 
of Socrates is m.Gh vplield by the gef>ecall conicnry 
cuen of the Epicures themfelues, that vertuc bear. 
€th a great part in felicity ; and if fo, ccttainc it is^ 
that vertuc hath no more vfe in clccring perturba- 
tionSj then in compafTing dcfires. The So^htjts opU 
nionis much fauoured, by the AiTercion. we laft 
fpeakc of, ^\^ngo»si of Adti^Hccmentt^ 2,izisx^xxh^vi 
good 6f Jim fk F refer ti4tm J becaqfcj -cu?ry obfay-- 
ning a defire, hath a ^ew of adManeement^as moci- 
OD though in a Circle, hath a fl)ew ofprogrcfi^on. 

But the fccond queftion, decided th? true way^ 
miketh the foFmerfupelrflaous. For^^an it bedou^i 
ted, bat that there ^re foine, wh^takc more pka- 
furc in enjoying pkafurfs,thea fome other J and 
yet neuerthekik, are kflTeofouWed iwitfi tbeloiFtf 
orleauingofthern:So 99 thisiatiie; NMrni^fui 
non appetas : No» sppaere^vt rKinmittt^ juttt Artimi 
pufiHi (jr difftdentU,hr\4\t fccraeth.taroc,chat moft 
of the doi^rines oi the Philofophers arc more fcare- 
lull and cautionary ihca the Nature of things re- 
quireih. Sohaue they en^rc^cd the f^are of deaths 
in offering tp cure its ¥m tvlieo tfccy would hautt 
a mans whol^ lifcy to bee but a difciplioc ^ prcp^^ 
ration t;o dye : they mufl neckics ma^e mcfa tlrinke;^ 
that ic isatemblcEnfuiy, againft whomther^ 
i^noeodof prtpsiiing, Bctwcr faitfethdBoc^^ ^ -i^^ 

i4-8 Oftheaauancement of learning. 

^Inifntm vita txtrtmum inter Mtuseraport^t 
Naturae t So ha'JC 

they fought to mskc mens minds too vniforrac and 
harmonicall, by not breaking them fufficiently to 
contrary Motions :thc rcafon whereof, I fuppofc^ 
to be, bccaufc they thcmfelucs were men dedica- 
ted, to a priuate, free, and vnapplied courfe of life. 
For, as we fee, vponthelutejorlikelnftrumenr, a 
Ground, though \i be fwccr, and haue (hew of 
many changes, yet breaketh not the hand to fuch 
ftrange and hard ftoppes and paflases, as a Set fong^ 
or VolttntAry : much after the fimc Manner was the 
diuerfiry betweene a Pbilofophicall and a ciuilc life. 
And therefore men arc to imitate the wifcdome 
of lewcUers, who, if there be a graine,or a cIoud,or 
an ife which may be ground forth, without taking 
too much of the ftone, they help if.bur, if it fhould 
leflcn and abate the ftone too much, they will not 
rncddlc withit ; So ought mcn/o to procure Sere» 
wV), as they deflroy nor magnaniraity. 

Hauing therefore deduced the Gcffd of Man^ 
which isfriuAte and pdrticuUr^ Ml far as fcemcth fit: 
wee will nowrcturne to that Gfiodofman^ which 
reffefieth andheholdeth Society, which we miy 
ccarmc Duty; becaufc the tearmc of duty is more 
proper tea minde well framed and difpofedto- 
wardsothcrs, ait thctearme of vcrtue is applycd 
toa tnind well formed and compofed in it fclfe, 
though neither cana man vnderftand vertue with- 
out fomertlation to Society) nor ducty without 


an Inward dirpofition,This part may feeme at firft to 

pertaine to Science Ciuile and Polif ike .but not ific 
be V7ell oi>ferucd, For k conccrncth tnc Regimcnc 
andgouernmcncofcucry man, ouer himrelfe, and 
aotoucr others. And as in architcifiiire, thcdirc^i. 
on framing the pofts,beamcs & other part« of buil- 
ding- is not the fame with the manner of ioyning 
thera,& ercding the building: And in mcchanicalls, 
thc.difc<5itonhow toframean Inftrumenc or En- 
gine, is not the fame with the manner of,fetting 
it on woike and imploying it t and yet neuer- 
thelefle in exprcITmg of the one, you incidcntly 
cxpreflc the AptneSb towards the other : So 
the doitrinc of Coniugacion of men in So- 
ciety, differeth from that of cbcit cotiformity 
thcicuBto. • ■■ 3 ^-^ /ov>^^ V«J^ ■■^^^•«-. '^/<S^^'<^ 
n This part ofDuty it fubdioided into two partis? 
the common duty et euery man, as a Man or mem- 
ber ot a State : The other the rcfpcdiiuc or fpcci- 
all duty of cucry man in his profcflion, vocati- 
on and place : The R:(\ of thefe,is extant and well 
laboured, as hath beenfaid. The fecond likewife 
I may report rather difperfed thfn deficient: which 
manner of difperfcd writing in thiskindeof Argu- 
ment, I acknowledge to be beff. For who can take 
vpon him to write of the proper duty, venue, cha- 
lenge & right,of cucry feuerall vocation,profrfSlon, 
& place. ForalthoDghfometimesa Lookeronmay 
fee more then a gamefter 8c there be aPonerbmore 
arrogaat thHonwilidPtkc v4kkefidifs$§mtbtht 

U kit 

ah yet th^tcis fiT|?llcb¥l5t^m<haeifiienkiutwritc 
bcftand mpft really and ro^teriaHy in their owne 
pcpfeffions^iand that-tM wrilin^ oi (pecuUtiuc men 
of A(3iue Mattcrjfortl7cmoftpart doth feemc ta 
menof Experience a$TP^^r«;/>^/ Argument of the 
warrsf^emed to Hanmhal^xoht bur dreames and 
dotage^Onely there is one vice which ;accompani. 
cthchcm>thac wrif^io thdrownc profcfTianSythar 
they tpagnify chcnT[ insexcisfFe. Butgctic raliy icwer^ 
tp be wifh€d,(aS'&h^t3vdiicfe woiiUbiJaaJce learning 
indeed folide^nq ff pitftiU)>!that AiSltue iaen would 
orcould become wrifcrse ^^ • , / 

In which kindc i <:3nnot burtr^ntion Bmoris 

Qaujaypm Miiellies exeellencbookc touching tha 

duty ofa king;? jrworketicbly corn pounded ob^h 

tiin'tt J ^Morality and Policy^ wixh great afperfiwi of 

aU9«hcr<>i»ii§$;.< gcKtb^ingliri \miQt opinion onir of 

iic.ffjt|(Jfo|in4,%gd hcftltfituH fwriti/j^ahat I ha^e 

i^ad if npt diftemperedin the- heanoftinuciitton j nor 

in the. (Jopldncs o^i negligence \i not ficJc of 

Buiin^flc asthqrf ai)? ivho kefc-.themfcLues in their 

oi^^r^noyt ofGoplvulfions as thofe which Crampe 

in^ma^ers impcrrinenr : not fauoring of pcrfumci 

§ndf>sinTingsastb;oC^jdacwho fctke topleafc iht 

§L^er«jprert«JjeP hfetare^beiBtth, and chiefely 

weil. diipoftcUntbCifpiriistheieof, being agreeable 

IQ ixv^^j ajid a|¥ fpi* a<3ipns .* and farrc itmoucd 

fOR\i;^3tjNaxji^^paury5^.whcreunro I noted 
19 ^^;^h«t write itjtthbii^vovrnc prpfc^ons to bee 
^V^t^hiai^ i^^tchcy exaU it abouc meafure. 
j^4 ' y- For 

F^ yourMakiiy haih troiy'^efciibedjftQta kingof 
AfTyritjlor Perlu, i.l;ftheir exticrrte glopy '? but 4^ 

can t >cucr ledeaD^i^df 'feyirtiiie^b^aAGi^^'v^ Hat- 
heard yoUfMiieJfiy,ih:rhgllii^efad^-d,fpiflt'df^d*i 
nerQoicFit, dH^\^HF,' 5f« i gr^^t' cau(^ 'of" I ikJi^ature, 
whiah was i^/&^A''?i*^j mti'ih^tlktf Ms^iiGod did 
hy thclawesofNattdi^\ and (^nghtm rxfelj t&ftit />^ 
'iffe f heirpfrAmi iBrerdgittf«e^ as -(jcddOftlu hispmeA 
^i^rking MJfdddsxJLU'd'^dt- notswithift^indingV^rt"? 
ypuf l>Qoke ofa^rrc^M^n^ilhy;, you-tfoc '^S gtUd-' 
mtn to vndcrftaid^ thatydb kndjV'^fieple'rtitudc of 
the power and right ©fa King, as wcllirt the Gircft*- 
of iimcJflk^ aikl' diicy /\Fhy^ 1 pMoto^d-fd^ 

allcdgc this excellent w^i^ing df ybtfr Maiefty, as ii 
prime or eminent exatftpfe oi Tra^iesy concstti^ 
ipg^peciajl andieeipc^iue duties : whcmn^h^;i^W} 
haij^ ididasmuehaiMi h^d bee^^ewfi^^^-atli^lj^htf* 
yeatcs fincc^: Neither am 1 ftqoued \Hri^h^1'l:taine 
Courtly? dcccRGies, which efteeiti^ ic flictery to 
praile m pjtfhioe* fl^j k tsi torery td^pi^ilc'ih abii' 
fcntc^thatis, when cither GheWriii'rii^fcliivw 
occafion is ablcnt:and fo the praifc is'ndc Natural!, 
butiforccd, cither in truth>br in time^But ktCifera 
be tcidinhisp^Mi^nfr^ MdrceffiflwhkWlshbtWmg 
but at! citccllciir Tabic (^fCe/iwvertucytfnd'na^cit; 
^/<r<rr-beffde$ the exaf»fle of fnAJinJ* (6the^ excel-- 
lentpcrlbnSjWifer a^^eat<JeaIe th^nflkihobfe^iicf st- 
and mb M\ aenctrd0ubfi i/pm a full 'o<icafioii, t^^ 
giuciuft^raife8toprt6rir<)ral>ictit/ ' - -^^ 

1$^ Of the aJuMcement of teaming^ 

But to rctarnc, there bdongcth further, to the 
handling of this part touching the duties of profcfl 
fions aod vocations, a ReUtiue or cpfcfiu. touching 
the fiaudlSjCaufcIs, impofturcs, and vices of eucry 
profelTion, which hath been Hkcwifc brindled. But 
how f* rather in a Satyre & Cinically,thenfcrio«fly 
dnd wifcly.-for men haue rather fought by wit to de- 
ride and traduce much of that which is good in pro^ 
fcffions^then with ludgement to difcoucr and feuer 
that which is corrupr.For as Salomon faith. He rhar 
Cometh to fcckc after knowledge with a minde to* 
fcorneand cenfore^rhall be fure to findc matter for 
his htjmor,buc no matter for his Inflrud^ion. ^rf- 
renti defiJorlScientiamyipfA.fe Abfhondiufed StHdiffo- 
fit fihiam^Bm the managing oftiiis argument witfr 
integrity &triith,which I note as dcficienc,feemcth 
to jpc iq be one of the beft foriificaiionsfor honefly 
5c vertuc that can be planted. Eor,as the fable go- 
c^h of jthc Bdfilish^ih^i if he fee youfirft you die tor 
it : but ifyou fee him firft,he dieth.So is it with de-' 
ccits and euili arts: which firftcfpiedjthey 
lecfe their Iifc,but if they preuentjthey indanger. So 
that we arc much beholden to il/4^«4*^/5f & others 
that lyifftc what men doCjandnot.what they ought 
to do. For iris not poffible to ioyn ferpenrine wife* 
domwi^h the Columbine Innocency^ except men 
know ex^#)y«^l?he conditions of the Serpent ih\s 
barencijciapd^oingyponhis bellie, bis volubility 
an^ kbricity,his cnuy «ndOing,and the rcft,that is,, 
ailibrmes and h(9tU2ie^^C<cNitt.For without tbis^ver.' 


mt liech open and vnfenced. Nay an honefl man 
can doc no good vpon thofc that arc wicked to rc- 
claimc them, without the helpe of the knowledge 
ofcuill.Formenof corrupted raindes prefuppofc 
that lionefty growcth outofSimphcity of manners, 
& beleeuing of Preachers, fchoolm3fters,and Mens 
exterior language. Soas,cxceptyoucan «akcthem 
pcrceiue,. that you know the vtmoft reaches of 
their owne corrupt opinions, they defpife all mo- 
rality, Artf»r<?^//>///«/;«j verbAprudtmU^nifi ca dix^ 

Vntothis part touching Refieiiiue dkt^ ,doih alfo 
flppercaincchc duties bctwcene husband and wife, 
parent and'childe,Maflcr and SeruancSo likewife» 
thclawes of friendfliipand Gratitude, the ciuilc 
bond of Companies , Colledges, and Politike 
bodies, of nighbourheod, and all other proporti- 
onate duties : not as they are parts of Gouernment 
and Society, but as cothe framing of the minde o£ 
particular pcrfons;: 

The knowledge concerning^^p^/ rejpeSiwg Sm- 
eiy doth handle it alfo not ftmplj alone, but Cop^drs. 
uucly^whctcamo belongeih the weighing of duties,., 
betwcene pcrfon and perfon, Cafe and Cafe, parti* 
cularandpublikc; As we fee in the proceeding of 
L/ttifa Brutusy againfl: his ownc Sonnes,which was^ .^^W-i ,,11 
fomuchcxtolledjyet Avhat wasfiid/ Vv^^ .iww^.J 

lt9fiiUKiVtm»qeferentC4fdUMii$$res^ ^ ^ 

So the ca(e was doubtfuIl,> and had oplnioa^ 
cn both fides ; AgaiQC> we fee, when U* Iruttu and 

1^ (Y^he^k^mmht^f learning. 

C/f/T/Wlnuited to a fupper certaine, whofe opinions 
they meant to feclc, whether they were fie to be 
made their AfTociates, and caft foorththe queftion 
touching the Killing of a Tj/'j;;^ being an vfurper; 
they were dcuided in opinion, foaic holding, that 
Seruitude was the Extrcame o^Euils; and others 
that Tyranny was better then a Ciuill war .• and a 
number of the like cafes there src, of comparatiuc 
dtity. Amongft whichjthat of all others, sihemoft 
frequent, where thcqueftion is of a great deale of 
good to enfue of a fmail Iniuftice. Whieh lafohoi 
T^eJfaliadacTmlrkd againft the truthj AliquafaKt 
iniujle facienddivt muhaiujleferi p^€fsiiit. But the 
r^^\y\s goodij^ Amhorem prafentis rujlitiahaf^s 
fponforemfutura non habeS'^ Men niuft purfue things 
which are iuft in prcfent, and leaue the future to the 
diiiine protiidence .• Sa then we pafTe on from this 
gencraHps^ri totjchihg the Eicamplar and def<^ripfijf 

OnofGobd. ;. :, iv* ^ j\% 

Now therefore, that we haue fpokeA Cff-tfcis friiit 
of hTejit remaineth to fpeake of the Husbandry that 
bclongeth thereunto, without which part, the for- 
mer f^emeth to be no betttftthen a faire Image, or 
fi^ttti^ which is beautiful! to conternpl^t^, but is 
without life and motion .• wheffeufit6Lf/'f/?^//i?him. 
Be ekitur* felfe fubfcribefh irfthefc wowJf ;i/^^(,^'*J'?y?/7if^if/ W^ 
tAnimi* virtute dicere],iirq9fdpt & ex quihfu gi^dtUr, 
Inutile emmferefatrU, y/rtutem quidem , f^^i Wf - 
^htndx Autem eius modes ^ vidsigmHrtH^on 
€mm it 'virtttkt4muiH^qHAfiemfit,qu4i'eiitui^^fii 
- «. fid 

musket remipjAm T)$JJe (jr cius compotes Jieri: Hoc an- 
urn Cic veto n^nj'ucccdet^ nififiiamu^ ^ ex quibm ^ 
quowodo. Infiichfull words and with fuch itera- 
tion doth he inculcate this part: Soh'nhcicerom 
great Commendation of Cato the fecond, that hec 
hid applied himfeirc to Philofophyj Non ita dijpjt' 
tandi Caufit^ fed ita viuendi. And although the neg- 
led ofoiir times wherein few men doe holde any 
Gonfulcations touching the rcformarion of their 
Iifc(as Sf/^^r^ excellently faith Departih^vita qnif. 
que deliberate de fumm A nemo) may make this pare 
leemfuperfluous : yet I muft onclude with rhac 
Aphorifm of Hipocrates ^^InigrAui morbo c^rrepti diy* 
lojts non fenriunt ,ijs mens £gretat. They need me- 
dicine not oncly to afli'vyagc the difcafc but toa- 
VK^ke the fcnie. Andif k be fiid, that the cut:cof 
mens Mindes belongerh to facred ditiinity, iris 
raotltruc : But yet JMU>raH Philofo^by may be pre- 
ferred vnto berz^avyikfeiuant, and bumble band- 
maide. Forasthc Pfajm^ faith, ThAf the eyes of the 
handmaidc looke pcrpetuAliy towapM the Mij^rejfe^znd 
ycr no doubt many things are left to the difcrecion 
of the handmaide, to difcernc o( the miftreffe will : 
So.ought Mor|ll ^hiJofpphy^o giuea CQnftanfaN^ 
tepuonto-thedp^/ixKS.of pimmty, and yet fo*as 
icjiay yceld of ber-felf^ (withia.due liiuil^J"..maay 
found and profitable dircdions. rrn.f ih\ ?.i i? i^) 

of, 1 cannot but find exceeding ftrange^hat it is not 

i^( . A- reduced 

tf6 Of the aduancement of learning, 

i:edticed (o written enquiry, the rather becaufe l€ 
confifteth of much matter, wherein both fpeech & 
a^ibn is often conuerfant, and fuch wherein the 
coramon talke of men ; f which is rare, but yet 
comraeth foraetimef to pafTe) ij wifer then their 
Bookes : It is reafonable therefore that we pro- 
pound it in the more particularity, both for the 
worthinefTe, and becaufe we may acquite ourfclues 
for reporting it deficient, which fcemeth almoft in- 
credible, and is othcrwifc conceiucd and prefuppo- 
fed by thofethemfelues, that haue written .We will 
therefore enumerate fome heads or Points therof, 
that it may appcarc the better what it is, and whe- 
ther it be extant. 

Irirft therf ore in tbis,as in all things,which areprac- 
ticall, we ought to caft vp our account^ what;is in 
our power,atid what not : for the one may be dealt 
with by way of alteration, but the other by way of 
application onely. The husbandman cannot com- 
luand, neither the Nature of the Earth^nor the fca- 
fons of the weather : no more can the Phyfitian the 
conftitutionof the parienf, nor the variety of Acci- 
dents. So in the Culture and Cure of the minde oi 
Man,two things are without our command :Points 
of Nature, and points of Fortune, For to the Baps 
of the one, and the Conditions of the other, our 
worke is limited and tied. In thefc things there- 
fore, itisleftvnto vi,to proceed by application, 

rinandA tji imnisfortutufimd^: 
and To like wi& 


V i VincendAeftomtJii Ndtftra.ferendo, 

But , vs^henl that wc fpeakc o\ fuffcring, we doe 
nor rpeakc of a dull, and negle»5ted fuffering, but of 
a wifeand iaduftrioiss fuffering, which draweth,^* 
and contdued vfe and adyanca^e out of that which-- 
fccaieth aduerfe and contraryjwhichis that proper- *■ 
!y which ws call, Accomodating or Applying. 
Nowthcwifedomeof Application ref^ctii princi- 
pally in the cxawt and diftindk^iowledgeof the pre- 
cedent ft^te, or difpoficion, vnto which we doe ap- 
pjy rfor we cannot fir a garment, except wc firft 
take meafure of the Body. :; ' -' 

So then the firft Article dfthis knowledge i^ td^« 
fee downe found and true diftributions and defcrip*^ 
tlonsof the feucrall Character* and tempers of 
mens Niturcsand dirpoficions/peciallyhauingrcA^ 
gard to thofe differences which are moft radicalF- 
in being the fountaifies and Caufespf the rcft,or • 
tnoft frequent in Concurrence or Commixture^ ii. 
wherein it is not the handling of a few of them iii^^ 
palfagejthe better to defcribe the Mediocrities of' 
vcrtues, that can fatisfic this intention j for 'i{ it dc- 
fcructobeconfidcrediri&tf; there are minds rvhicb 
are proporttMed to great mapterSy and others tr^ 
pna&j ( Whiqh K^rijtotle hatidlcthor ought to haue^* 
handled by the name of Magnaminity ) doth it not- 
deferuc as well to be confidered. That there an • 
minds proportioned t^ intend many matters, dr otherJ' 
to fern ? So that fomc can diuide themfelues, others 
can perchance doc exa^ly well, bucitmuit be bye 
t) ^ Kk ia 

7^% : Of the a^^0ementpf learning. 

in few things at once-. And fo there commethto 

bee a Narrffvpnefje ofmindz^ well as a PufiHanimity , 
And againc,7'^.-<//i£;/»^ wi»ds are proporth/ied to that 
which mji) beedifpatjshedAt onc€ er withJH afhort re^ 
turm of time: o}hers to that which begins 4^farre off , 
an-distf be ri^on^xpith length of purfmCy ''r r r'.-" 

.....^ .Jam turn itndit(^ tie fouetqut'^^ 

Sofhicchcremay be fitly faid to be a longani- 
mi y, which is commonly alfoafcribcd to God as' 
a Magnanimity So further deferDcd if to be conii- 
dcrddjby Ariftoilc,7'^tf/ there is a difpofition in Con- 
utrfation (fuppofing it in things which doe in no fort 
tMch grconcerne a niansfelfe) to foot he and plea feiand 
a difpofition contrary to contradiH and crojje: And dc- 
feructh if not much better to be confidercJ^T'^rff 
tker€ isa.di(j>Qfition^ not in conuerfatian or talkejout in 
mati^Y of ittor^fsrifOt^r Natnre (andfuppojlng itfttfl 
intkjng^meerlyjndtjferent) to take plea/ure in the 
good qfAmthtr y^and a difpofniori:cmtrarinife,to t^ke ' 
dl^a/iaj;. fhtgt>odsf4np.ther ., which is that |>roper- 
ly^ which wee cafhgbod nature, or ill nature^ benig- 
nlm or malign itie-: And therefore I cannot fuffici- 
enily naaiueU, that this part of knowledge' toijching 
thAr^i^Mll CiBra<^i»«f natures and difpofitions3 
fbojujd ^^.5(?>rnj ted both: in Moraliti^i^^ i>61icie, 
cQ^idptfingiris oHq grcatf miniftety atyd'iuppcdita- 
ti9iitt<>,fhcm'bcth'. Aiban fhall finde ifr the tradi* 
tipf^s -qf \A*^p<^og4ct,loine pj*c«y' and apt diuiffons 
o|<jBicn§ nattiiresi according xo the pr^'dominances 
o^jfe, BUafltSj/f'*^/ of ^i^tJoHtrs of AcHoryJoHers 

T'hefecond \BdQ^e» %^^ 

tfVi^ory^ ipHtrs sfHonour^loHtrsofTlcAfHfe^ Uutfs 
ef^^rtSj louers $f Ckanga^md io forth. A niaa 
(hill fincj in chc w:fc(t fore oi thefc Relations \\'hiefa 
the Italians make rouching Cor*cUues, the natures of 
thefeuerallCardinalls, handfomlyai>d:liucly pain- 
ted forth -a man Ihall meet with incucry daies Con- 
tcrencQ^ihiz dtaoininmous of Se^fitiueJry f»rmd/i^ 
reaS^ humordm .certalne, Humo dt^frifif^imtrtjbiofie^ 
Huomo M'vktma, imprefio;fe^Z€idxht\i\^ : aady^et 
peucrt-hd^fl^ .this kindc pf Qbfcru^itip^is .waadretb 
in words, but as np: fixed in Enquiry/ For the di- 
ftindions arc found fmany ofthemj bucwccconu 
elude no precepts vpon them 5 wherefn our fault is 
the greater^ bccaufe both H«ftory,Pocfi^-, and daily 
Experience arc as goodly fields where thefc Obfer- 
qatipns grow, whereof wee make a few ppcfics, to 
hold \n our hands,butno man bringe.ththcm to the 
C nfe<5lionary,that Receipts might bciijadc of 
them for vie of life. .. b--r?:!iR:l 

Ofmuch like kinde are thofe imprefnons of Na- 
ture,which arc impofed vpon the minde by the Sex>, 
by the Age^ by the Region^ By healthy dndficknejfe^ hy 
^he^Hty and dcfermitiey2iV\d the like, which arc inhe- 
rent, and notextcrnc ; and againe, thofe which arc 
csufed by cxterne fortune; as Soueraigntie^Nobility^ 
eh f cure birth^richeSyVfant^ ^^gifty^ck,' frwatetfeffii^ 
pr6fl>erifie, aduerfitiej confiant fortune^vsri^ti^iefoK-' 
t»ne, fi(i»g per fait fm, per grddus\ir\d the like* And 
therefore we fee that P/4«/./^:raakethitawQndec,to 
ice an old man bqncficent^ Btnignhml htim:vt ii<h 

Kk 2 kfccntuli 

"X 60 Of the aduancement of learning. 

lefimfffUift' Saint Paitl concludeth that ku^ntic of 
difcJpUnc was to be vfed to the Cretans, increpa eos 
}iHn;\^n the difpofition of their Country^Crtf^f^- 
fisjtmfer mcndaees^maU BeflU, vetityesfigri.SaluJl 
iiotcth,that k isvfuallwich Kings to dcfire Con- 
trad\6toiksJecij)lerf(nqNe HegU 'VQluntates^ 'ut vc 
hemenus funt , ^ic moh'tUs^fdt^eq^ ipptftH'adunfd, Ta. 
^/>«f obfemeth how lardy raiding of the forrun6 
m^ndetbthedirpofirionj/^//;ftr Vefpafiams muutt^ 
in mtlim» "PiniArus raakcch an obferuation, chat 
-great and-fuddainc fortune for the moft part defea- 
^th men, ^jiirffAgf!amf^lidtatem conctqncre non 
fojfunt t SothePialme (hcwctb it is more cafie to 
kcepe a nKafure in the enjoying of fortonr, then in 
"the incr^afe of fortune, DimtUft affluAnt^ mlitt 
^orafponen: Thefs obferuations afid the h'ke, I 
deny not, bur are touched a little by Ariflctte as \ti 
^alTagc ill his Rhetoricks. and arc handled In forae 
fcactercd difcoiirfes, but they were neuer incor- 
-poratc into Mor^ll Philofophy, to which they doe 
rCffentiaJIy appcrtaine : as the knowledge of the di- 
ucrfity of grounds and Moulds doth to Agri- 
culture, and the knowledge of the diuerfity of 
Complexions and ConftiruTionsdothto the Phy- 
fitianj except we meaneto follow the indifcretioa 

of Empcriquesi which mini(ter the iarae medicines 
to ail parket^.^vu5-.<i\ \ .vv.\wto./;\u\^v.dv. /-^v- 

i:>fj Another Artlcleofthi^ knowledge is the Inquf- 
ifctouchingthe affe<^ions ; foras in Medicining 
of tb^body, is is iq^wda firft to know the diucrs 

<iN^nss^^\i^ " & O" " " ~ Com* 

l^hefecond 'Book^. 1 6i 

Complexions and Conflitutionsj fecondly thcdif- 
cafcs^and laftly the cures : So in racdicin pgof the 
Minde,afcer knowledge of the diuers charaders of 
mens natures, it follovveth in order to ^nowihe 
difcafes and infirmities of the minde, which are no 
other then the perturbations and diftempers of the 
afFe^ions. Far as the ancient Poliriqwcs in popular 
Eft3tes,vvere wont to compare the people to the 
Sca,and the Orators to the windes; bccaufeasthe 
fea would ofitfclfc be calmcand quier, if the winds 
did not moac and trouble it; fo the people would 
bepeaceabic and tra(5iable if the feditious orators 
did not fee them in working and agitation. So ic 
may be fitly faid,that the ininde in the nature there- 
of would be temperate and frayed, if the affections 
ss winds, did not put it into tumult and perturbati- 
on. And here againel findef^rangcasbcforejihac 
yfr//?<?//ffhouldh3ue written diuers volumes of E- 
thiqucs, and neuer handled the affc(5lions, which is 
the principall fubiec^l thereof,and yet in his Rhefo- 
ricks where they are cofidered but col-laterally, & in 
a fecod degree^, (^ they may be mouedby fpeech) he 
finds place for theoij&bandleth them well for the 
quantity, but where their true place is, hec prcter- 
mitteth them. For it is not his dlfputations abouc 
plcafurc and painc that can fatisfiethis enquirie, no 
more then hee that (hould generally handle the na^ 
ture of lighr, can be (aid lo handle the nature of C<3- 
hurs ; for pleafure and paine are to the particular a^ 
fe<^ioflS as light is to particular colours : Better tra- 

Kk 3 Ijels 

26z Of the aduancement of learning. 

uels I fuppofebad the^/^/r^w taken in this argu- 
ment, as far as 1 can gather by that which wee haue 
at fecond hand : Bar yet it is like, it was after their 
manner rarher in (ubtilry of definirions, (which in 
afubie(f)ofihis nature arc but curio fit icsy then in 
adiueand ample dcfcriptions and obferuations ; fo 
likewife I findc fome particular writings of an ele- 
gant nature touching fome of the gfFcdions, asof 
K^nger^ o^ Comfort njpon aduerfe accidents, oiTen- 
^trmffe ef countenAnce^ and other. But che Poets 
and writers of Hiflories arc the befl Dodors of this 
knowledge, where we may findc painted forth with 
great life, How afFedions are kindled and incited ; 
and how pacified and refrained : and how 5gainc 
contained from ad, and further degree : how they 
difclofe themfelues, how they workc, how they va- 
ry, how they gather and fortifie, how they arc in- 
wrapped one within another, and how they doe 
fight and encounter one with another, and other 
the like particularities. Amongft the which ibis lafl 
is of fpeciall vfe in Morall and Ciuile matters : how 
J fay to fee afFcdion againft afFcdion, and to mafler 
one by another, euenas wee vfe to hunt braft with 
beaft, and flie bird with bird, which otherwife 
pcrcafe wee could not fo eafily recouer .• vpon 
which foundation is ereded that excellent vfe of 
PrdtmtMmand fcena^ whereby Ciuile States con- 
fifl, imploying the predominant affections of/^^rg 
and h9pe^ for the fuppreffing and bridcling the reft. 
For as iti the gouerncmcnt of dates, it is f ometimcs 


neccflary to bridle one f3<^ion with another, (bit is 
in the gouernmcnc with;n. 

Now come we to thofe points which are within 
our owne command, and haue force and operation 
vpon theminde, to affejftche will and apperire,2nd 
to alter manners; wherein they ought to haue hand- 
led cuftome, cxcrcife, habit, education, example, 
imitation, emulation, company, friends, prsife, re- 
proofe, exhortation, fame, la wes, bookcs, ftudies: 
thefe as rhey haue determinate vfe in moralities,^ 
from thefe the minde fufFcreth, and of thefe are fuch 
receitsand rcgimcnrs compounded and defcribed, 
as may ferue to recoucr or preferue the health and 
good eftate of the minde, as far as pert:iineth to hu- 
mmc medicine: of which number wee will infiH; 
vpon fome one or two, as an example of the refi:,be- 
caufcit were too long to profecuteall* and therefore 
we doercfume Cijftome.ind Hibit to fpeiakc of. 

The opmoMaiAhfot/e fcemeth to mee a negli- - 
gem opinion,Thac of thofe things which corifTft by ' 
Nature,nothing can be changed by Cuftome,vfing 
for example 5 That if a ftore be rhrowne ten thou- 
fand times vp, it will not learn? to afcend, and thar '' 
by often feeing or hearing, we doe not leafne to fee , 
or hea?e the b tter; For though this principle bi'-' 
true in things wherein Nature is peremptory (the rea- i 
fon whereof we cannot nosV fland to difcufle) yet it ^• 
is otherwife in things wherein nature adroitrerh a 
latitude. For hee might fee that a ftrai- gloae will 
come more eafily on with vfcjand chat a wand will *-' 


26^ Of the aduancement of learning. 

by vfc bend othcrwifc then \i grewj and that by vfc 
of the voycc we fpeake louder and ftrongcr j & that 
by vfc of enduring heace and cold, we endure it the 
better, and the hkc ; which latter fort haue a nearer 
rcfcmblance vnto that fubkci of manners he hand- 
icthjthcn thofc inftances wh ich he alledgeth^ But al- 
lowing his Conclufion that njertucs and vices ccnfifl 
in habit, h^ ought fo much the more to haue taught 
the manner of fupcrinducing that habitc ; for there 
be many precepts of the wife ordering the exerclff s 
of the minde, as there is of ordering the exercifes of 
the body^whereof we will recite a few. 

The firft (Ijall bc5that we beware wee take not ac 
the firft either too High a ftraine or too tveake ; for 
if too High in a diffident nature you difcourage, in 
confident nature, you breed an opinion of facility, 
and lo a flothjand in all natures you breed a further 
cxpcdation then can hold our, and fo an infatisfacfti^ 
on in the endj if too wcakc of the other fide : you 
may not looke to performe and ouercomc any 

great taske. 

Another precept is to pradifcall things chiefly 
at two feuerall times, the one when the mind is bt ft 
difpofedathc other when it is }vfirft dtffojed : that 
by thconeyoumaygiueagre;it flep,by the other 
you may workc out the knots and flondes of the 
minde, and makethe middle times the more cafic 

Another precept is, that ^vhich ArifictU menti- 
•ncthby theway, which is cobcare euer towards 


the contrary cxtrearac of that whereunto wc arc 
by Nature inclined .' like vnto the Rowing againft 
theftreamCjOj: making a wand ftraighc by binding 
fiimcontrary tohis nacurallcrookednefle. 
Another precept isjthat the minde is brought ro a- 
ny thing better and with more fvveetnefTe and hap- 
pinciTej if that whereunto you pretend, be not firft 
in the irMcnx\on,bi}i Ta/fqaam ali^d jge/tdo , becaufe 
pfthe Nacunll hatred ofchc mindc againft necelli- 
ty and conftraint. Maixy other Axiomes there are 
touching the managing of Exsrcife zn^ cnjicmc .- 
which being fo condu(5ted, doth proue indeed an- 
other nature ; but being goucrncd by chance, dotb 
commonly proue but an ape of naturCjand bringctb 
forth that which is lame and countcrfcr. 

Sp-if wc: (hould handle i^ookes and/Wrw and 
what influence andoperacionthey haucvpon man- 
ners, are the^e^notdiuers precepts of great cawion 
andd>re(5iipri appertainingthercuqto ?did not one 
of the fathers in great indignation call Poe/y^ vinS 
D^«i<?;?«w, becaufe it incrcafech temptations, per- 
turbations and vaine opinions /* Is not the opinion 
of Arifiotle yioithy to be regarded wherein he faitb, 
Tbatyoungmcn arc no fit auditors of Moral! Phi*' 
lofpphy, becaufe tbey arc not fctled from the 
boyUng hcatc of thtir affe<f^ions; nor attctBpcfed 
yiii\\T$me and experience ? and doth it not hereof 
cojpc that tjiofe excellent boolfs anddifcourfcs, of 
the ancient writcrs,(whcrcby they haue perfwadeil 
vnto vtff /«tf moft cfiTedually, reprcfcnring her iii 
fiAHzxi\M4$efiy,9xxif$pfd4r fifhhttfagmS: yttiue 
r>.m Li in 

% 66 Of the A^immt^ of learning. 

in their Parafites Coites, fit to be fcorned and diri- 
ded,} are of fo little cfFcd towards honefty of life, 
becaufcthey are not read, and rcuolued by men m 
their mature and fctlcd yearcs, but conjSncd almofl: 
to boyes and beginners i But is it not true alfo, that 
muchleirc, young men arc fit auditors of Miitters 
ofPoitcy, till they hauc beene throughly fcafoncd 
in religion and Morality, Icaft their ludgcmems be 
corrupted, and oiade apt to thinke that there arc no 
true Differences of things, but according to 't;//7//y 
^nd fortune, as the verfedefcribes it. Frofperum et 
:fceUicfcelu'S virtus vocatur: Andagainc, Jlle cru- 
cemprttinm [ceteris tultt, Hie diadem a : which the 
Poets doc rpeak fatj'ricaily & in indignation on vcr- 
tuesbehalfe:But bookcs of pollicie doc fpeake it 
ferioufly, and pofitiueiy, for fo it pleafcth MachiA* 
ueU to iay yTbnt ifCafar had beene ouerx^rownty hee 
ffotddhx^m heenemor&ddious then ener rvas Catilihe- 
is if there had beene no difference hut in forrune^ 
betwectic^ i!€tyfury oflufi ^d blood, zvi^ the tnoji 
vceelientfpirit{ his ambition rcfcrued j (fffhe mrldi 
Againe is there not a Caution likevvife tobe giueri 
of thedoftrines of Moralities themfelues (fome 
kinds of them j left they rraake men tfoa ptdcif^, 
arrogant, incompatible, a-s Cieero faich oi'^dto itt 
l^arao C atone H^c bona qus vidcmtts dimna. ^-tgri- 
giaipfinsfdtote effe propria : qu£ no^t^unffifdin iequh 
ftmus-) eajfuntammayOma rut^a Jed aUagiprti^ 
M^ny other Axiomes and aduifes there arerotich- 
ingcbofe proprieties & effedf, which ftodiesdoc 
ifiMmtaawncr5rAndioiiktlF7i& is therMoafdh^ 
j.j iJ ing 

ing the vfe or all thofe other points of Company^ 
famCjhwcs and the reft, which we recited in chc be- 
ginning in the doitrin: af Morality. 

B'J! theic is akmde o^CnUure of the 3//»^V; that 
fcemech ycr more accurate and elaborate then the 
reft, and is btiilc vpon this ground .-That the minds 
Oi all men are iornc times in a ftare more pcrfit, and 
at other times in ajiate more de^ritted. The purpofc 
therefore of this pradife^isrofixeand cheriihthc 
good howers of the mind^^ to obliterate and tjkc 
forth the Eiill.* The fixing of the good hath beeae 
pra 5tkd by two meancs, vowes or conftant refo- 
lutionSj and ob(eruances,or cxercifeSjWhich arc not 
to be regarded ^o much in ihemrelucs,3s becaufe 
they kecpe the mihde in continuall obedience. The 
obliteration of the Euill hath beene pra(5iifcd by two 
Meanes, (ome kindeof Redemption or expiation 
of that which is paft, and an Inception or account 
deNotto^ for the time to come ibut this part 
fcemeth facred and religiouSjand iuftly. -for all good 
Morall Philf)fophy (aswasfaidj is butan hand- 
maideto Religion. 

Wherefore we will conclude with that laft poinC 
which i5 of all other meanes the moft compendious 
and fummary, & againc,thc moft noble and eflPedu* 
all to the reducing of the raindc vnto vertueand 
goodeftatc : which is the electing and propound^ 
ing vnto a mans felf c good and vcrtuous ends of his 
life, fuch as may be in a rcafonable fore within his 
compafTeto atcainc, Forif thefc two things bee 

LI 3 fuppoted: 

a^8 Oftheadudncement of learning. 

fuppofed : thata man fct before him honclt and 
good ends, and againc that he be refolurc, con-' 
ftanr, and true vnto them,- it will folic vv that heC; 
{hall mould himfclfc into all vertueatoncc; and 
this iS'indccdc like the workc of nature, whcfcas' 
the other courie5is like the wcrkc of the hand. For 
as when acaruerraakes an image, he fli^pesonely 
that parr whereupon hce vvorkethjas if he be vpon 
thefAce^ that part which (hall be the body is buta 
rude ftone ftill,tiil fuch time as hee comes to it. But! 
contrariwife when Naturemakcsa^^n;^/ or lining 
^rf<i/»r^,(heformcth rudiments of all the pirts at 
onetime; fo in obtaining verrte by h&bht^ while a^ 
man pradifeth Temperance, he dorh not prcfic 
much to fortitude, nor the like^ But when he dedi- 
catech and applicth \\\m{t\\.ftio get d ends ^ lookc 
whatvcTtusfocuerthe purfuice &pjfi3ge towards 
thofe ends doth commend vnto himjhe is inueftcd 
of a precedent dilpofition to conformc himfelfc 
thereunto : whichftatc of mindvfr//?^?//^ dothex- 
ccllently exprclTe bimfclfe, that it ought not to bee 
c^A^^ vcrtHQus y but Diui/ie ; his words .are cHefe. 
Immanitati aute cfnfintamum cfi^ opponere eam.qtfd. 
fupra hamamtatem e[ly heroic Am ftue diuin&m'virtu- 
Urn. And aViuk zhQV^ Nam vtfir^, tjctjue ^vitium^ 
jfCtpC'virtui cfi ,fic neqne Dei. Sedhic qttidemJlatM 
dliiw-^uiddam <virmeeji, iUcAUudqniddam a^vitio. 
And therefore we may fee what Cel/fitDdeof honor 
fl^hM'ftcttndw, attributethtorM/^tfiinhis fune- 
xall oiatioD; where he laid, %h<ii tatnmtdtdio makt^ 

nrhefecond'Booke. 26 p 

fio other praters to the gods ^ But that they would con- 
tinue as good Lords to thcm^ as TraUne hadbeene : is 
if he hadnot beeneonely an Imitation of diuine na- 
ture, bur a patterncofir, Butthefcbc heathen and 
p'rophane paflagcs, hauing but a fhsdow of that ^u 
aiineftateoi minde, which Religion and the holy 
faittidoth condud men vnrOj- by imprinting vpon 
their fouics CW/'/y which is excellently called the 
bond Q^Perfefiion : becaufc it comprehcndeth and 
faftnerh all vertues together. And as it is elegantly 
faid by Mf^a^Jer o^vz'inc louc5which is but a falfg 
Imitation of diuine loucj/^w^/ meliorSophiJia^L/tus 
adhumanam vitam^ that Louc teachcth a man to 
carry himfelfe better, then the Sophift or Prdcepur^ 
which he calleth Left handed, becaufe with all his 
rules and preceprions he cannot forme a manfo 
Dexterioujlyy nor with that facility to prize him- 
felfe and gouerne himfelfe as louc can doe ; So cer- 
tainly if a mans minde be truly inflamed with chari- 
fyjitdoth worke him fodainly into greater pcrfecfii- 
on the all the Do(5irine of morality can do, which is 
but a Sophift in comp irifon of the other. Nay fur- 
ther ^%Xe»0ph0n obferucd rruely, that all other af. 
fe<f>ions though they raifc the minde, yet they doe 
it by diftorting,and vncomliiiefTe of extafies or ex- 
cefTcs. bur onely Lone doth exalt the minde, and 
ncuerthelefTe, at the fame inftant doth fettle and 
compofcit. So in all other excellencies, though 
they aduance nature,yct they are tuhicGi to cxccifc. 
OneJy Charity adraitccth no exccffit, for fo wee 
^ -^ LI 3 ice> 

^7^ Of the aduamemmt of learning. 

fee, afpiringtobelikeGod in power, the Angeils 
tranfgrcded and fell : Afcendam^ dr crofimiUs altip. 
mo: Byafpiringtobclike God in knowledge, man 
tranrgrcffcd and fell, MritkftctttDijfcientes homtm 
(^ wAlum-^ But by afpiring to a fimilitudc ol G od in 
goodnefTcor loucj neither Man nor Angell cuer 
tranfgrcfTed or (hall tranrgreffe. For vnto that imi- 
tation wc are called- Diligite inimicos^tfiros^ Be^ 
nefaciteeis qui oderant veSj (^ orate pro perfequenti^ 
iusc^ calHrnnidntihus vos^ vtfitisfiH^patris vejiri 
quhnCitliseft^qnifG^mfuum eriti facit frper hftes 
(jj*maUsj ^ plait fuferiufiss ^wiuflos. So in the 
firft platforrae of the diuine Nature it felfe, the hea- 
then Religion fpeaketh thus. Optimum MaximMy 
and the facred fcriptures thus^M i/ericordia eiMJuper 
omnia opera eius. 

Wherefore I doe conclude this part of Moral] 
knowledge concerning the Culture and Regiment of 
the Mind, wherein if any man confidering the parxs 
thereof, which I hauc enumerated, do iudge, that 
may labor is but to Colle<5l into an i^rt or Science, 
that which hath beenc pretermitted by others, as 
matter of common Senfe and experience^hciudgcth 
well: But as PhiUcrates (ported with Demojlhenes :■: 
you may not maruaiU {Athenians) that Demejlhenef, 
and I doe differ^ for he drinketh ipater^ andldrinke 
wine : and like as we read of an ancient parable of 
tke»»og4Us rfpcpC'^ 


Snntgimindf$mni foru^ qudtum $turAfcrtur 


C^rnei^ quA verisfacilis datur txttm vmhrU : 
Alter A CAndenti ferfe6lA nit ens Elephant 0^ 
- :,^tdfiilft ad ceelum mittuntinfomma manes. 

So if wcc put on fobriety and attcntion,we fiiall 
find it a fure Maxime in knowledge : that the more 
plcafant Liquor (cffVine) is the more vaporous, 
and the brauer gate oflvofj^ fcndcth forth the 
falfer dreamest 

But wc haue now conzixi^zdisThat generaUpart of 
HumAne BhHofophie^ which contempUteth mdnfe- 
gregAte^ and as hee confijleth of bodie dndfpirit^ 
Wherein wee may further note, that there fccmeth 
to be a Rclacioo or, Conformity between the good 
ofjbe minde, and the good of the Body. For as 
wee diuided the good of che body into Health ^Beau* 
tytfirength^and Pleafure, fo the good of the minde 
inquiredinRationalland Morall knowIedgeSjtcn- 
dethto this, to mike the minde foufuj, withbuc 
perturbation, Beautiful ind graced wirh decencie : 
and^/rp;?^and c//^/i5^for:aH duties of life. Thefc 
three as in the body, fo in rhc minde feldorac 
meete, and commonly feuer ; For it is cafie to 
obfcrtteytbat many hatie Strength of wit and Cou*^ 
rage,but baue neither Health from perturbations, 
nor a?^y Beauty or decencie in their doings ; forae 
agame haue an Elegancy and fincnefleof Carriage, 
which haue neither foundncfTc of honcftie, nor fub* 
(lance of fufficiency : And fome againc hauehoneft 
and reformed JViindes that can neither bccom' 
\<l(u{;t>ol them- 

ayz Of the aduancement of learning. 

thcrofelucs, nor manage BufinciTefand fomcriijies 
two of them meet, and rarely all three : As ier 
pkafure, wee haue like wife determined, that the 
mindc ought not to bee reduced to ftupide, but to 
retaine plcafure : Confined rather in the ivhkii of 
k, then in thcflrcngth and vigor of ir. 

CluiU Knowledge is conuerfant about a f ubic<Si 
which ofallocfaers is moft immerfcd in mat- 
ccr,and hardlieft reduced to Axiome. Neuer- 
thele(re,as Catoihc Cenrorfaid,7'^4///&<r Romanes 
were like fheepc, for that a man were better drineajlock 
oft hem, then one of th em 'y Forinaflocke^ if you could 
get hut fame fexp goe rights the reji would f^Uov^ ; ^o 
in that refpe^ Moiall Philofophie \s more iM'^^xXc 
then Pollicic. Againe, morall Philofbphy pro- 
poundeth to it felfe the framing of Internal] good- 
ncflfe :Buc ciuile knowledge requireth oncly an Ex- 
ternal goodnes:for thatas to fociety fufficeth.- Arid 
thcrforc it comraeth oft to paiTc that there be Euil 
Times in good gouernmcnts ; for fo we findc in the 
holy ftory, when the kings were good, yet it is ad- 
ded, SedAdhucfofulus non dixeratcorfuHmaddemi^ 
fium Deum fatrum fi^orum, AgainCjStates asgrc^t 
Engines moue flowly,and are not fofoone putout 
of frames forasin t/ii^j'/'/ the feauen good years 
fuflainedthe feauen bad: Sogoucrnments fot i 
time well grounded, doc beare out errors follow^ 
ing. But the refolucton of particular pcrfons is more 
^rnad. fodainly 

fodainly fubucrted. Thcfc rcfpefls doe fomcwhat 
quaiifie the cxfrcame difficulty of ciuile know- 

Thisk.iowledgehaih three parts, according to 
the three fumniary Actions of focietyj which are, 
ConuerfationjN :'gotiaEion5and Goiiernracnt. Fot 
man fecketh in fbciecy, comfort, vie and protedi- 
01 : and they be three wifed^mcs o\ diuers natures, 
which doe feuer.- wfiS'jdame of the bchsuiour* 
wifedome of bufinefifcj and wlfcdome of ftate. 
•Thewifedomeof conuerfacion ought not cobcc 
ouer- much 3fFeded,but much ieflTedcfpKed ; for k 
hath not oncly ^n honour in it felfe, but an influ- 
ence alfo into bufinefic and goucroment. The. pocc 

Nee vultH deflruevtrha tm*' A tnair.may deftrdy 
the force of his words with his countenance .• {o 
may hee of his deeds faith C/Vff^,recon5 mending to 
his brother affability and eafic acceffe, 

Nilwterejl hAbere ejlhtm apertum, vnltumcUufutm 

It is nothing wonne to admit men with an open 
doorc5and to receiue them with a fliut and rcferued 
CQUtJtenance. So we fee c^^//V»if, before thefirft 
interuiew betweene Ca^ar and CiccrOy the warrc 
depending, did fcrioufly aduife OV^r<; touching the 
coinpofiDg and ordering of his countenance and 
gcfture. And if the gouernmcnt of the cOunte- 
nance bee of fuch cflfc^, much .more is that of the 

Mm fpeccb. 

274 ^/^^^ adt^cmtmt of learning. 

fpecch, and other cartwge appertaining to conucr- 
fariopjthe true modcll whercoffecmecb to me well 
cxprefTcd by Liuiey though not meant for this piir- 
^O^t^Ne aut Arrogansvidcay^ aut ohnoxiU'S, quorum 
Alteram efi Attend Ubertatts ohliti^ alter nmjua: The 
fumme ofBehiuiiottr is to retnine a mAns owns dignity^ 
wlthoHt intrudir^g vpon the liberty of others : on the 
othetficieiifbchaoiou»:^nd outward carriage bee 
intcndedcdo much, firfttc may pade Into affccftati- 
on, ^nd then ^^uid de/or^ii^fis quam Sc^nam invi. 
Umtransferre, toad a mans lite f But although it 
proccedenot to that cxcreamc, yet it confumeth 
time, and imploycth the minde too much. And 
therefore as vvc vie to auuife young ftudents from 
company keeping, by faying, Amici^ furcs Temfo- 
fit: So Certain dy the Intending otthe difcrction 
ofbchaulour is a great Theefe of Medication : A- 
gainfjiuchas are accomph'lhed in that forme of 
vrbanity, pleafe themf<:!ues in it, and felJome 
afpjreto higher vcr tie; vvhcreas ihofe that haue 
d^ct9:in it, doc fe-kcC^w^/z^yfj^ by Reputation v 
for where reputation is, almoft eiicry thing bccom- 
meth ; Butwhcrethat isnor, it muft be fupplicd 
by Puntesv^fS, Complements : Againe, ihcre is no 
greater impediment of A ^ion/ then an ouer -curi- 
ous obferuanceaf deccncy.,and the giiideof decen- 
cy, which is Time and feafon. For as Salomon fairh, 
''^m re fpicit advent-OS y nonfeminatj ^ qui relficit 
4dmbcs, mnmeUt : A ttwtamijft ttilkctiis oppor- 
tonky, as oit as fiade ir. To conclucfc3 Bchauiour 
,iu:-.-L.., fcemeth 

fecme th to me a^ a G^rfiierit of the MlndCj and to 
hauc the Conditions of a Garmcnr. For it ought 
tobeemadeififafliion : it ought not to bee too cu- 
rious flcoughctobcfliaped fo, as to fct forth any 
good making of the mind ; and hide any deformi- 
lyi and abouc all, it ought not to be too ftraighc, or 
rcftraincd for exerctfe or motion. But this part of 
Ciuile knowledge hath bcenc elegantly handled, 
and tbcrelore I cannot report it fordeficient. 

The wifedome touching Negotiation or bu/Ines 
hath not been hitherto colleded into writing to the 
great derogation of learning,and the profcBbrs of 
learning. For from this roote fpringeth chiefly 
that note or opinion whichby vsiscKpreffed inA- 
dage, to this cfFed : That there is no great con- 
currence betweene learning and Wifedome. For of 
the three wifedomcs which wee haue fct dovvne 
topertaineto ciuile life, for wifedome of Behaui- 
out, it is by learned men for the moft part defpifed, 
asan Inferiour to VertuCjand an Enemy to Medi- 
tation;for wifedom of Gouernmenc they acquitc 
themfelues well when they are called to it,bu!: that 
happeneth to few. Bat for the wifedome of Bufi- 
ncfTc wherein mans life is moft conuerfant, there 
bee no Bookes of it, except lorac few fcatte- 
red aduertifemcnts , that haue no proportion to 
the magnitude of this fubiec^. For if bookes were 
written of this, as the other, I doubt not but 
learned men with mcane experience, would farrc 
excel! men of long experience, without learning. 

Mm z and 

ij6 Of the 4du4nt:ement of learning. 

and outfliooc them in their ownc bowc. 

Neirherneedechiratsl! to be doubted, that this 
knowledge tl^ould bcc To variable as ic fallechnct 
ynderpreccpr' for it is much Je/Te infinite thenfci- 
cnce of Goucrrtmtnr, which vvcc fee is laboured 
andinfomcpart reduced. Of ihis wifcdonbe itfec- 
fiieth fome ot the ancient Romanes in the faddtft 
and wile ft times were profe (Tors : for Cicere repor- 
tetn, thatifi was then m vfc for Senators that hsd 
name and opinion for gcnerall wife men, as CofUH" 
C4mf^s, Curius^ Lcslim^ and many others- to walks 
at cerraine houres in the fUcc^zt,^ to giue^udiencc 
tothofethat would vfc their aduife, and that the 
particular Citizens would refort vrto them, and 
eonfiilc with them of the marriage of a daughter, or 
ofthe imploying of a fonne, or of a purchafe or 
bargaine, or of an accufarion^and cuery other occa- 
fion incident to mans lite .- fo as there is a wifedome 
ofCounfeil and isdtiifc eucn in priiike Caufes, 
arifing cm of an vniiierlall iuflght Into theafiairs of 
the woiiJ, which is vfcd indeed vpon particulsr 
.caules propounded, but isgsthercdby general! ob- 
fcruatfon of caufes ot like nature. For fo wee fee in 
the Booke which ^.CrVfr^ writethto his brother 
.Depetitione confulutmy{hc\ng the onely booke oi 
^buiinciTc that \ knmv written by the ancients) al- 
though it concerned a, particular a(5tion then on 
sfoote, yet thefubfiance thereof confiileth of many 
•jwifc and politique Axioms, which containc not a 
,ten3poxary, but a perpetual! dirc6fion in the cafe of 
bnn r i '11 . popular 


TbefecondTBoo^. i^jy 

popular Eledionsj But chiefly we may fee inthofc 
Aphorifmcs whith haue phce araongefl: Diuine 
wrinngscompofedby 54/^w<7;^the King, of whom 
the {criprures tcftifie that hishesrt was as the fands 
of ch^fea,inccmpaffing the world and all worldly 
niatteisjw e fee I fay, nor a few profound and exce!- 
varietie of occifionsj whcreuponi we will ftay a 
while, offering to confideration fomc number of 

Sid ^ cunBis fermonihus qui dicuntur^nc dccom- 
wodesaurem tHam^nkforu Audits [eranm tuummaU- 
diecntem tihi. Here is commcndedthe prouident 
ftayof enqaiiyof that which we would be loath 
tolinde : as ic wasiudged great wifedome in P^^w- 
feit^ Uignm that the burned Sertorius papers vn- 

Vir fafiens fi cum flulto contendtrit^jim irdjc^tur, 
fiue ride At, non inueniet requiem , Here is described 
.ihcgrest difaduantage which a wife man hath in 
vndertaking a lighter perfon then himfelfc, which 
isfuchaningagemcnr, aswhcthcra man turnc the 
matter to ieaft, or turne it to hear- or howfociicr he 
change copy, hcc can no waies quit himfelfe wcU 

£lni deluAth a futyitu nutritfir»um fuumypficA 
fimkt eum coptumacem. Here is fignified that if a 
man bcginne too high a pitch in his fauours 5 ic 
doth commonly cndinvnkindnellc, andvnihank- 
fulnefle. .^auoii 

1^8 Of the admncmtent^f learning. 

Vidifiivirum *vehccm iff opere fuo, corai» regibus 
JiAbit^necerit inter ignebiks. Here is obferued that 
of all vcrtues for riiing to honour, quickncfTe of dif- 
patchisthc beft- for fuperiours many times louc 
not CO haue thofe they imploy, toodecp,or too fuf- 
ficicntjbut ready and diligent. 

Vidicuficies ^viMtttes^qtii atnbuUnt Jttbfok cum 
adolefcente fecunio qui ccvfurgitfro to. Here is cx- 
prefTed that which was noted by SjUa firft, and af- 
ter him by Tiberius-^ V lures adorant folcfn erientcm^ 
quAm eccidentetfs velffteridianuTrj, 

Sffpiritmf>0teftate?ft hAbentis Afcinderitfupr te^ 
IfiCUfft tuum ffc dimijeris^ quia curatie faciet ceffdre 
fcccAtamATctmA, Hcrecaurionis giucn that vpon 
difpleafure, retiring is of all courfcs the vnfitteft; 
for a man leaueth things at worft, and depri- 
Mcth hirafelfe of meancs to make them better. 
; :ErAt CiuitAs parua c" piiuci in ca viri; venit con. 
tr A (Am rex m Agnus , ^ vA^Auit eAmyinfiruxitqnc 
mttnitiones fcr Gyrumj ^perfcBa efi obftdiojnuen' 
ttffque ejl in ea virpAuper (^Jkpiens. (^ Uberauit eAn$ 
ferjApientiAfft fuAf/f, ^ fiullus deinceps recordatus eji 
h6mini6iUiu4 pauperis '^ Here the corruption of ftatcs 
is fet forth; that cfteemc not vertuc or merit longer 
then they haue vfe of it . 

UoUps refponftofr/tngiiirAfn, Here h noted th at 
filence or rough Anfwcr, exafpcrateth : butan an- 
fwer prefcnt and temperate pacifieth^Jii}^ ^■'' 
* lUrfigrdram^qui^fepesfpinAnifft. H«?rc^is liuc-fy 
reprcftn^edhow laborious flothproueth in the 


cndj for when things arc deferred till th^ kfl in- 
ftanr, and nothing prepared bcfpre hand^ euery 
ftcp fiadcth a Brier or a» impcdiroeneri, which 
catchcth or ftoppctb. 

Melier efi finis oratioms quamfrifJci^iam^VlQXQ is 
taxed the vanitie of forn>all fpeakers, mac ftudy 
more about prefaces snd induceraencs, then vpon 
the conclufions and ifTues of fpeech. 

^ui cognofeit in iudicio faciem^ non bene fdcii^ 
ifie etpro huccelU pants defim veritatem.Herc is no- 
ted that a iudge were better be a briber, then are- 
fpeder of perfons *• for a corrupt ludge offendeth 
not (o highly as a facile. 

. Vir pauper calumniavs pauperes^ fimi/is efi iwbri 
'vehemeniiiinquo paratrtr fames'^ here is exprcfled 
the cxtrcaniity of necefficous extortions, figured in 
the ancient fable of .the full and hungry horfc- 

Fom turbatus pedc^ ejr vena corrupt a^ efi^ iufita 
cA^ens ciiramimpi9.Viciz\% noted that one iudiciall 
&exemplar iniquity inthcfaceof the world jdoth 
trouble the fountaines of luftice more, then niany 
particular Iniuries paffed oucr by conniuencc. 

^iJukrabitaUqftidapatreo' amatre, S'M' 
sit hoc non e^epucAtpm^pmiccps efi homicidijy Here 
is noted that whereas men in wronging their bcft 
fricadsjvfe to extenuat their fault, as if they might 
pre fume or be bold vpon them, it doth contrariwifc 
indeed aggrauatc chcir faulty and turncth it from 

z 80 Of the aduancementef learning. 

Noli ejfe amicus hemim iractmdc, nee ambulato 
cum heminejuriojo'^ Here caution is giucn thar m 
the cledion of our friends wcc doe principally 
auoidc thole which arc irapatienr, as thofc that 
will cfpoufe vs CO many fa(5iions and quarels. 

£lui c9nturbAt domumfuam fefidedit vemum : 
Here is noted that in domciiicall reparations and 
brcaches,mcn doe proraife to thetnfclucs quieting 
of their minde and contentmcnr, but ftillchcy^re 
deceiucd of their expe(5tation, and k turneth to 

Filimfapiens Utificat fatremy filius verojlultm 
fitcefiitia ejlmatrifu^. Here is diftinguifhed that 
fathers haue moft comfort of the good proofe of 
their fonncs; but mothers haue moft difcomfort of 
their ill proofe, becaufe women haue little difccr- 
ning of vertuc, but of fortune. 

^uiceUt deliBum.quArit dmicitiAm , fed qui alte- 
Yojermomrepctit^ [eferat fcederatos-^ Here caution is 
giucn that reconcilement is better managed by an 
Amncjly and paffing ouer that which is patljthen by 
Apologies and excufations. 

In omni opere bono erit abur^dantiH, vbi autem 
verba funtlflarima^ibi frequenter egejlas : here is 
noted thar words and difcourfe abound mofi, 
where there is idlcnelTe and want, 

Frimm w fua. caufa iufius^fed venit altera pars,^ 
inquiretin e^w^jHereis obferued that in all caufes 
the firfl tale pofrefTcthmuchj infuch fort, that the 
piciudicc thereby wrought will bee hardly rcmo- 

/ ucd 

Thefecond^ooke. i \v 281 

ucd,ezcept fomc abufe or falficie in the Informstion 


Verbs Unguis quip fim^lictA, & ipfa perueffiuAf 
^dintcriora ventris-^ih^xzis difijoguillied that flat- 
tery and iiifmuation which fecmeth fet and artifici- 
al!, finketh n^t farrc,but chat cnrcrcthdccpe,which 
hath riiew of nature^ libertic, and fimplicity. 
- r j : ^ui sra-dit derijsrem^ fpC^fif^^ iniuriam frci',^: 
quiarguit JmfmmUbimacuiAm generAt^ Hcrccauci- 
pnisgiuen how wee render rcprehcnfion to arro- 
gant and fcoracfull natures, whofe manner is to 
cfteeme it for contumely, and accordingly to cc- 
tiirnc it. 

Ddfaficnti eccafionem ^ addattr ei fipteotUy 
Here isdiftinguifhcd the wifcdome brought into 
habit, and that which is but verbal! and fwimming 
onely in conceit ; for the one vpon occafion pre- 
fcntcd is quickned and redoubled; the other is a- 

^uomodo in aquUrefplenderJt vultus prefpicientir 
um^ (iC cor da h^minttm marnfefiafunt praderttibus. 
Hixh the mind of a wife man is compared to a glafle^ 
wherein the Images of all diiierfitie of Natures and 
Cuftorasarcreprcfentedjfrom which reprcfcntati- 
on proceedeth that amplication, 
*> . Sji^f^P^^ />;^«wrrAf meribui apttu erst. 

Thus haue I ftaied fomewhat longer vpon thefe 
fentenccs politique ofSaUmoftf then is agreeable to 
the proportion of an example : leddc with a dcfirc 
to giuc auihoxity to this part of knowledge, which 

Nn I 

aSt Oftheaduancenunt of learning. 

I fiote<iirsdeikicnt by fo excellent aprcfident rand 
hauealfo attended them with briefc obfcruacions, 
AichastOWy vnderftanding, bf!lr no violence to 
thefcnfe, though I know they may bee applied to 
a more diuinc vfe : But it is allowed euen in diuini- 
ty, that fomc interpretations, yeaand fome wri- 
tingSjhaue more of the £4^/f,then others : But takc- 
iftg tkeai a* Inftrudlions lor life, they might haue 
reeeined fei-gc ditcourfe, if I would haue broken 
them andillultratedchcm by diducements and cx- 

N.'i'ther W3$ this in vfe onely with the Hebrews, 
But it is generally to be found in the wifcdomeof 
the mo re ancient Times : that as men found out 
any obferuation that they thought was good for 
life,they would gather it and exprefleir in parable, 
or Aphbrifme, or fable. But for fables they were 
vicegerents and fupplies, where Examples failed ; 
Now that the times abound with hiflbrie, the aimc 
isbetter when the mirke is aliue. And therefore the 
forme of writing which of all others is fitted for 
thirvariable argument of Negotiation and occafi- 
OnSjisthat wliich M dchiauel c\\Qkmk\y znd aptly 
for Gouernment ; namdy dtjcourft vpon Hijlories er 
:Examples» For knowledge drawne frefhly and in 
ourvic^OufcoPparticutafs, khoweth the way beft 
fo piltticiilurs agakie. A'ndit hath much greater life 
forprai^ifej wheb; the iJifcolirfe Vtendeth vpbn 
the-Example^ theft WhehtTifc example attciidcth vp- 
db the difeour fe. For thi? is no point of order as 
1 ic 

it feemeth at firft, but of fubftance. Fof when the 
Example is the ground, being kt downe in tn 
hiftory at large, it is fet downe with all circuraflan- 
ccs : which may foraetimcscontroulc the difcourfc 
thereupon made, and fomctimcs fupply irj as a vcric 
patcerne for adion^wbercas the Examples alledgcd 
for chedifcourfcs rake,are cited fucciD(5lIyjand with- 
out p-^rticularicy, andcarry a fcruileafpedl towards 
the dircourfi',which they are brought ift to make 

good* ;-,:■. ' . . ■':.'- • f^-' , 

But this difference is not aroifiPe to bee remem- 
bred, that as hiftory o^Times is the beft ground 
for difcourfe of Goucrnmcnt, (uchas tS^ashiaud 
hmdlethj fo Hiftorics of Liucs is the moft pro- 
pers for difcourfe of bufincflc is more conuer- 
fant in priiiate Atfiions. Nay^ there is a ground 
of difcourfe for this purpofejfitter then them both, 
which is difcourfe vpon Utters^ fuch as arc wife 
and weightie, as many arc of CUero dd {^tticttm^ 
and others. For letters hauc a great and more par- 
ticular reprefentation of buGncfle, then cither 
CbrenicUs or Li»es, Thus hauc wee fpokcn both of 
the matter end fermeof this part of Ciuile know- 
ledge touchiog NegQCiacion, wt^ich wee note tpb; 

deficient. •;:::1- :-m, -'r^-- - :i\ \'' ^^'>^.,']-\' i. 

Bnc yet there is another part of this part, whicd 
difTereth as much from that whereof we haue (po« 
ken, zsfdftre^v^dfiinSAfen : the oneraouing as i( 
were to thccircumfercncCjihc other to the center .• 
for there » a wifedome of counfell, and agaipc tberc 
j-i. Nni if 


isk wifcdomc or prcffing 2 mans owncfoituncj 
afi'i * iiey doe fomctimes mectjand often feucr . For 
Insnysre wife in their owne waks, thar are vveake 
iorgou^rnmcnr or Counfcli, like Ants which is a 
vviie creature for irfelFcj but very hurtfuilfor the 
garden. This wifcdome the Romanes did take 
much knowledge of, Nam fol faprens ffairh the 
Comicrll Votx) fingitfertunam fihi^ and it grew 
to an a-dagCjF^^f r qtHfqttef&rtund proprht-.and Liuie 
attnbutcrh it to Gate the fii f^j in hoc vire tar^ta ^vis 
anim't (jr inges^^ineraty vt {^ucctwqtte loco naim c£ct^ 
^hi ipfc fortwnam fAclnrus videretur, 

Thh conceit or poddon if it bee too much decla- 
red and profefi^d, hath becne thought a thing im- 
poliiiqucand vnlucky, as was cbfcrued in 7/w^- 
fhem tilt Atherrian -• who hauing done many 
great ftfruices tothe E'brc inhisgoucrnmenrand 
giuiT}g and account thereof to the people as the 
marrncr was, ^\^ conckKle;euery pariicu!ar with 
this CI aufe,^Ahd in this fortune bad no-parr.' And 
ir'cameJRj to paffe that lice neacrprofpcredinany 
fhirighec" toolie m hand afterwards : for this is 
too higli and too arrogant fauouring of that whic5 
JE/(eSiel fakh ofPhdrdch ■: DictS'-fiuuiM ejh meus (jr 
tgofecimemetipfim : or of that which another Pro- 
phet i])C3tclH:TharnrKn offer Sacrifi'ces to their 
n^and/nares, arid rh^t which the Poet exprelTcth^ 

" "^''^^^ Nufica^/tJir:'- ■'[■'-'■[■ ''''—'^''"''' '' 

^'^^otihcfc confidences were eucr vnhallowe€f, 
^ ~ i'uH and' 

Thejecond^ooke. 2S5 

a'nd vnblciTecf. And therefore tKofe ihac were 
great PoUriques indeed cuer afcrjbcd their fuc- 
eeflcs CO their felicicie / and nor to their skill or vcr- 
cue» For fo Sylla furnanicd himfelfe Fcelix^ noc 
KjUagnm. So Ce/rfrfaidco the Maiftcr of the iLip, 
Cafarem portas (^fortun^im eim. 

But ycc neucrtheledl* thcfc Pofinons Fab(r qt^ify. 
fortune fk^jSapiens domiAabitur a fir is: laviavirtuti 
nulla efi 'vU^ and the hke, being taken and vfed as 
(pars io ifsduftry,and noc as ftirops to infolcncy^ra- 
thcr for rcfolurion then for prefumption or out- 
ward declaratioHjhaue been cuer thought found and 
good, and arc(no qu£ftion)i5rjprintcd in the grcateft 
mindcs ; who are fo fenfible of this opinion ,3S they 
can fcarce conrainc it within. As we fee in^Auguflus 
Cxjar (who was rather diucrfe from his vncle, then 
inferior in vert uej how when he dieJjhc dcfired his 
friends about him to gine him a PUu^ite-^ as if hcG 
were coafcienc to himfeJfc that bchadplaiedhis 
part well vpon the Ibge. This part of knowledge 
wee doc report aifo as deficient: not but that it is 
pradifed too much, but it hath not bccne reduced 
to writing. And therefore Icfl it ihould feerac to 
any that it isnotcomprehenfibleby Axiome, it is 
recjuifirc as wc didin the former,tha£ we fee do wnc 
foHie heads or palTagcs of it, ;; r v»^ 

, Wherein it may apcare at the fiift a new and vnl -R'ArrF^rrw^ 
wonted Argument to teach men bow to r^iic and "^fif^^de 
make their fortune, a dodtrinc wherein euery man -^^^^ x 
fcrchancc will bcready to yceld himlclfc a difciple *''^*^' 

J*»J n 3. til! 


iS6 Oftheadumcementofleammg^ 

till he fecih difficultie .* for fortune laycth as hcaiiy 
impofitions as virtue, and ic is as hard and fe uere a 
thing to be a true Folittqtie^zs to be cruely mora^. 
Bat the handling hereof, concerneth learning great- 
ly, both in honour and in fubftance : In honourjbe- 
caufc pragmaticall men m '»y not goe away with an 
opinion that learning is like a Larke that can motinc, 
and fing,and pleafc her fcife, and nothing clfe; but 
may know that fticc holdeth as well of che Haukc 
chat can foare aloft, and canalfodefccnd and ftrike 
vpon the prey. In rubftance,becaufe it is the perfic 
law of enquiry of truth,T^<</ nothing hin tbe'glohc 
ef matter iWhich fhouU mt be Itkemfe in the globe of 
Chryjlatt, or Forme, that is, that there be net any 
thing in being and a(5lion,w'h fliould not be drawnc 
and colleded into contemplation and do^rine : 
Neither doth learning admire or cfteem of this Ar« 
chitedlure of fortune, otherwife then as of an inferi- 
our worke; For no mans fortune can be an end wor- 
thy of his being,& many times the worthieft men do 
abandon their fortune willingly for better refpeds; 
but ncacrtheleire fortune as an organ of vcrtue and 
merit deferueth the confideration. 

Firfl therefore the precept which I concciuc to 
bee mod fummarie^towards the preuailing inform 
tune; is to obtainc that window which OH$m$ts 
did rcquire,who feeing in the frame of mans heart, 
fuch angles and recefTes, found fault there was not 
a window to looke into them: that is, to procure 
good inforroaciohsofpatciculars couching perfons, 


The Jecond'Booke. zSy 

their narures, their defires and cndsjthcir cuftoracs 
and fa(h ions, their hclpcs andadiuntageSjandwhcr- 
by they chiefcly (land; foagsine their weakcncfTcs 
and difaduantages, and where they lye moft open 
and obnoxious, their friends, fadions, and depcn- 
danees; and againc their oppofitcs, enuiers, com" 
pcti:ors,their moods and nvat^.SoU viri moBtsA^i- 
tm^<^ tempore mras-^ their principles, rules, and ob- 
feruations, and the likc; And this notonely of per- 
fonsjbut o factions : what arc on foot from time to 
time ; and how they are condufiedjfauoiircd^oppo- 
fcdj and how they import ; and thelike. Forthe 
knowledge ofprefenc At^ions, is not onclymatc- 
riall in it felfe, but without it alfo, the knowledge of 
perfonsis very erronious: for men change with 
the adions; and whiles they arc in purfuite, they 
are one, and whc» they rerurne to their Nature, 
they are another. Thefe Informations of particu- 
lars, touching perfons and a(5tions, arc as the minor 
propofitions in eucry adiuc fyKogifme, for no ex- 
cellency of obfeniaiionsfwhich arc the maior pro- 
pofitions) can fuflSce to ground a conclufion^if there 
be crrour and miftaking in the minors; 

That this knowledge is poffihle, Sdomsn is our 
furcty who faith, Conftlium in corde viri tdnquam 
dqud profunda J fed vir prudens exhaurittillud : And 
although the knowledge it feife falleth not vndcr 
preccpr,bccaureicisof Indiuiduals, yet ibeinftru- 
ftions for the obtaining of it niay. ^-^ i? Jl n . « 

Wee will begin therefore with this prcceptj, ac- 

288 Of the aduancentent of learning. 

cording to the ancient opinion,that the Sinewcs of 
wifcdome, are flawnefTsof belicfc and diftruft ? 
That more triift bee giuen to Countenances and 
Dicdes, then to words .* and in words, rather to 
fuddainc pafTagfs, and furprizcd words, then to 
fee and purpofed words •• Neither let that bee feared 
which is faidffrofitt mffa fdes^ which is meant of a 
generall outward be.hauiour, andnotof thcpriuatc 
and fubtile motions and labours of the countenance 
and gefturc, which zs^Xicera elegantly fjith, is A' 
mm Unua^thegateofthe Minde ; None more clofc 
then Tybtrimj and yet Tacitus faith of Gallm^ Etc- 
TiimvuUuoffcnfiontm conie^aucrat. So againe no- 
ting the differing Charader and manner of his 
commending Germdnkus And Drufus in xhcSe^idte^ 
he faith, touching his fafliion wherein he carried his 
fpcechof(7fr/»4;?/V/a:^,thiis '.MAgU in (j^cciem ddorm 
nAtisverhiSy quArnvt fenitus fentire crederetur^ but 
of Druftis thus, PAHcioribusfedintentior^(j;'fidu era- 
tione I and in another place fpeaking of this chara- 
<aerof fpecch,wheH he did any thing that was gra- 
tious and popular, he faith. That in other things he 
was velttt eluBAntium verhorum : but then againe, 
Seltttitu loquebatttr qHAndifubHcnim, So that there 
is no fuch artificer of diflimulation : nornofuch 
commanded countenance (vultm iajfus) that can 
feuerfrom a fained tale, (ome of thc(c fafliions, ei- 
ther a more flcight and careleflc fafhion,or more fee 
and formalI,or more tedious and wandring,orcom- 
fning from a man more driJy and hardly. 


M-'chcr ar.^ Ds^des fuch i(Tjred pledges, as that 
they may be criiltJ W;choai: a iudicious confiJera- 
tionohhcrirroagi tudi and narurcj Fyar^Ji^im 
f aritisfidem praflrutt^ vt maiore emolumento fall At : 
and raelcd:a irhinkerhhimtelfcvponthe point to 
be bought and(ovild, when he is better vfcd then he 
he Wis wont to be without manifeft caufe.For fmall 
fiui )urs, they doe but lullmena fleepe5boch asto 
Cxation, and as to Indujiry^ and are as Demofihems 
call-th theai, Aliment a foe or di a. So againe we (ec, 
bow fal(e the nature of forae deeds are in that parti- 
cular, which MutUnus pra^tiied vpon Antonius ?rL 
mf(s, wpon that hollow & vnf jithf uU reco.icilemcnr, 
which was made betwecne them : wherupon Mtt^ 
t/dfj/s^sadmncedmifiy of the (ncnds oi A»t&mM : 
Simul amicts eius prafciiar4s^ tribimAtus Urgitur i 
wherein vndcr pretence to ftrengthenhim,hcd d 
dcfolarc hitn, and won from him his dcpcndanccs. 

As for words{x.\\ov\^ they be like waters to Phy- 
fitians, full of flattery and vnccrtainty) yet they are 
notcobedcfpifcd,fpecialIy with the aduaniageof 
paflion and aflFe<f^ion. For fo we fee Tyherius vpon a 
ftingingand inccnfing fpecch o^ Agrifpina, came a 
ftep forth of his diflRmulation when he faid,r^« are 
hurt ^becaufe you ds ftpt raigne'^ni which Tdcitushith^ 
Auditd hdc, raram occttlti peCferis voeem elicnere : 
correpsamquA Grxc& vtrft admonuit ; ideo Udi qiii4 
nort rcgnaret.hnd therefore the Poet doth elegantly 
callpad&onS) tortures, thacvrge men to confeffe 
their fecrct^. Vino tortus ^ m, 

Oo Aid 

%po Of the nduancementofharning. 

And experience (liewcth,thcre arc few men fo true 
rothcmfelues, and fofetledj but that romctimes 
vponhcate, fomctimes vpon braucry, fomtimes 
vpon kindcnelTe, fomctimes vpon trouble of minde 
andweaknede, they open themfchiesj fpecijlly if 
they be puttoitwith a counter-dilliraulacion, ac- 
cording to the prouerbof Spain, Di mentira^^faca^ 
r^vsrdad:Tella I'^e^andjindAtruih, 

As for the knowing of men, which is ar fecond 
hind from Reports .* mens wcikencfTe and faulrs are 
heft knovvnc from their Eicmics- their vertueSj 
and abilities from their friends; their cuftomes and 
Times from their feriiants ; their conccirs and 
opinions from their fjmih'ar friends, with whona 
they di(courfc moft: General! fame is light, and the 
opinions concciued by fupcriors or cqualls are dc. 
ccirfull; for to fuch, men are more masked, Verior 
fam M e domejl cis em an at. 

But the io'jndcft djfclofing and expounding of 
Qaenis, by their natures and ends, wherein the 
wcakcftfbrtof men arc btft imcrpreccd by their 
Nature s, and t be w i fe fl by their ends. For itwas 
bo(h pleafantly and wifely faid (though I thinke 
very vntro^y) ^y^ Nunrio cfthe Pope, return^ 
ing from a cerraine Nation, v;herchec fcrucd aj 
I^id^it :■ whofc opinion being asked touching the 
appointment of one to gbe in his place, hec wiflied 
thar in any cafe they did "not fend onetl^at was 
uooWifc ': beraufe nro very wife mim would cuer 
ama^iae, whaithej^m that country were Jike to 
ml^ ' docs 

. ^- Upefecond ^oo^e* ipi 

doc: Andcertainely, icisin crrour frequent, for 
men co flj ooc oucr^and ro fuppofe deeper ends, and 
more compaflfc rf^achss then are : the Italian pro- 
ucrbe being elcganr, and br the moft part txue, 

D f daxari^ di fenno^e difede, 
C'ii\ manes £hen$n4:redi: 

There is commonly lefTe mony,leflre wifcdome,and 
leiTe goad £jirh- rhcn men doe accompt vpon ; 

But Princes vpon a farre other reafon arc beft in- 
tcrpreccd by their natures, and priuatc perfons 
by their ends .• For Princes being at the toppe 
of hurnane defires, they haue tor the moflpait 
no particular ends, whereto they afpire .• by 
di/lincc from which a man might takemeafure and 
icAz oi the reft of their adions and defires : which 
is one of the caufesthat makcth their hearts more 
infcrutable : Neither is it (ufficient to informeour 
fclues in mens ends and natures of the variety of 
ihem onely, but alfo of the predominancy what 
humour rcigneth raoft, and what end is principally 
fought. For (o we fee,when Tigellinm faw himfelfc 
out dripped by Petraniw Turpilianm in N cross 
humours of pleasures , Metus eius rimatur^ he 
wrought vpon Nertes fears, whereby he brackc 
the other neck. i bn£?r:5»?Iot>'3 

Bui to all this pare ofEnquiric, tbemoft cof».^ 
pcndiouf way re«cth in three things: The firft to 
haue general! acquaintaace and inwardnefle with 

Oo a chofe 

2pi Of the aduancement of learning. 

tbofe which haue gencrall acquaintance, and looke 
mo ft into the world : and (pecially according to 
the diuerficie ot Bufinefle, and the diucrfity of per • 
fons, to haue priuacieand conuerfation with fomc 
one friend at Icaft which is pcrfit and well intelli- 
genccd in eoery feucrall kinde» The lecond is to 
kecpe a good mediocrity in liberticof fpecch, end 
fecrecy :in mod thirgs libertyj fccrecy where itim- 
porteth : for liberty of fpccch Inuiteth and prouo- 
keth liberty to bee vied sgaine : and fo bringcth 
oiucb to a mans knowledge : and fecrccie on the o- 
thcr fide induccth truft and inwardncfic. The laft is 
the reducing ofamansfelfe to this watchful! and 
ferene habice,astomake accompt and purpofe m^ 
cuery conference and adion^afwell to obfcrue as to 
ad. For as Epi^etus would haue a Philofopheria' 
euery particular adion to fay to himfelfe, Et h^cvo-^ 
h\(^ctiAm injiiiutum Jeruare : fo a politique man^ 
in cuery thing fhouidfsy tohimfclfe; Et hccvolo^ ac 
etUm ai/qnid addijcerd I haue (Vaicd thclongcr vp* 
on this precept oi obtaining good 
caufe ic isa mrine part by it felt'c, which anfwereth 
to all the reft. Bjt aboue ail rhings.Caution muft be 
taken,^that raen haue agood ftay and hold of rhen> 
fdueSy and that tbjs mi/ch knowing doc not draw 
on much medlin^rFnr nothing is more vnfortunarc 
then light and rjfh inrcrraeddlinginn3any.mattcrs& 
So that this variety of knowledge tendeth in con- 
dufiitmbuf ©ncly to tbis,to make a better and freer 
$lK>i(c o^tho{ca(^ioRS9 which any concern vs^ and 
5iofi3 $ oO to* 

tb conda-^ ihcm iWiith the leflb en;or ^nd the more 
dcxrerity. ■ "'r :■-■ ■ n 'A ■'^{ ■..'.- - i-^ ^?.r-/ 
; The fccond precept concerning this knowledge 
isfor men to take good information touching their 
owne perfoQS and well to vndeiftand thcmlclucs : 
knowing that as S. lames fairb, chough men Jpoke 
oft in a gla/Te, yet iheydoc fodainly forget them* 
felucs, wherein 2s the diuine giaflcf.sthe word of 
God/othc politique glafFcis the ftatcof the world, 
or times wherein wc hue ; In the which we are to 
behold our lei ucs. rjit ■,<>:> 

For men ought to tskc a^ vnparriallview of their 
owne abilities and vcrtucs ; & againe of their wants 
and impediments; accounting thefewithihejoo.ft^, 
and thofeotheV with ihe leaft, and from this, view 
and examinatioa tpframe the C9pfideratio5$ >fo|r 

lowing*. , ,,/ ,-C^^^<^«V^.r.n -,,rf >..,:^^_, .-,.i^.,_>; .,^- 

.■:-:Firilto condder bow the conftitution.of jhettj 
nature forceth with the gentrall ftaie of the times : 
which if they finde agreeable and fir, then in all 
things to giue thcn^felucs more fcope and liberty, 
buriifdiflFering and diflbnaiitj then in the whole 
courfe of their life to b^ more clofe, retired and rc- 
ferucd : as we fee in 7)^m/^,\\ ho was newer kene 
at a play : and came not into the Senate in iz.of his 
laft yearcs : whereas Auguflus Cafar Kucd euer in 
iBcni ey :s, which Tacit us optpmf^tJ^ ,.. 
Alia Ty herip morum via^^ -'}.'■--. ' \ r. • 

Secondly to coDfidtr howihcir INafiirc fortetb 
wichprof^ifions and couclesof life, ^ accordingly 

Oo aw 

ap4 Of the admnctmtnt of learning. 

to make clecfiio if they be free,& it make 
the departure at the firft opportunity : as wee fee 
was done by Duke Valentine^ that was defigncd by 
his fathcrtoafacerdbtall profeflion, butqtirtedic 
foone after in regard of his parts and inclinatioa,be- 
ing Aich ncuerthelcfle, as a man cannor tell well 
whether they were worfc for a Prince or for a 

Thirdly to confider how they fort with tho/e 
whom they are like to haue Competitors and 
Concurrents, and to take that ceurfc wherein 
there is moft foliriide, and themfclucs liJcc to bee 
moft eminent r as Cdfarlulius did^who at fiift was 
an Orator or Pleader, but when hee faw the excel- 
Icncie of Cicero, Hertenfttts, CatnltUy and others 
for eloquence, and law there was no man ofrepata- 
tion for the warrcs but PompeitHy vpon whom the 
State Was forced to relic; he forfooke his courfe be- 
gun toward a ciuile and popular greatncfle; and 
transferred his deflgnes to a marfhall greatnefle- 
•yFourthly in the choifc ©f their friends, and de- 
pendances, to proceed according to the Compofi- 
tion of their owne nature, as we may fee in C^e/jr, 
all whofc friends & followers were men a<3iue and 
effe6luaHjbut not folemnc or of reputation. 

Fiftlytotakefpeciall heed how they guide tbcm- 
felues by examples,in thinking they can doe as (hey 
fee others doe : whereas perhaps their natures and 
carriages arcftrrc differing; in which Error, it fc c- 
iQCth P0m^j was, of whom Cittro faith, that hee 


was wont often to (ay : Syf/d pptuit-^Ege ti9Hp9t€r9t 
wherein he was much abufed, the natures and pro- 
ceedings of himrelfc and his example, being the vn- 
likefl: in the world,thc onie being feircc, vioJent, and 
preffing the^a<^jrhe o&hcr foIemne,and full of Ma- 
icfty and crrcumilance, and therefore the Icffecf- 

But this precept touching the politicke know« 
ledge ofourfelues,hath many other branches whcr- 
Upon we cannot infift. :«<^*^ biuisirvj •^c^.^q 

Next to the well vndcrftandif/g &difcerningof 
a mans fcifc, there folio weth the well opening and 
reuealing a mans fclf Cjwherei?! we fee nothing more 
vfu^ll then for the more able man to make the Icffc 
fhew. For there is a great aduanrage in the well 
letting forth of a mans vcrtucs, fortunes, merits, 
and agaioe in the artificial] coueringofa mans weak- 
nefTes, dcfe<2s, difgraces, flaying vpon the one, Ai- 
ding from the othcr,cherifhing the one by circum- 
flances, gracing the other by expofition, and the 
likej wherein wee fee what Tachus faich of (jji uuA" 
nus^ who wdsthegrcateft politique ofhis time, 
Ominttm qua dixetAtfcceratque^drte qnadam ofienta- 
tor: which rcquircth indeed fon)carte,lcaft it turnc 
tedifflusaid arrogant, but yet fo, as oftcntation 
fthough it bcco the firff degree of vanity) feemetff 
tomerathr a vice in M nncrs, then in Policy^for 
as it isfat J,7#W45?^f CAlumnUre.jeper aliqmd ^aref^" 
S\) except it be in a ridiculous degree of deformit/l 
Aud4^tr $cymd$ufim^erAliquidhsra. Pdr ft will 


<3tp^ Of the Mi^mtemmt of learning. 

(licke with the more ignorant and infcriour fore of 
men,ihough men of wiledome and ranke d(>e fmile 
at land ds-fpifeic, and yet the authority won nc 
with many,doth counierwailc thcdifdaincof 2 few. 
But ifit be carried with decency and goucrnmcnr, 
i3$ witha niiturall pleafancand ingenious fafhioD,or 
at times when it is mixt with fome perill snd vn- 
iafety,(as in Military perfonsjorat times when o- 
ehers arc molt enuiedj or with cafie and carelefTe 
pafTage to it and from it, wiifaouf dwelling too 
iong, pr being too (crious ; or with an cquall free* 
dome of taxing a mans ftlfc, afwell as gracing him- 
felfe, or by occafion of repelling or putting downe 
others iniurie or infolencie .* It doth greatly adde co 
reputation* and furely not afiw folide natures, 
that want this ventofity, and cannot failc \x\ the 
height of the windcs, arc not withouc forac 
prciudiceanddifadu: nrageby their moderation. 

But for thefc flour ifties and inhanfmrnts ofvcr- 
tue, as they are not perchance vnneccfTary ; So it 
is at leaft, neccfTary that vertuc be not difvalewtd 
and imbafed vnder the iuft price : which is done 
in three manners^By ofFering,and obtruding a mans 
fclfej wherein men thinke he is rewarded when hec 
is accepted. By doing too much, which will not 
giuc that which is well done leaue to fettle; and in 
the end inducethfaciety ; and by finding too foone 
the fruit of a mans vertue, in commendation, ap- 
plaufe^ honour, lauour,whereia ifamanbe pleafed 
with aikdc>lechim heare what is truly iatdyCa/te 

ne infuetus rebtsi mAhrihus *uideAris^fi h^c U res fori 

^; Bucfccoiieringbfsdefea^is'^no reffe-ittipor-' 
rtb(?c,thchihe v;3lucingof good parts, which may. 
bedoflehfeewife in thrcie manners, by Crf«//W, by 
Colour, 2nd by CorifdcUce, Cmtion is^ when men doc 
ingmiouily 2ni\ difcrcecly avoyd to bee put into 
thofc things for which they arc not proper; where- 
as tonrrariwile bold and vnquiet fpirts will thruft 
thcrafclues inrdmuters wirhbuc diference, and fo 
publidi and proclaime all their wints • Cdkur'vs 
Ivhen men make a way fo'r tbemielucs, to haue a 
conftrudiion made of their faults, or wants ; as 
proceeding from a better caiifc, or intended ^at 
fome other purpofc : for of the one, 'k is^jwclfe 
Md^rA v,i ^^'-s'. mu- ' ;iql-d br.c jiohdgh uidi 

/ t M tdptUtltiH^Uitimftifyli1mmeB90h^^^ 

And therefore whatfoeuer want a man hath,hemuft 
fee, that hee pretend the vertuc that (badowethit^ 
as if he be £>i*/7,hc muft z^^ GrMmtie^ if a Cfiwdnii- 
OHlUfteJfe, andfo the reft': forthe fccond, a mart 
iriuftmme forileprobablceaufewhy heihouldnoc 
doc his beft,and why he (hould dtffemblc bis abili- 
ties: and for that purpofe muft vfc to dilfemblc 
thofc labilities, which are notorious in him to giue 
(Colour thkt his true wants arc but induftries and dJ(- 
fimulations : iox Confidence it is the laft, but fti- 

reftccricclie r namely todrprciTcand iecnKtoda- 
i:\Qnkj^- Pp fpjig 

t5^§ Ofthe ^^^dt^mtf^of^arning. 

IptTc wb-^focuer a mf^ixaiJQQtattaiiiCiQbrf ruing 
the good principle of the McrcJj3nt$,who fndeauor 
tajraifo'tbc p/^^je (^xhj^^j^commg^m^^MA f f> 
beatc .4own the psricc of otjjcrs. But th^fc is a copfi- 
df nc^etb^t^pafkth thisiathef ^which is toi face out 21 
roans owfi#:<iek=<5is, infcrmirigtbconcciuc that he 
is bf ftjn thafe things whctin he is fjjlingj and to 
hclpe thatagaioe^to leetpe on the other fide that he 
haiKleaft opinion of hiip/elfejihthofc things vvher- 
ioihq-is be%likeas we (hjU fee it ct>mniQjnly in Pa- 
et$jCl>at if they fb?wtheir{Vf rfes, andyoutxccpr to 
an^>th^y wilt hfJ^kdUhf^-^Jf^e^^ofi them more lahy 
tiftnoffy of t^>^rcfii^v\^ prcfeiitly wil fcem to di/ablc^ 
and ^\^^&iKMt\ {fr»i ithtr ly?tii\v^^{bcy kna\y)Wei 
chqvgia !» 0« t^A b^ftiin the n:ijgibc?c<B^iC.abotiealim 
this righting and helping of a m^ns (elfe in hisovyj^ 
carriige,he ro irt take heed he fliew not himfelfe dif. 
mantlcd-.^Bdi^;fp0fedi*0/4NEM'nipai?d ijiiur^ by too 
much dulccn fP-jgoodneflTe, and hcrh'ty of naturc,^^ 
fem iJie^ iPrtie ifcktkks of liberry , fpiiFir,; and edgg. 
Whi^i«il!idrf>f^P?rified cwiage \witha peady 'Ecfauf^ 
Jlfe^.Ql!4>«i3«ir'^ieJl^fr.o<©'ie^/ ^oortj raes efi^e- 
ff^i+ty itj>^fs^, rvpon pi?ia;by: roinr?^h3T4n \^h^ 
pgrf^tii ofjf«^t^ejb)4ii iceMefefiic<fCed^t|i wif ij-§ood[ 
fljlkttyi.^ -;']ir;Vt ■■ :-':.< ;;; - -:'• . :-. , : •' ' ■■, 
-' ! A'><^thirrjpj?t.ccpt'ofrhi^lio^wile.dg^is |?y-^lIpon. 
Sblf ^i^k^iiotir^tttfrAB^f fi)f .n=ji|ii4^ c»>tes :4>}iif)ti 
flndbbcdiv^r 10 Oe^afici«f = foD nvthiog: hifjde-?^;^^ 

sliql ?; ^ * <jecanons 


occafidns turne, and therefore to Ckt^v^<im Link 
raaketh fuch an Aidhttcift of' fortime, b€^^toh, 
that hec> had^ HtrfmiU In^nimm n «o<i th^fc-^f it 
comnicih^^Iw: thefe gtaue fd^ronq mfs^xt^^fiich 

mre&^aw oiorcxiignicic rheh fos^icity^B jtin fonib' 
it is nature robtfunicwhat vifcous aridlnwrapp^^J^ 
arid nor eaGc to turner Ini3nic«isa<?o«<C€itv tf^af 
is :alfnoftaniiture, which.' is' ihat:me^^^fi"^lia^<J[y 
nijks Lheinfelues -beteede that ^Hsy '^sbght td 
change rhcxc coo rfe,. wtfcn thcy^haiie foiSrS gob^ 
by itinfon?ieresrpcriencc. For J»/4m>ji^f/n0ret^ 
wifely how FAhus^tiMaximtu would hatttfbf^nc 
Ccoap^rizmg ftiH,3CGording td bis-oixi^biafl^, whcr? 
the nature oi^c ivar was ^kttri^^znd fe^cripcfi bbf 
purfOitc;' In fo^e other itisw^Atof p4)intatiipc.- 
Hecrition in.their iudgcmcnt,rhtf thC3r4le.t^otd^Cl 
ccxne when rhtngs h3ue*^i?iod,b'ucc0m<r fn^ too 
late after rlwoccaiioTi/ As 2>?wtf/^^^; compareth 
the people o^<^thtm racounrrey fellowes, wbcrt 
^hcy pliy in a fence- fcboolc, that if th<;y haodii 
blO'W then they remoue their weapon to that 
warde^and not before : lofomeother it is aloath^ 
nefletoleefe labours palTJd^and a t^onccirthst rhcy 
can bring abot»t occafions to their plie^ & yet in the 
cn<J,wh€ theylccnoothcpwflnedy, t^ey conic t6 
H.with diladuaftrage,asrjj»5'Ww«f t\\%\ gaiie for tlj^ 
third part of ^/^;iiW/ book* the tre^bJ^-f^f-jWhF^ 
Hiightairficfthauebadallt^ftcjfbrfhe^n^ple. %jt 
ipra:wiiicfoeucr;|oot or -dibfc this Rcftiaaicflc rf 
^f Pp a mind 

^ Ofthe^dtMtme^^f^arnwg. 

mind proccedcth,it isa thing moft prciudf cial,& no- 
thing itmore politikc ih6 to makc.the wheels of our 
inindc^ccntfike&vokiblcwtb the wheels of fortune. 
, Anothef precept of tliis knowlcdgcwhich hath 
feme afHnity with that we laft fpakeofjbut with dif- 
fcrcncCjis that which is well eiipicffcdjatuaece^e 
Dtf//^,thatraen doe not only tufflc with the occafi- 
on$,t lit alfotunnc with the occaiionSjand not ftrahi 
their credit or ftrength to ouer Jiard or cxrreamc 
points:, but choofe in their anions that which is 
pafTablcjfor this wi-I prefcruc me from foile,not oc- 
cupy thcnitoo much about one niacter^win opini- 
on olnioderarion^plcare the moft, and make a fliew 
of a pcrpetitill fxseliciric iu ail they vndcrrake, 
whict>jC&fioost but ifetghcily increafe reputation. 

Afiocher part of this knowledge feemcih to haue; 
fome repugnancy with the former two, but not as I 
vndicrftandifj.andic is that which i^tmcfihiaes vtre- 
reth in high tearraes ; B$ quemadmodam recent urn 
iJlyVP extritum ducat Imperaior:fic^acordatis'viris 
ftsipfy dttCfMdte^ vt qH£ iffis vidfmur^ tagerantur^ 
cJ* ne» ipft euentu4 perfcquhogantur : For if wee ob- 
fcruejWcihallfinaiwodifieruig kinds of fufficicn- 
cy, in managing p[l)ufirK:(re : fonae can make vfeof 
occafions aptly and dcxceroiifly, but plot little ? 
fbmc cap vrge and piirfoe their owne plots well, but 
cannot accomm<idate noi take in r cither of whkb 
is vfty ynpcrfitwi{hout«cheothcr, V i j: ; i 
- ; Aiviyierpart of this knowledge «tHc rofafertfiitg 
Igopd mc^iPt^Tityi^^^^^cI^^^giO^ nociied^ri}]g 

V T^hefecond^ooke. joi 

a mans fclfe, for although depth of fccrecy, and 
making way {quAlisefi via naniiin Marij which the 
^Ffcnsh caliech Seurdss Me^ees^v^hcn men let things 
in worke without opening thcm(clucs 2cal!}be 
fomecimcs borh profperous and admirable : yet 
many times DifimuUtio err ores parity qui dipmuU^ 
toremipfum iHdqucAtit, And chercfore wcfec the 
great. ft poliriques haue in a natural! and free man- 
ner pfofeflTcd iheir dcfircs rather then bccnc refcr- 
ucd,and difguifed in tlKim. For fo wee fee thar 
Lttciui SySa ma ic a kinde of profcffion , T/fjt hee 
Vfifhed all men happj $r vnhappj^ at thej fi§od hU 
friends Of enemies. So C^fAr^ when hcc went fir/l 
into (/i«r/,madcnafcruplc toprofeffc, TfjAthe had 
rather he prfi in a village ^ then fecosd at Romi» So 
againeas (aofneas he hadbcgunnc thewarre, wee 
fee what Cicero faith of him,, \^lter /'nKariing of 
Cafar) nsn recufat^Jed qaodam modofoflulatt vt (vt 
eji) fie appelUtar Tjr annus . So wee may fee in a 
Letter of Cicero to ^ittcm^ that K^ugufisis djefar 
inhis very entrance into affaires, when hee was a 
dearling of the Senate, yet in his haranges to the 
People, would fweare, lia parentU honores confc^ 
qm liceaty (which was nolcflTt; ih^n the Tyranny^ 
faue that to hclpe it, hec would ftrctch foorth 
his hand towards a Status oJCAfars, the which 
w^8 cre(5icd in the- fame plice .'whereat many 
men laughed and wqadrcdand faid> Is it poflibk } 
OF, Didyou eiicr hcarc the like J;at(iis f and "yrt 
(bought face fQcant n<^hurt,bee]4i^i,tifp {li^nd^ 

Pp 3 Igmfy 

^©1 Of the d^i^MCtmentofharmng. 

fomcly and mgen tnjfly, and all thefe were prof, 
perous, whereas Pomfcf who tended to the fame 
ends, but in a more tiarkc ^d diiTembling manner, 
as Tdcitmimh of him, Occultiornen metier f wher» 
in Salufl concurrt th, oreproboi animo inuerecunds^ 

made it his dfignc by infinite fecret Engines, to 
caftriic ftite into an sbr>lare Anarchy and confuii- 
6n, th'it t^ic ftate might caft it (elfe into his Armes 
for nccefHry and prote(5lionj and fd the ifoueraigne 
power bee put vpcn him, and hcc netierfeenein 
it : and when hee had brought it (as he though rj 
to that point, when hee was cbofen Con{uUy a^w* 
as neuer any wasj yet hee could make no great 
matter of it, becaufe men vnderftood him not ; 
but was fainein the end, to goc the beaten tracks 
of getting Armes into his hands, t>y colour of 
the doubt oi Cafrrs defignes .-^(o tedious, cafuall^ 
and vnforrunatc are thefe decpe*diflimulations, 
whereof it feemcth Tacitn^ made this iudgcment; 
that they were a cunning ofaninferiour forme in 
regird of true policy, att ibuting the one to k^u. 
gupusj the other toTiberim^ where fpeaJicing of Z/- 
#/V, tie faith : Et cum artibus mariti ftmHlatUne filij 
he/je compe/tta'/or furely the cohtinuall habite Of dil- 
fimulacion is but a weakcand fluggifh cunning, and 
notg;reatly poIitique;^; ^ ^^ <^^^;f ^5 vnt.i «ri 

' \^nother precept if i^is Ar^bittf<^ure 6*f Wot- 
^bric, if, to aceuftomc our minds to iudge dfthc 
jrop(;irtiba or valew of things, as th«y coaduce,aiid 
are ittiatttiiilit^ oar paf cicular ends, andthat to doe 

■~ fub- 

rabftantially and not fuperfieially. For wee (hall 
findc the Logicall part (as I miy rearme ir; of 
fomc mens romder good, bur the Mathcmatkall 
patt erroneous, that isj they can wcH iudge of con- 
iequciices, but not of proportions and compiri- 
fon, prefif rising things of iVicw and krtxc before 
things of (ubftancc and effcdl. So fome fill in loiic 
with acccfle to Princes^ others with popular fame 
and applaufe, fuppofing fhcy arc things of great 
purchafc^w'hcn ih rtvany Giles they arc but mattefi 
Qi Enuy,paiH, and I nft pediment. ^ . " i ' ' • nT 
^. So fonie meafur^ tilings according lo the I«i 
bour and difficulty, or affiduity, which are fpent af* 
bout themj and if they bee cuer mouing^ 
th.1t they raafi> heeds aduance 2?5d pfocecde> a$ 
C^rfaich ina defpifing maTiner oicato x)ikh' 
cond-, whcnhee dtfcriberh howlabofiousandift- 
dcfatigablehe was tono great pufpofe ; Hae^mnU 
magifftu dn a^ebat So in naoft things men are read}? 
to aburethemfducs in thinking ihe grcatcft means 
lobe beftj when it flfwuld Iw^thc Fateft* ^ : • 

:! As;fbT tftir true mar(b idling of mc^g pArftiktfS t6'^ 
wardsthcirfortune^astaeyaremoreor kife matc- 
riall, i hold them to ftand thus . Firft the amend- 
ment of their owne Minds.For the Remotie of ht 
Impediments of the, mind will foonei^cleare c4ie 
pafTagcs of fortone, thdnifhe obtain ir>gf(ftrtlifie«e»ill 
remouethe impediments of the mind. IhTec<«9i 
place I fct do^ne trcalch afld m^aties, whieh T 
knovrmoftfflcnwouklbaue placettfiiA ^b^aofe 


5^04. Of the aduancement of learning. 

or the general! vfc which it bcareth towards all va- 
rietic of occafion$. But that opinion I ir-aycoa- 
demnc with like rcafo zsMachiau€ldoih that others 
that monies were the fincws of the warrcs, whtrc- 
as Cfaithhej thefinews of the warresare the finrws 
of mens Artncs, that is,'i valiant, populous and Mi- 
litary Nation .• and he voucheth aptly the authori- 
ty of 5^/^^, who when Cr^yi^fhe wed him hisrrea- 
fury of gold, faid to him, that ifanothercame that 
had better Ii:*n, he would be Maiflcrof his Gold, 
In like manner it may be truly affirmcd,that it is not 
monies that arc the finewes of fortune, but it is the 
(inewes and ftccle of mens Miodes , Wit, Cou- 
rage, Audacity, Rcfolution, Temper, Induftry,and 
the li^cc : In third place I fct downe Reputation, be? 
caufei of the peremptory Tides & Currants it hathj 
which ii they bee not taken in their due time, 
are feldomc r ecouered, it being extrearae hard to 
plaic an after-game of reputation. And laftly, I 
place honour, which is more eafily wonne by any 
oftheothcrthrce^ much more by all, theoany of 
them can bee purchafed by honour. To conclude 
this precept, as there is order and priority in Mat- 
ter, fo is there in,Time, the prepoftcrous placing 
whereof i# one of the coromoneft Errers : while 
ipen fly to tbf it ^nds when they fhould intend their 
jjeginningf : and doc not take things in order 0? 
time a? they come on, but marfhallthcm according 
to greatnefk,and not according ro inflanccnor ob- 
fcruiog the gQ9d precept ^^i ntmt infidt dgsmta, 
io Anucher 

. Another preceptof this knowledge, is not to 
imbrace any marters, which doe occupie too great a 
quantity of tirae,buc to, hauctjiat founding in a mans 
eares, ^- _ . .-. /'., .,: u,.,r: .,.» . . 

Sedfugitintereii^ftigiikreparaiik tempu4^^nd 
that is tnc caufc why ihofe which take their courfc 
of rlfing by profeiTions of Burden, asLiwicfS, Ora- 
tors, pjincfullDiiiincs, and the like, arc not com- 
monly io poHrique for their ownc fortunes, orhe.r- 
wile then ;n their ordinary way, becaufe thcj|_W2nt 
time CO IcarneparticulaxSjtowaitoccafions, ^nd^ra^ 

deuifc plots. ;'j ^^f 

Another precept of this knowledge is to imitate 
nature which doth nothing in vaine, which (ur?ly a 
man miy doe, if he doc weJI interlace his bufinefle, 
and bend not his mind too much vpon that which 
he principally intendcth.For a man ought incucry 
particular a^ion, fo to carry the motions of his 
mind, & fo to haue one thing vnder anothcrjas if he 
canot hauc that he /cckcth in the, b^ft di'grecjyettb 
haue it in a fecondjOr fo in a third, & if htr can hauc 
no part of that which he purpofcd, yejt to turne the 
vfeof itto (omwhatclfe, & lihc cannot make any 
thing of it for the prcfent,yct to m-ke ic as a lecd of 
fbmwhat in time to come, & if he can contri.ue no 
effed or fubftace from it,yet to wifi fomc good ^pi- 
nion by it,or thclike.; fo that he (hold cxawi account 
of hitnfelfe of cuery adion,to" reape Tohiwh;ir,^h^ 
nottOjftand^m32cd &confiifedif he ^a;I(?of thatJic 
bhic£y meant .-for nochingismore itDpohtikc'ttica 

^o^ Of the aduancementef learning. 

to sijind ai5liom whdlly on^ by one. For he that 
doth fojlccfeth infinite occafions which interuene, 
and arc many times more proper and propitious 
for fomewhaCjthat he fhall necde afterwards, then 
for that which he vrgeth for the prefcnfjind there- 
fore men muftbeperfit in that rule : Hm oportet 
fAcere^ ^ iSa non emitter e. 

Another precept of this knowledge isjnot to in- 
gage a mans fclfe pcrempe orily in any thing,though 
itfcemcnot liable to accident, but cuer to hauea 
#indavvtoflieoutat, ora way to retyrej follow- 
ing the wiicdome in the ancient fable, of the two 
frogs, which confulted when their plafh was drie, 
whither they (hould goc / and the one raoued to 
goe downe into a pit becaufe it was not likely the 
water would dry there, but the other anfwered-, 
Trttfj but if it doe^ bcxfijhaUwe get out againe t 

Another precept ot ihij knowledge, is, thatan- 
cient precept of 5/W^ conftrued not to any point of 
perfidiaufnefrejbutonely t» cautionand moderati- 
on,-^^ a;fta tanifHam inimicmfuturHi^i^ cdi tauquam 
amaturm : For it vtrerly bctraicthallviility, for 
men to imbarquc thcnifcluestoo far into vnfor- 
tunatc friendfliips, iroublefome fplecns, and chil^ 
diih and humorous enuies or az^mulations. 

But I continue this beyond the meafure of an ex- 
ample, led, becaufe I would not haue fuch know- 
IcdgeJ^whiehl note as deficient jco be thought things 
Imaginatiiie^ or in the aire- oran dbferaation or 
t^ antich madeo&but things of bulke and maife: 


Thefecond TBooke. 507 

whereof an end is hardU€tinade,theateginning.rc 
mad bee likcwifc conceiued that in thefe points 
which I mention and fct downc,Tlicjrarcfarre from 
complete tradatcs of them ? but onely as fmali 
pccces forpattcrnes: And lafl!y,nomannuppcfe 
will chinke, that I raeane fortunes arc not obtained 
without all this adoc; For I know they come cum- 
bling into fomc mens lappes, and a number obtainc 
^ood fortunes by diligence, inapiiineway.* Little 
intermedling .* and keeping chemfclues from groile 

But 3S Cicero when he fttteth downe an ided of a 
perfit Orator, doth not meanc that cuery pleader 
(bould be ruch;and fo like wife, when a Prince on 
Courtier hath b en defcribcd by fuch as haue hand- 
led thoic fubicds.the mould hath \kd to be made 
according to the perfedion of the Arte, and not ac- 
cording to common praiStifc.-So I vnderftld ic,rhac 
it ought ro be done in the defcription of a ?olitiquc 
man : I mcane politique for his ownc fortune. 

But it muft be rcmerobrcd all this while, that the 
precepts which wc haue fet downe,arc of that kind 
whicn may be counted and called Bon^ Artes^ziiot 
euillarts, if a man would fetdownc for himfelfe 
th It principle oiMAehianeH : Thdt a mdnfeek not t$ 
Att4i»e vertue it [elfe : But the appear anct 0nlj tberof, 
bccdufe the credit efveriueiia he he, hut thevfe of 
it ts cumher: or that other of hfs principles . Thst hi 
frefttppofe^ that men are not fitly tP he vfr ought othef" 
wife hm hjfun^^ there/on that he feck to bant eiurf 

3 08 Ofthe^ aduancement of learning. 

ma» obnoxious Jdv:^^^ in Preigh\ which the Italians 
call fcminar Jfifie^to fowe xhorncs ; or that oih ft 
principle contained in the vcrfe which Cicero citefh 
cadant amici, dummodo Inimici tntercidant^ as the 
7V/«»K-WJ which loldcucry one to other the Hues 
of their triends for the deaths oi their enemies : or 
that oth:r proteftation of L. Cattlina to fcr on fire 
and trouble ft ifes,to the end to filh in droumy wa- 
ters, snd to vnvvrap their fortunes. Ego fi quid in 
fortuniimeii txcttatum fit incendinm^ id non aqttA 
fedruinarefitnguam-i oribar odicr principle ^/"Zy. 
ra»dtr,That chrldreare to hs deceiHedtvith- comfit s^(^ 
»^^;2 3'/;/^^/^fiJ, andtheiikecuill andcorrupr pofi- 
tions,whereof (as inalhhingsj there are niore in 
nurHberthcnofthe good: Certainly with thefc 
difpenfations from the lavvcs of charity and intcgii- 
tyjthe preflingof a msns fort une^mayiye more hafty 
and compendious. Bui wis in life, as it is in waic5. 
The fhortefl way is ccHimonly the fowk ft,& furely 
thcfairerw.iy is not much about. ::. 

But men if they be in their ownepowcfjand doe 
beareandfuftaincrhemfelufs,arjdbce notcaried a- 
waywith awhirlewinde or tempcft of ambition.' 
ought io the purfuite oftheirovvne fortLne,!ofee 
before theiscies, not only thatgencrsll Map of the 
v^tl^frat all things an vamty (^ vtxatuw^ffftrU^ 
fayt many other more particular Cirds i&diro<5^i. 
•ns, chiefly thar, That Being without w-^ll bcirtg , 
isa ciirfe, and thegrea'tcr being, the grearer curfe^ 
And thaiali vcrcueis^mod xew^xd^d^^hd ail wic- 
v.^wa " ^ V- ^ feedncflc 

Icedftefife' mod puniHicd in it&lfe.* according asahc 

Premiafojje fcxrfolui ? fiiichcYrimxvrimum 
73^' mores que d&bnnt v.ejiri : 
And fo of the conrrary. And fecondly they ought 
tolookc vp to the ercrnill prouidence *inddiiiine 
iudgemcntjwhich of ccn fubuertcth the wifdome of 
cuiil plats and imaginations, according to that 
StxxptViXCjHe hiith concdmdmijchkfe^AndjhitH bring 
forth a vAwe thmg. And although mi'ts (hould re- 
-fr^in'c them fciues from iaiury and euill artes^ y€C 
this incedaoc and SabbarhlelTe j)urruice ofa ojans 
fortuHC leaiteth not tribufe which wc owe to God 
of our timc/whofwe feejdemandeth a tenth ofour 
fubflancc^and a Icuench^which is more ftric^,of our 
time ;& it is to fmall psrpofeto haue an cre^^dfacc 
towards heauen,& 3 pi^petuaii groueling fpirirvp- 
"on e:>rtli5eaf ing duliv a^-doth the Terpen t, 'Jirifht Ajfi!- 
git hiirfioBltt(ri£ f^riicuiam AiiTiZ : And ifanymaa 
flitter himfi-lfe rh t be will imploy :hi$ fortune wel, 
though he ft ill, as was faid cohccr- 
mngAug.Capr^^nd alter oi Se^ttmim ^eHerm-^hat 
either tbey^Jhouldneuer hanthune borne jOrelftthfj 
jho^uldnetiCfr haue Med, x\\z^ did 'o muchiniifchfef ii? 
thc'^urfaite^ aftrent of tb( irf^reacpies^ndfo macfe 
good when they wwe cftabliflicdiyect^cfe com* 
penfations and fatisfactions,arc good lo be vfed,but 
ncuer good t o beparpokd .• And \Lrftly ^if -is- not a- 
mi^ei^riBCnmcheirrace toward cte: fortuh^, to 
• ' ^' Q^q 3 cools 

501 Of the aduancement of learning . 

coole themfelucsa Uttlc with that'conceit which is 
elegantly cxprefiTed by the Empciom, Charles the j. 
in'hisinftrudionstothcKing his fonnc, That for ^ 
tune bdth fomewhat of the nature efa woman^ that if 
fhce be too much wooed,(he is the farther off. But this 
laft is but a remedy for thofc,whofc Tafts are cor- 
rupted ; let men rather build vpon that foundation 
which is as a corner-ftone of Diuinity and Philofo- 
phy,wherinihey ioyncclo(c,namely,that fame Pri. 
mum quarite. For diuinitic faith, primum quartte 
regnum Dei,^^ ifiit omnia adijcientur vobis: and Phi- 
lofophy Cakh^quarite bona animi^cdtera aut aderunt^ 
duttton oberunt.^JA^ zhhovtgh the humane founda- 
tion hath fbmewhac of the fands^ as wee fee in M. 
Brutus when he brake forth into that fpccch* 

h^-;-^Tecolui(,p'frtus)v( rem: aji tu nomen inane es\ 

Yet the diuine foundation is vpon the Rocke. BuC 
this may ferue for a Tafic of that knowledge which 
I norcd as deficient: 

Concerning gouerament, it \s a part of know- 
ledge, fecrer and retyred in both thefe rcfpeds, in 
which things arc deemed fccret : for fomc things 
are Secret, bccaufe they are hard to know^ and fome 
bccaufcthey are not fit tovttcr : we fee all gouern- 
meots are obfcureand inuifible. 

■ T ii T otdmque infufd ftrsrius, 
JdtitsdgitMtmolem, &m4gn$c9rf9ri mifith 


Such is the dcfcription of goucrnmenrs* wc kt the 
gouernmcn c of God oucr the world is hiddcnjinfo- 
muchasic kcraethto participate ofmuch irregula- 
rity and eonfufion; The gouernmcnt ot thcSoule 
in mouing the Body is inward and profound, and 
the palfiges thereof hardly to be reduced to demon- 
ftratioa. Againe, the wifedome of Antiquity (the 
ihadowes whereof arc \t\ the Poets) in the dcfcripti- 
on of torments and palnes, next vnto the crime of 
Rebellion which was the Gisnts ofF-ncCj doth de- 
left the offence off uiilitie: ^iin SyfiphusdiTi^ Tan^ 
tdlfit. But this was meant of particulars; Ncuerthc- 
lefTceuenvnto the gcnerall rules and difcourfesof 
pollicy,3nd goucrnment,there is due a<rcuerenitand 
referucd handling. 

But contrariwife in the goucrnours toward the 
gouerncd, all things ought as far asthefrailtieof 
Man permitteth, to be manifeft, and rf uealcd. For 
fo it is exprelTed in the Scriptures touching the go- 
i^rnmencof God, that this globe which feemeth tp 
,/Vs a darke and fhady body, is in the view of God,as 
Chriftall, Etin conffeBu fedis tanqudmrnArtvitrt:' 
t$mfimtU ChrifiaRe, So vnto Princes and States^/pe- 
cially towards wife Senates and Councels, the nar 
turcs & difpofitions'of the people,thcir C(K>ditioos, 
and neceflities, their iadiions and conobinauons, 
their animofitics and difcootcnts ought to bee in re- 
gard of the varietie of their Intelligences, the wHe- 
deme of their obfcruations,and the height of thck 
flation^whcK they kccpc CcntiaclJ, in great pan 


^l Of th^4h4ncementx)f learning. 

ci^atiind tranfparcnt; wherefore, confidering rhac 
I wriKtoa King that is a ttiaifter of cbis Science,, 
and is fo vrtl! alldtcd,! rhinkc: it deceqe-io padc oucr? 
thisyai'Mn ftk^nce, as willing to obfaine the cGrrifi:i 
care which one of the ancient PhiibH phers afpircd' 
vntOjWhobcingiilcnt, when others conrcncled to'' 
make dcn^^oftrar ion ortheir'ftbintks byTpeec'hjde fi- 
red it m ''gh t V c cer ti ficd' f o r h is pstP, phut 'ihttewdf 
§neihAiknti»h'o\vt§hoidhii^c(L€C, ' ''"r'ni-. •' 
•^b Nocwichltandihg for the more publikc part of 
GoucMimenr,which is Liwes, I tbink god)d to note 
ondy one'deficicnce, which is, tl^c all thofe which 
feauc written of La we$,haue written cither as Philo- 
ibpbers>o'r asiLawiirr«,^nd n<>ne as Sra;cs-men. As 
for the Philofophers, thry make imff^rnar5^ Lawes 
for imaginary eomttionweaIti^s,and their difGourfcs 
»re as the Stars, which giuelirtle light bccaufe they 
sre fo f^lgh^^dr fhe'LavvyerSjt hey write according 
t(itheS{^tes vvherethey litre .What isreceiued Law, 
and not what ought to be Law; For the wifedomc 
of i La\w- milker ii one^ snd of a Lswyer is another! 
^dp there arc in Nature cerraine fonntaines of lu- 
^li^e, whence all Ciuill Lawes are-dcriucd, but as 
-fireamcsj and like' as waters doe take tin<5^urcs and 
rWfteiiteBathefGykstitrdugh which they rlin- fe 
^oe^iuiK' Liwes vary according to the Regions and 
-giDO^rnfnetis where'rhciy are phnte^d^' though th^y 
-protecd'froni the famJfo8nraine5^5Ajg5'in?;the¥;il]^^ 
mmeof a L-awmafe cdnfifteth noe^onely in '^J)fef- 
ifo^ilifeof I«ftlcc5 but ih the application thtrgoF,^ ti. 
^ king 

MAg In chac meaties Lawes ma/ 
be made ccrmac^md what arc the caufes and remc* 
die* of the doubtfulncflc and incertaintk of Law, 
by whatmeanes Lawes may bee made apt and eafie 
tobccxec<iced^ and what are the impediments, and 
remedies in the fxfr«/;<?/j of lawes, what influence 
lawes touching priuate right of L^,€um ^ Tuum^ 
haue into the publike ftate,and how they may bee 
made apt an d4^rtf^4^/(?, how lawes are lohQ penmd 
and deliuered, whether in Texts or in A6fSy brief t or 
iArge^ with pec4m^lis^ or iv//^#«/;hovv they are to be 
pruned and reformed from time to timc,and what is 
the bed mcanes to keep them from being too vdfl i» 
volftmeSjQVtoo full ofmulfiplicitfeand crofneffe^tiow 
they are to be cxpunded, When 'wpon cmjestmtr* 
^^/j/jandiudiciallydifcuflTcd, and when vpon rt^pn- 
fes and conferenses touching gcnerall points or que- 
ftions, how they are to btcpreffedy rigorouily, or 
tenderly, how they are tobe mitigAttd by equity, 
and good conference, and whether difcretion and 
ftri^ Law is to be mingled in the JAme Courts^ or 
Mept apdrt inftfteraS Court S'^ Againe, how the pra- 
^ife, profedSon, and erudition of Law is tobecctt- 
furcd and gouerned, and many other points touch- 
in the adminiftration,and fas I may tearme it|ani. 
mation of Lawes. Vpon which linfift iht\cffc$^'I>eprMdtntU 
cau(e I purpofe, (if God giue me leaue) bauiog \)t-itgtsidtmM» 
gun a worke of this Nature,in Aphorilmes, to pro- i^** '«(««r' 
poandithexcafwr^ noting k in the mcanetimcfpt*^^'*^^ 

:r Rr And 

gi4. Of thaikAficmtnt ofkarniiw^ 

^j Ati!ti.6cit yoafiMakftics L%v9tici England, I 
could fay a>i»rtiolchi?itdignitk',an<i fomcwhat of 
ihcixdAccir Bmthey cannot but excell thcciuill 
Lavvcs in firnefTc for the gouernmenr ; for tkc ciuill 
Law was, non bos (juafitum munm in vfm x It was 
not ma<k for the Countries which it goucrnerh : 
hereof I ccaft tofpeake,becaufc I will noc intcriEin- 
gle matter of Aton, with matter of gencrall Lear- 

'Hus haue I concluded this porfiotroflfarnirg 
touching Ciuill knowledge ^zi\d with Ciuil know- 
ledge haue concluded Hum Ant Fhil0fiphie^ar)d with 
Humane Philofophy, Philofophit in GeneraU-^ and 
being now at fomc paufe, looking backe into that! 
haiic pafTed through ; This writing feemeth ro mec 
ifintinquamfalU^ Imago) as far asamancaniudgc 
of bis owne worke,not much better then th at noyfc 
or found which Mufitians make whilie thsy are tu* 
Ding their Inftruments, which is nothing plcafant 
tohcare, but yet is i caufe why the Mufiquc is 
Aveeter afterwards. So haue I bcene content t© 
twieihc Inftruments of the Mufcs, that they may 
pfey, that haue better hands. And furclywhenl 
fct before me the condition oft he fc times, in which 
vtv^WnCi learning hath made her third vifitation,or circuit in 
,Wvia\N\i';; .all: the qiialiries thereof ^as thecxccllencic and viua- 
~5**«;^^' *•- «itic of the wits of this agej The noble hel pes and 
,v^^\ w ggi^ which wee haue % the wauiites of ancknt 
writers^i The ArtofPriuting^which tomBwrnk*- 
iiiA 1 h tcth 

4^^ ^ The fecond^ooke. 515 

tethBdok^i to men of all fortunes. The opf nnefle, of 
the world by Nauigati on, which hath di'dofedmol. 
tftudes ofexpcriroents,anda Made of Natur j{ Hl^ 
ftory : The leafure wherewith thefc times abound, 
not impioyihg men fo generally in ciui!l bufinefle, 
as the States of Grxcia did, in xtl^tCt of their popu- 
hritic,and the Sx^ito^Rome inrefpeifiof rhcgreat- 
nelTc of their Monarchic: Theprefent difpofidon 
of thcfc times at this inftant to peace .• The cotl- 
furaptionofallthateueircanbe faid in controuer- 
(ies otRcligionjWhichhaue fo much diuerted men 
from other Sciences ,• The p?rfe(aion ofyour Ma- 
jeftijslearning,whichas a'i'i&arwA; may call whole 
voliesofwitsto follow yoa:and the inseparable pro- 
priety of Time,which is euer more and moce to dif- 
clofe truth : I cannot but be railed to this perfw^ 
fion that this third period oftimc will farrc forpaflc 
that oit\\^Qr*d4n and Romsm Learning : Oncly if 
men wili know their owneftrcngth, and their ownc 
weakenelTe both ; and rake one from the other, light 
of inu nrion, and not fircof coatradiflion,3nd c-* 
flecm of the Inq ufifion of truih,as ofan enterprifc, 
and not as of a <jualitie or ornam' nr,3nd imploy wtt 
and magnificence to thingsof worth and exellencic, 
and not to things vulgar.and of popular c (timation. 
As for my labours, if any man fhall pleafe hirofelfe, 
cir others irt the reprcbenfion of thcm^ they (ball 
make that dncienrand patient reqoeff, verhra^fii 
4udi. Let men reprehend them fo they obferue r^nd 
weigh them : For the Appealc is lawiull Cthough it 

Rri may 

|id OftU ddudncmtnt of learning. 

may be,tt (hall not be needfull jfrom the fir fl cogica* 
ciofls of men to their fecond, and from the nccrer 
times, to the times further off. Now let v$ come ta 
that lcarning,which both the former times were not 
fo blefTcd as to know, Sacred and wffired Diuinitie^, 
the Sabbath and port of all mens labours and per» 

THeprerogatiuc of God ea^endeth as well to 
theicafoD, asrothcwill ofMan,-Sothataswcc 
are we to obey his Law though wee findea reluifta- 
tJoninoucwiilj So wee are to beleeue his word, 
though we findc a rclu(5ationin ourreafon s For if 
webcleeue onely that which is agreeable to our 
fenfe,wegiueconfenc to the matter, and not to the 
Author, which is no more then wee would doc 
towards afufpcified and difcredited witncffe .• But 
thatfaith which was accounted to Kydhaham for 
rightcoufncfle, was of fuch a point, as whereat 
Sarah laughcd,who iherf in was an ImageofNatu- 

Howbeit (if wee will truely confider \t) more 
worthy it is to bclceue, then to know as wee no\r. 
koow; For in knowledge mans mindlufFereth from- 
icnk,but in beliefeit fuffercth from Spirit,fuch one 
as it holdeth for more ^utborifcd then it /cUe, & fa 
fiiflPereth from the worthier Agentjotherwifc it is of 
$be jftate of man glorified>for then faith fhall ceafei^ 
imd we (hall know as we are knowne. 
i;«^^Whej:efbre. we coQclitdc^thac (aciedThcologic 


fwhichinourldiomcw^ call Dlaimcie) is groun- 
ded onclyvpon the word and eraclcof God, and 
not vpon the light ofnatu re ; f prJt is written, C^U 
enAtrant ghriamDdihai it is^ot wi hten C^lt enar-^x 
rant velunutem Dei ;Buc of that it is faidj Ad legem 
^ tefimmumftntnfecer'tntfecAndHm verbum tjlnd^ 
^c» This holdeth not oncly in ihofc points of faich^ 
which concernc the great my fteries of the Dcitie, 
of the Creation, of* the Redemption, but hkcr 
wife thofc which coDCcrnc the Jaw Moral truly m-^ 
terpretedj Lfifteyour EtfemJp^ doego^d to them tbdt 
hsteyou. Be like ttyottrheAuenly father , that fit ffe ret i, 
hisraiftetofAU vpoftthe luji asdyniufi. To this, if be applauded, Nee vox hominemfinitylu. 
isja voice beyond the light of Nature ; So wc fee 
the heathen Poets when they fall vpon a libertine 
palHon, doe 3ill expoftulate with laws and Morali*. 
tie$^ as ii ihcy were oppofite and malignant- to Na.^ 
tur^ : Etquod naturs remit tit imida Ittra mgant :' 
Sa faid Dendamis the Indian ynto ^^lexanden^ 
Mcflengersi That he had heard feme what oifythd^^ 
^r4y,andfonac.othef of^he wife men otGraci/^ 
and chathebeld^henifprjexeel!enf Men; But that 
they had a fault, which wasthat they had inroo, 

grcat.reuerencc and venerarToh athing they called 
aw and Manners ; So it mufl be confeiTcd that a", 
great part of the llaw'^oraH is of that, pcrfc^orii^ 
whereunto the light of Nature. caanot^rpirc: |i6w{ 
thin is it, thac map IsJ faid lohm-byx^i %l^t an^- 
ImIW Qf Hacurcfobe )^otion$. and, (;QHcdcs otvei^^^ 

i:3l ^^ 3 , ^ toe 

j^ Ofthe^uancm^ftiofMrning. 

tuc atTf3 vtce, iafVicc and v^cortg, gboiT and euill f 
Thus.bedufe the light o Narurc vi vfe<!F in t%d (c- 
urratl fcnfcsif' The oncjthat which fpringethfrortf - 
Rbfq?^, Sbhfe, Iridtidiob, Argum^rtr, according^ 
tS t^ ^E^*irs* of hcaucn i^rvd earch'f The othei^^that^ 
which B'im jyfihced ypori the fplf it of M jn by ati trip 
wardtc\f^ih(5l, acrordingtothe Lawof confcicncc,- 
whicfr * is a fparkle of th<puriric of his ffrft Ed^c P 
In whrch later f^niepitply, he is psrficipaflrclf {6mt 
Ifghcjattd dlfcerniftg, tonchfing thcpeffedion 6^ 
tfcfeMtJcan Datr, ^tft hbw V» ftfficl^fle to check the? 
Vicc^biitnot ^ infcninp^di't^d^H^.rSd th^ the^ofe^^ 
torbe irtaihedi butiby litJtJirstion. and ffudatityri^ 
from Cod. * ■'"'•'-' -^^ ^^ 5**^*» -*''*^ ancy-ci j5:>iov K.>? 

nbUiTh as the vcric Cdemonies and pgurf s o"'f t hV 
btd l*aW 'were fgllttf feafon and figMificatmri; 
mH^ ' rt)ore th^ntHc ceremomc^ondoJarrie^^nd; 

magnified, holding and pre fcruing the golden Mt^ 
dJbctitic jtv. this pb^ht,';'bet^ycchethe Livir of thii 

^M/i<fi»i^iand t)ie Law of Afi^irf^if^vfrhicb hiiic em^' 
braccadfe twt> extremes. FMh(*'|[tr!fgi^rf bftftiS 

^^« . • i X left 

^4BlAthcUberriclX)£afgnraclit^itodtlK Religion 
jqtMa^umron the othsr fide, : mtcrdi(aet& argi*. 
jmcpt altogcthcH; theone hauing tbe vcrkiace o{ 
lirroiir^iknd.thcotbcr qrimpofturC;^ whereas iKe 
Falch doch both admit and reie^ Difpucarion with 
difference, - ' ■ i 

' Ths vie of .Humane Reafonia Religipn^ is of 
two fort* : The formerin che eooicepuoB ajrtd ap»- 
i)Khrnfio5 6i the My (krif s of God to- vs rcjaea. 
Ud-y iTheothefy in the inferring and deriuing of 
PaiSrinc and dire <Sion thereupon: The forraerex* 
tend€th>tojtht My fterics thenfrieliKs : -but how f bf 
way of Illuftration, and not by way of arguwcnr. 
Jhc later con (ifteth indeed of , Probation and Ar- 
gDn;xwt. In the\ former w,ecfcc ;GckI vowjlrfjrfetll 
IQ dcfcend to burxapadti^^iintlicciprettiAgiJfhis 
jny fterics in fort as may bee fertfibk iinto y% ; laod 
iJoth grift his Reiiejations and holy do^rincvpon 
the Notionsof our reafon^aiidapplierh his Infpi* 
ratipjis to open our wider ftanding, as. the fortiieof 
ihctkeyitQ diQ ward of the Jockc*f or the later,thcre 
is allowed vs an vfc. of Reafon, and argumenfi: ^ 
c9iHMnKH and) re^4JcjSlae> ^thqugb not origf^all "'^^ t*\c»*'^ 
and^bfoltttt! i For after the Articles and prinaV; ^«">^^»-^ ^''^ 
l^iof Religidft arc.^Ja-eed and jcxempted from^x^ -»v t^4»vr>m^^ 
ar^Oiltion o| leaioDsic istthca, ptrtqicted vmo vs ta '^^^^ 

m^lceid^tufttions rand v^kxtnctsiromymdMCorik' 
^HfilDrM^afC ibb bcdd6thii<^jfotiiQlhrty ^ptiocif* 

bnt \, iiidhm 

^ip Of the aduancemeMofiearmng. 

Mtdl^ bt'Sy/Ugtfifnmd bcftdes,thord jynocijples 
orfitftpofirions, hauc no^difcordancc wirh that 
tcafon, whkh drawech downc and didu^cctfe the in- 
fctiour pofiiions. But yef ir holdcih not wiHifligioto 
alone, but in many knowledges both of greater and 
fmaller Mature, namely wherein there are not only 
>B0(it4 but Placita, for in fuch there can be no vfe of 
* ^biblutere^fon^wcfee it famrtely in ganRcs of w^lf, 

as Chcfle, orthe hkc; The Draughts and firfl Law$ 
of the Game arc 4)oritiue5 but how ? mcerely ad 
fUcimmy and not examinable by reafon; But then 
how to dire^ our play thereupon with beft aduan- 
Mgc to winne the game, is artificiall and rarionall. 
Soin Humane Laws, there be many grounds and 
Maxinies, whtfih arc>/»»/4 lurii^ Pafttm vpon au- 
tboHti^ and not vpon reafon^ andthcfefore nor to 
bedii^uted : BiK what is mpft iud, notabfolutely, 
but Telatiuelyj and according to thofc Maxiraes, 
that affordeth a long field of dilputation. Such thcr- 
fore is that fccondariereafon, which hath place in 
diuiBiciCj which \% grounded vpon the Flueis of 
Gbdi^i'i'^iJ'S'sc bn ^- ^nol".': ii 1 o .">liv n£ ev b'J w oils 2^ 
^evjk Ugtm 1 Here therefore I fliott tills dcficicn^e^'th^c^i^e 
iim9 rationis hath notfeccDetoroy vndcrftandirigfufficicntly ch* 
hftmoH^tHdh' qeited and hindlcd>r^^ tru€ Umiu dnd'vfe cfui^H 
•*"'• ^^/>/«4/7/i&/»^j;asakiridcof diuineDialeaiqt^^ 

which for that it is not feemeth to mea thing 
vfoall, by pretext of true concciuing that, which is 
rettcaledv to feacch dnd mine itito that which i^nq^ 
reucated, aqd fay pretdctbf ^ cniickating infoetit^i 
t:\^ii^«EML and 

The ficond^ook^i^ ,v u 321 

ani contradi(aorics, tO€X3minc that which is pofi- 
tiuc .• The one fort falling into the Error oiNictde* 
mm^ densanding to hiuc things made more fenfibic 
then it plea feth God to reueale them j ^omedf 
fopt homo nafci cumfitfcncx : The other f ert into 
the Error of the Difciplcs, which were fcandalizcd 
a: a fhc w of contradidion / ^»idejt hoc quod dicit 
fiobkf modicam^ C^ non vidchitti me,(j;* iterum m»di» 

V^or^ this I haue infixed the more, in regard of 
the great and bleflcd vfc thercof/or this point well 
laboured and defined of, would in my iudgcmcnt be 
an OpUte to ftiie and bridle not onely the vanitie of 
curious fpeculations, wherewith the fchoolcs la- 
bour ,but the fiirie of controuerfics, wherewith the 
church laboureth.For it cannot but open mens cye$ 
to fe« that many controuerfics do racerely pertaiae 
to that which is cither not reuealcdjOr pofitiue, and 
that many others doe grow vpon weakc and ob- 
fcurc Inferences or deriuations: which Istter fore 
of men would reviue theblcflfed ftile of that great 
Do(aorofthc Gentiles, would be carryed thus : 
Bgo non D omhus, and ag^inc, Secundum eonfilium 
menm , in Opinions and counfells, and not in pofi- 
clons and oppo{irions.But Men are now ouer readie 
vfurpc the ftilc, NonEgo^fed DominttSy and not fa 
onely, bnc to bind it with the thunder and dcnuacf- 
ation of Curfis, and Andthemdes^ to the terror of 
thofe which haue not fufficiently learned out of 
Sdlmfi^i i\At The csufilefcCurfcJhsU n$t c$me. 

Sf ' Diuiflitie 

|n Of the advancement of learning. 

Dminitic hath two princi pall. parts; The mat- 
ter informed or reucabd ; and the nature of the In- 
formation or Reoelarion ; and with the later wee 
will bci^inne .* becaufc if hath mGH: coherence with 
that which wee hauc now laft handled. The n.> 
turcof the information confifterh of three bran* 
ches : The liniits of the information; the (ufficicn- 
cieofrhe inform-itionj and the acquiring or obtai- 
ning the information. Vntoche limits of the infor- 
mation belong thefe confiderations • how farre 
forth particular pc-rfons continue ro bee inipircd; 
how farrc forth the Church is infpircd ; and how 
firrc forth reafon may be vfcdj thchftpoint wher- 
of I haue noted as deficient. Vnto the iufficicncy of 
the information belong two confiderations, what 
points of Religion arc fundamental!, and what per- 
fe<Sliue,being mattcF of further building & pcrfcdio 
vpon one and the fame foundation. 'Scat^aine, bow 
the gradations of light according to the difpenfatio 
of times, are materiail to the fufficicncJc of bcleefe, 
^e IrAdihttt Hereagaine I may rather giuc it in aduife, then 
vmt4tisi» note it as deficient, that the points fundsmcntall, 
CmiatiDei, and the paints of f urtbcr.pcrfedion onely ought to 
be with piety and wifedome diflinguiflied : a fub- 
it6t teding to much like end,as that I noted before; 
for as that other were likely to abare the number 
bf controuerfies : So this is like to abate the heat 
of many of them* Weeiec LMofes when heefaw 
the Ifraelttef and the E^yptiamEghu hec did not 

lay, W^j/r/are^w, but drew jiis fword,and flew 

: . I the 

the EgyptUn: But when hccfiw the twoJfraelius 

fT-ghr,iice rsid,7'<?«4;'^ brethrcn.rvky firiueyou^U the 
point of dodtrine be an EgyftUr), it muft bee flainc 
by the fword of the fpirir, aiKJ not reconciled. But 
if ic be an Ijradite^ though in the wrong : then Why 
Jlmeyouf Wee fee of the fundamenrall points, our 
Siuiour pcmeth the league xhrn^^Hee thit is net with 
'US is A^^ififi '^/jbjr of points not fundamcntaljthus, 
Hee that is not againfi vs^ is with vs- So wee fee the 
Coate of our Siuiour was entire without feame, 
and fo is the Do(flrinc of iht Scriptures in it fclfe : 
But the garment of the Church was of diucrs 
colours, and yet not diuidcd : wee fee the chaffc 
may and ought to be fcuered from the corne in the 
Eare : But the Tares may not be pulled vp from the 
corne in the field. -So as it is a thing of great vfe well 
to define, what, and of what latitude thofe points 
arc, which doe make men mccrely aliens and dif- 
incorporatc from the Church of God. 

For the obtaining of the information,it refteth 
vpon the true & found Ineerpretation of the Scrip- 
tures, which are the fountaincs of the water of life. 
The Interpretations of the Scriptures are of two 
forts:M:thodicall,and Solute,or at largejfor this di- 
uine water which excelletbfo much that of /4^(?^i 
Well , is drawne forth much m the fame kinde, as 
Naturall Water vfcth to bee out of Wells and 
Fountaincs ; either it is firft forced vpintoaCc- 
ftcrne, and from thence fctcht andderiued for vfe.« 
or elicit is drawne and rccciued in Buckets and 

Sfa Vcflcis 

214- Of the adu4mement ofkarning* 

Vcffcis immediately where lit fpringetb. The for. 
mer fort whereof though it fecme to bee the more 
rcadic, yet in my iudgcment is more fubici^ to cor- 
rupt. This is that Method which harh exhibited, 
vnto vs the fcholafticall diuinity, whereby diuinky 
hath bin reduced into an An, as into a Ccfterne, & 
thcftreamcs ordo(ariaeor pofiiioHS fetcht and dc> 
liued from thence. 

In this, Men haue (ought three things, a fumma- 
rlebreuitie, a corapa<5ted ftrength, andacomple- 
ate pcrfet^ion^ t whereof ihc two firft they faileto 
finde,and thelaft they ought not to fcckc. For 
asto breuitic, wee fee in allfummarie Methods, 
while men purpofe to abridge, they giuecau/e to 
dilate. For the fumme or abridgement by ccntraaf- 
on bccommeth obfcure, the obfcuritie rrquirtth 
cxpofirion,3nd the expofition is did\xc^d inro large 
comnieDtaries, or intocommon places, and ticks, 
which grow to be more vaft then the crlginall 
writings, whence the iumme was a: fir ft extra^ed. 
So we fee the volumes of the fchoole-menare grea- 
ter fi^uch thtnthefirft writings of rhefathcrs, 
whence the Matter of the fentcecs rasde his fummc 
or collcdion. So in like manner the volumes of the 
modern Dolors of theCiuil Law exceed tho.^c of 
the ancient lurifconfuks, of which Trihnian com- 
piled the Digfft. Soas'ihiscourfe of fummcs and 
commentaries is that which doth infallibly make 
the body of Sciences more imraenfe in q«antitie,Sr 
more bale in fiabtoce. 
?bft3\' ' - . And 

» . 

^hefecond'Booke. 525 

And for ftrcngth, it is triic^ chat knowledges re- 
duccd into exa(5t xVlcthodcs hauc a fkew offtrength, 
in chat each part feemeth to fupportand fuftaine 
theochcrj bat this is more fatislatloric then fub- 
ftantialljhke vnto buildings, who ftand by Architc- 
durc and compadlion, which arc more fubied to 
mine, then thofc which arc built more ftrong in 
their feucrall parts, though lefTe compadcd. But it 
is plain e, that the more you recede from your 
groundSjthe weaker doe you conclude j and as in 
nature, the more you remoue your feUe from par* 
ticulars, the greater peiiil of Errour you doc in- 
currc : So, much more in Diuinitie, the more you 
recede from the Scriptures by inferences &confe- 
gucnccsjthe more weak & dilute ^re y ourpofitions. 
And as for perfedio!i,or compleatneflTe in Diuini- 
tie, it is not to be foughr, which makes this courfe 
of Artificial! diuinitie tlie more fufped : For bee 
chat will reduce a knowledge into an Art, will 
make it round and vniforrae ; Bat in Diuinity many 
things muft be left abrupt and concluded with this : 
O 4ltit»d@ SapieatU ^ fcientid DeiyquAinccmprehe. 
fibilUfunt IudiciAeius,(^ »omnuefiigabiles vU eiusl 
So againc the Apoflie faith, Ex^arttftmm^ and to 
hauc the forme ofa totaII,where there is but matter 
for a parr, cannot bee without fupplies by fuppo/i- 
tion and prefumption*^ And therefore I conclude, 
that the true vie of thefe Summes and Methods 
hath place in Inftitutions or Introdudions, pre- 
paratoricvnto knowledge : but in them, or by di. 
:' ' ^ Sfj ducemgnt 

^i6 Of the aduancement of learning. 

duccmcnt from them, to handle the raainc bodic 
and fubftancc of a knowledge, is in all Sciences pre- 
iudiciall, and in Diuinitie dangerous. 

As to ihc Interpretation of the Seriptures fo- 
lute and at large, there haue beene diuers kindes in- 
troduced and deuifed, fomc of them rather curious 
andvnfafe, then lobcr and warranted. Notwich- 
ftading thus much muft be conteffcdjthat the Scrip- 
tures being giuen by infpiration, and not by hu. 
mane reafon, doc difiPer from all other books in the 
Author : which by confequence doth drawe on 
forae difference to be vfcd by the Expofir or. For 
thclnditer of them did Jcnow foyrc things which 
no man attaines to know, which arc.the my fterics 
of thekingdomcofgloric ; the pcrfedion of the 
LawcsofNature.'thc fecretsofthc heart of Man* 
and the future fucceffion of all ages. For as to the 
firftjitis faid. He that frejjethtnto the light yfljall be 
oppreffidofthe Glorie. And againe. No manjhallfec 
my face and Hue, To the [ccond^Whert he prepared the 
heauens 1 rvasprefertt^rvhen by law andcom^ajfe he en-' 
clofed the deepe.Jo the third^ Neither xvoi it needfuH 
that any jhould beare tpttnejfe to him of Man, for hee^ 
knew well what was in Man, And to the M,From the 
beginning are knowne to the Lord aU his workes. 

From the former of thefe two haue becne drawn 
ccrtainc fenfes and cxpofitionsof Scripturcs,which 
had need be contained within the bounds of fobric- 
Cie,. The one Anagogicall^and the oxhctPhilo/ophi. 
uHt Btic as to the former^Man is not to preuent his 


Thefecond ^oo^e^ i%j 

time; VidemM nunc per fieculum h t^nlgm Ate, tunc 
AuttmfAcit AdfuUmy wherein ncuerChelefTe there 
feemeth to \>z a liber tie grantcd,a5 farre forth as the 
polifhiog of this glalTe, orfomc madcriuc expli- 
cation or this i^mgnta. h\ii to preife too far into it 
cannot but caufe a didolucion and ouerthrow of 
thcfpirit ofman. For in the body there are three 
degrees of chat we receiue into ixiAliment^Medkine 
and Peyfffft'y whereot Aliment is chat which the Na- 
ture of man can pcrfetSlly alter and ouercome : Mc- 
dfcine'ii that which is partly conuerred by Nature, 
and partly conuerceth nature : and Poyfon is that 
which workcth wholy vpon Nature, without that, 
thic nature can in any part workc vpon it. So in the 
mindewhatfoeuer knowledge rcafon cannot at al! 
worke.vpon and conurrr, is a raeerc intoxication, 
and indangereth a difiTolution of ^thc mind and vn- 

Bur (or the latter, it harh bcenc exrreamly fee on 
foot of iarc time by the SchooJe o^Paracelfu^^ and 
fome others, that haue pretended CO finde the truth 
of all naturall Philofophy in the Scriptures; fcan- 
dalizing and traducing all other Philofophy ; as 
HeathciiifhandProphane ; But there is no fuch 
enmity bctweenc Gods word, and his workes. 
Neither doc they giuc honour to the Scripture, as 
they fuppofe,bDt much imbafc them. For to feekc 
heauen and earth in the ward of God, whereof ic 
hhx^^^Heauen and Earth jhaH pajfc^, but my word 
Jhdlnot psjfe,l% tofcekc tcmpowric things amoi^ft 


328 Of the aduancement of learning. 

ctcrnallj And as to feeke Diumitic in Philofophy, 
is to feekc the liuing amongft the to Ictkc 
Philofophy in Diuinitie is to feck the dead amongH 
the liuing; Neither are the P^tsoxLAucrs , whofc 
place was in the outward part of the Temple to bee 
fought in the holicft place of all, where the Arke of 
the cedimonie was feated. And againe, the fcopc or 
purpofe of the fpirit of God is not to exprcffe mat- 
ters of Nature in the Scriptures, otherwife then in 
paflage, and for application tomans capacitic and 
to matters Morall or Diuine. And it is a true Rule, 
Authork dliudagentis^aruA authoritas.^or it were a 
ftrangeconclufion, itamanftiould vfca fimilitudc 
for ornament or illuftration fake, borrowed from 
Nature or hiftorie, according to vulgar conceit, as 
of a BaJfliskejiX) Vnicorm^ a Centdure,^ BrUreus, nn 
Hydra.oi the like, that therefore he muft needs bee 
thought to affirme the matter thereof poficiuely to 
be true. To conclude therefore thefetwo Interpre- 
tations, thconebyredu<5iionor^nigmaticalI, the 
other Philofophicall or Phyficallj which haue beene 
rcceiucd and purfucd in imitation of the Rdbhins and 
C4^4///?j,are to be confined wichaiV^// altumfafe- 

But the two latter points knowne to God, and 
vnknownc to Man; touching thefecrets of t he hear f^ 
4ndthefitccep$ns of timely doth make a ioft and 
found difference betweenc the manner of the ex. 
pofition of the Scriptures .* and all other bookes. 
Foritisanczccllcnt obfciuacion which hathbeenc 


TheJeeonJ^oo^. lip 

made vpon the anfwcrs of our Sauiour Chrift to 
many ofthcqueftions which were propounded to 
him, how that they arc impcrtiticsit to the ftate of 
the qucftion dcmand€d,thc reafoii whereof it, bc- 
caufe HOC being like man, which knowes mans 
thoughts by his word$,butkn»wing mans thoughts 
immediately, hee neuer anfwered their wordSjbw 
their thoughts : much in the like manner it is with 
the Scriptures, which being written to the thoughts 
of raen,aQd to the fucccffion ofallages,with a forc- 
fightof all herefies, contradidlions, diflFering eftates 
ofthcChurch,yea,and particularly offhecIe.^,arc 
not to be interpreted only according to the latitude 
of the proper fenfcof the place, and refpediuely 
towards that prefent occafion, whereupon the 
words were vtteredj or in pfccifc congruitie or 
contexture with the words before or after, or in 
contemplation of the principall fcopeof the place, 
buchaueinthemfclues not onely totally, orcolle- 
diuely,butdii)ributiuclyinclaufesand words infi- 
nite fprings and ftreamcs ofdo<arinc to water the 
Church in euerie parr, and therefore as the licerall 
fcnie is as it were the maine ftrcame or Riuer;So the 
Morall fen fc chiefly, andfometimesthe K^lhg$r'u 
caH or TypifaSite they whcYCoi the Church hath 
moft vfe ; not that I wifh raentobrc bold in Affe^ 
goriesjQx mdnlgent or light in Allufions .• but that I 
doc much condemne that Interpretation of the 
Scripture, which is bhelyafter the roannef rs Men 
vfe to interpret a prophane booke. ' ), r ) o ^t»: n rr. 
In this part touching the cxpoficion of the Scrip-' 
T c cures 

I^o Of the aduancement of learning. 

rures,r can report no d^ficicncf; but by way of re- 
membrance this I will adde. In pei ufing bookcs of 
Diuinitie^ I 6nde many Bookcs of controucrfics, 
andmany of commonplaces andtrcariies, amafle 
of pofitioe Diuinirie, as ic is made an Art r a num- 
ber of Sermons and Lc^ures, and manyprolixe 
commentaries vpon the Scriptures, with harmonies 
and concordances .-but that forme of writing in DU 
uinitie^whtch in my iudgement is of all others moft 
rich and precious, is pofitiue Diuinitie colIc<5ied 
vpon particular Texts of Scriptures in brief e obfcr- 
uations,nGt dilated inta common places x not chafe- 
ing after eontrouerfics, not reduced into Method 
of Art, a thing abounding in Sermons, which will 
varii», but defe<^iue in bookcs which will rcmaine^ 
and a thing urhercin this age cxcclIeth.Por I zm per- 
Iwad^d, and I may Tpcakc ir, with ^nAifit invidU 
v^;-^*, and no way es in derogation of Antiqutrie^ 
but as in a good emulation bctweenc the vine and 
theoliue5That iftbechoyfcjand bcft of thofc obfcr- 
imm4thttfs uations vpon Texts of Scriptures whicbhaucbeenc 
Scrifturan roadcdifperfcdly tn Sermons within this your Ma- 
TMm,indo' tcftics Hand of Brittanie by the fpace of ihefe for- 
Brinas ?#j7- (y ycares and naore ( leauing out the iargeneffc of 
^'^'' cxhorrations and appIicatioBi thereupon/ had been 

fee downcirt a continuance*, ic had becnc the beft: 
\torke iniyitfiftitiCjWhich had bccne written fince 
fh^Apoftks times. ^ ^- 

Toi rnaf tcr informcsd by DI uinity,is of two kinds, 
matter oi bclicfe, aridtruth of opinion v and inattcf 


offeruice, and adoration; which is alfo iadgcd and 
dircffted by the f oriuer ; The one bcin| ss the imcr- 
nall foule of Religionjand the other as the exrf rnall 
body thereof." and therefore the heathen Religion 
was not onely a wor (hip of Idols, but the whole 
Religion was an Idoll in it felfe, for ir had no foule, 
that is,no ccrtaintic cf belicfc or conftfrion,^s a man 
may well thinkcjconfidcring the chicfe Di^ois of 
their Church, were the Poers,and the reafon was, 
becaafcthe heathen Gods were no lealous Gods, 
burwercglad to be admitted into part^ as they had 
rcaC)n. Neither cid they rcfped the purencflTeof 
heartjfo they might hauc cxternall honor and rites. 
r Bur out oFthefetwo doe refult and ifTuefourc 
niainc branches of Diuinicic : Faith. ^ K^Atintrs^.-j* 
tnrgit^ and Goucrnmint ; Fmh containeth the l)o- 
dlrineofthe Nature of God, of the attributes of 
God, and of the workes of Godj The nature of 
God confiftcth of three perfons in vnitie of God- 
head; Theartributes of God are either common to 
the D:itie,or rcfpcftiue to the perfons; The workes 
of God fummaric arc two, that of the CrcathH, and 
that of the Ridemption-^ And both thefe workes, is 
in Total! they apperraine to the vnitie of the God* 
hctd: Sc> in their parts they referreto the three per- 
fons : That of the Creation in the Maffe of the 
Matter to the father,in the difpofition of the forme 
to the Sonne, and in the continuance and conferua- 
tion of the becing to the Holy fpirit : So that of 
the Redemption, in the cle^ion and counfell to the 

35^ Of the 4Ju4ncement of learning* 

Father, in the whole A(9: and confummation, to the 
Sonne.* and in the application to the Holy fpirit ; 
for by the Holy Ghoft was Chrifl: conceiued in 
flefh,andbytheHoly Ghoft arc the c\e& regene- 
rate in fpiut.This work Iikcwifc we confider either 
effc6tm\\y in the E!c(5^,or priuatcly in the re probate, 
or according to apparance in the vifible Church. 

For manners, the Dodrine thereof is contained 
in the law, which difclolcth finne. The law it fcJfc 
is diuided according to the edition thereofjinto the 
law of Nature, the law Moral!, and the law Pofi- 
tiue; and according to the ftilc, into Negatiue and 
Affirmatiue, Prohibitions and Commandements. 
Sinncin the matter and ft.bicd thereof, is diuided 
according to the CommandemcntSj in the forme 
thereof it rcfcrrcth to the three perfons in dcitie. 
Sinnes of infirmirie ?gainft the father^ whofe more 
. fpeciali attribute is Power .• Sinnes of Ignorance 
againft the Sonne,, whofe attribute is Wifcdomc r 
and finncs of Malice againft the Holy G hoft, whofc 
attribute is Grace or Loue, In the motions of ir, it 
either moueth to the right hand, or to the lefr,ei- 
thcrto blinde deuotion, or ta prophane and liber- 
tine ttanfgrcflion/ither in impofing rcftraint where 
j:^ God grameth libertie, or in taking hbertic where 
. God impofcth rcftraint.In the degrees & progreflc 
of it, it diuideth it fclfe into thought^word^or A^. 
And in this part I commend much the didueing of 
the Law Godio cafes of con fcicncc, for thai I 
ult indsedeto bee a brcdking, and aot. exhibiting 

Thefecdnd'Bool^e.AKj ^^ 

whole of the bread of life. But that which quick* 
nethboth thcfcDodrines of faith and Manners h 
ihceleuationandconfcntof the heart, whereumo 
appcrtaine bookes of exhortation, holy meditati- 
on, Chriftian refolution, and the hkc. 

ForthcLyturgieor feruice, it confiftcth of the 
reciprocall k&s betwcene God and Man, which 
efl the pare of God are the Preaching of the word 
and the Sacranients, which are feaJes to the coue« 
nam, orasthc vifibleword r and on the part of 
Man, Inuocation of the name of God: and vnder 
the Law , Sacrifices, which were as vifible prayers 
orconfcilions, but now the adoration being xnfpi^ 
rittt ^ vertAte there remaineth onely vitnli Ubio- 
rum^ although the vfe of hoJy vowes of thankc ful- 
neireand retribution, may be accounted alfoas feal- 
cd petitions. r ^ ^ i 

And for the Government of the Churcb,!tconn 
fifteth of the patrimonieof thcckurch, thefran- 
chifcs of the Church, and the offices, and iurifdi<5iii. ^ 

ens ofthe Church, and the Lawes of the Churcli 
directing the whole .♦ All which haue two confi- 
deraiionsjtheonein thcmfelucs : the other hovr 
they ftand compatible and agreeable to the Ciuiil 

This matter of DIuinitie is handled either ivk, 
formcofinftrudtionoftruih; or injorme of con- 
futation of falfliood. The dech'nations from Re 
ligion,befides the priuatiuc, which is Atheifme, and 
chc Branches thereof are three; Hsrefi^s^ldgUuii^ 
ti'ii^'^ V " ' Tt B and 

;;4- Of the aduancemnt of learning. 

^adffftcb'Ctdft^ HerefieSjVihzn we feruethc true 
God wirh a falfc worfhip. idoUtrie, when wcc 
worfliipfaifcGods^fuppofing them f^to bee true : 
aud Witch^rsftjVihtn wcc adore falfc Gods,know- 
ing them CO be wicked and filfe. For fo your Ma« 
icfiicdoth excellently well obferue,that Witch crsft 
18 the beigbcof idolatry. And yet wee fee though 
thefe bee true degrecs,.?^^^!^ / teacheih vs ihat they 
arc all of a nature, when thctc is once a receding 
from the word of God, for io hec faith, ^afi 
PeccAtum arhUndi cJlrepugnirCy (^ qudfi fcclus ido- 
hlatri^ nolle 4cquiefiere, 

Thefe things I haue pafled ouer ^o briefely bc- 
caufc I can report no deficicncc concerning them? 
For I can finde no fpacc or ground that lieth vacant 
and vnfbwne in the matter of Diuinfcie, fo dih'gent 
haiic mco becne,eithcr in fowing of good fcedc, or 

Thus haue I made as if were a finall Globe of 
the Intelleduall world, as truly and faithfully as I 
could difcoucr,with a note and dcTcription of thofe 
parts which ^Cimt to mc, not conflantly occupate» 
or not well conuertcd by the labour of Man. In 
ivhich, if I haue in any point receded from that 
which \s commonly receiued, it bath beene with a 
purpofc of proceeding in meltM^ and not in aliud : 
a mindc of amendment and proficience. and not of 
change and difference. For I could not be true and 
conftant to the argument I handle, if I were not 
willing to foc beyond others, but yet not more 


wlllingjihen to haue others goc beyond meagainc, 
which maythcbettcrappearcby this, thati haac 
propounded my opinions naked and vnarraed, not 
fceking to preoccupate the libertic of mens iudgc- 
raents by cofutatios.For in any thing which is wel 
fet down, I am in good hope,that if the firft reading 
mouc an obicifllon, the fecond reading will make an 
anfwer. Andinihofe things wherein I haue erred, 
I am fure I haue not prciudiced the right by litigi- 
ous arguments; which certainly haue this contrarie 
c([c{kand operation, that they adde authoritie to 
error, and deftroy the authoritie of that which is 
well inuented* ForqueHion is an honour and pre- 
ferment to falfliood, as on the other fide it is a re- 
pulfe to truth.Buc the errors I claimeand challenge 
10 my felfeas mine owne. Thegood, if any 
bee, is due Tanquam ade^s fdcr/ficij^ to be 
incenfed to the honour firft of the 
diuine MaicAie, and next of 
yourMaieflie, to whom 

i i:o 

Jicccprrr^^ ^-A^ n • ^> -^- ^^^ r 




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of the 

University of Toronto